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This manual provides practical methodological guidance for the economic analysis of stakeholder incentives in participatory forest management (PFM) situations. It stems from the concern that poor understanding has contributed to the often weak local participation in PFM, and therefore the limited success of many PFM experiences. The manual will help governments, NGOs and donors identify appropriate interventions to encourage participation. While the manual is primarily oriented to economists working in a range of organizations, it also aims to make economics more accessible to a wider audience promoting PFM.;The first part involves an introduction to economic concepts applied to PFM. The second and main section is the Economic Stakeholder Analysis (ESA) toolbox. The tools are organised in six main ESA stages covering characterisation of the stakeholders; understanding the decision-making context; physical quantification of costs and benefits; valuation of the costs and benefits; economic comparison of the decision-making alternatives; and participatory analysis and monitoring. An important aim in the ESA framework is to integrate economic analysis with other decision-making criteri
There is considerable global interest in the culture of finfish species both for cold and warm water aquaculture development and growth. Essential information on the biology, domestication and aquacultural characteristics of a wide selection of novel and established species is provided in the form of technical sheets, species descriptions and information on current rearing practices, making this a must-have reference in the field of aquacultural science. The book also offers a basic framework in order to support investment strategies for research and developement efforts aimed at the emergence of a profitable finfish aquaculture industry and presents a rationale for species diversification, different approaches to species selection and basic economical and market considerations governing the launch of strategic development and commercialization efforts.
Toxins and Biologically Active Compounds from Microalgae: Volume 2: Biological Effects and Risk Management is devoted to the effects toxic microalgae and their poisonous products exert on living systems and how they may affect human activities. The most advanced information regarding the molecular mechanisms of action of major groups of toxins is presented, to frame for the description of toxic responses found in living systems exposed to microalgal toxins. Accounts of the recognized environmental effects of harmful algal blooms and the existing therapeutic applications of some toxins have been included. The picture is completed by the description of current initiatives to manage the risks posed by toxic microalgae, including strategies for the detoxification of contaminated seafood and the efforts to use most advanced informatic tools for the development of models for robust predictions regarding the appearance and the dynamics of harmful algal blooms. The complexity of risk management in the field is presented from a global perspective by highlighting major issues approached in world regions whose economic importance with regard to the production and commercialization of seafood is undeniable.
'The task is to create a form of social life by which the soil, the plants, the animals are in harmony with each other.' -- Karl Koenig Karl Koenig was deeply concerned for the relationship between the earth and humanity, and how landscape, plants and animals contribute to that relationship. This book presents sixteen lectures and essays by Koenig, which explore the connection between biodynamics, domestic animals, elemental beings and many other aspects of farming and agriculture, all the time looking for how harmony and balance can be achieved in relation to the needs of human beings. This includes a revised edition of material previously published in Earth and Man.
Sepp Holzer farms steep mountainsides in Austria 1,500 meters above sea level. His farm is an intricate network of terraces, raised beds, ponds, waterways and tracks, well covered with productive fruit trees and other vegetation, with the farmhouse neatly nestling amongst them. This is in dramatic contrast to his neighbors' spruce monocultures.In this book, Holzer shares the skill and knowledge acquired over his lifetime. He covers every aspect of his farming methods, not just how to create a holistic system on the farm itself, but how to make a living from it. Holzer writes about everything from the overall concepts, down to the practical details.In Sepp Holzer's Permaculturereaders will learn:
How he sets up a permaculture system
The fruit varieties he has found best for permaculture growing
How to construct terraces, ponds, and waterways
How to build shelters for animals and how to work with them on the land
How to cultivate edible mushrooms in the garden and on the farm
and much more
Holzer offers a wealth of information for the gardener, smallholder or alternative farmer yet the book's greatest value is the attitudes it teaches. He reveals the thinking processes based on principles found in nature that create his productive systems. These can be applied anywhere.
In a groundbreaking debut, farmer and social scientist Chris Smaje argues that organising society around small-scale farming offers the soundest, sanest and most reasonable response to climate change and other crises of civilisation-and will yield humanity's best chance at survival. Drawing on a vast range of sources from across a multitude of disciplines, A Small Farm Future analyses the complex forces that make societal change inevitable; explains how low-carbon, locally self-reliant agrarian communities can empower us to successfully confront these changes head on; and explores the pathways for delivering this vision politically. Challenging both conventional wisdom and utopian blueprints, A Small Farm Future offers rigorous original analysis of wicked problems and hidden opportunities in a way that illuminates the path toward functional local economies, effective self-provisioning, agricultural diversity and a shared earth.
This book brings together information often difficult to find, joining the worlds of aquaculture science and industry production, through the leveraging of their synergies and dependencies. It contains a wealth of scientific knowledge which can only be traced in a fragmented manner in specialised journals. It also includes the description of farming practices and the actual implementation of new technologies, information which is often presented in industry conferences, but rarely reaches publication.
The 2021 Maria Thun Biodynamic Calendar, now in its 59th year, adapted for North American (Eastern Standard Time) dates and times. This useful guide shows the optimum days for sowing, pruning, and harvesting various plants and crops, as well as working with bees. It includes Thun's unique insights, which go above and beyond the standard information presented in some other lunar calendars. It is presented in colour with clear symbols and explanations. The almanac includes a pullout wallchart that can be pinned up in a barn, workshop or garage as a handy quick reference.
Quinoa is an ancient grain that has grown in popularity in recent years. It has been known as a good source of both protein and fiber. As the demand for quinoa increases a comprehensive and up-to-date reference on the biology and production of the crop is essential. Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production brings together authors from around the world to provide a complete assessment of the current state of global quinoa research and production. Topics covered include quinoa history and culture, genomics and breeding, agronomy, nutrition, marketing, and end-uses. The book focuses in particular on the emerging role of quinoa in providing increased food security to smallholder farmers and communities throughout the world. Quinoa will interest quinoa researchers, producers, crop scientists, agronomists, and plant geneticists, as well as advanced students working with this important grain.
New legislation on animal welfare standards has created the need for welfare programmes to be implemented on farms, during transportation, and in slaughter plants. While there is a wealth of information on animal behaviour, ethics and factors effecting welfare, there is little to guide veterinarians and managers in evaluating animal welfare and improving it. This textbook aims to help those working with animals to apply practical methods for improving welfare, bridging the gap between scientific research and practical application. Drawing on the editor's extensive experience in teaching and auditing, and contributions from international experts, this book provides a guide to practical evaluation and auditing of welfare problems, emphasizing the importance of measuring conditions that compromise welfare. Key Features Written by a leading authority on the subject with contributions from industry experts Provides a strongly practical review of the topic and how to apply research where it makes a difference Ideal guide for veterinarians and veterinary students and welfare auditing and officer training, and students in animal sciences
This book provides a novel approach to governance relating to biodiversity and human well-being in complex tropical landscapes, including forests and protected areas. It focuses attention at the interface between communities and the landscape level, building on interdisciplinary research conducted in five countries (Cameroon, Indonesia, Laos, Madagascar and Tanzania). In each country, the research was set within the framework of a major national policy thrust. The book improves our understanding of and ability to manage complex landscapes - mosaics of differing land uses - in a more adaptive and collaborative way that benefits both the environment and local communities. It includes both single country and cross-site analyses, and focuses on themes, such as resettlement, land use planning, non-timber forest product use and management, the disconnect between customary and formal legal systems, and the role of larger scale policies in local level realities. Chapters also analyze experience with monitoring and a local governance assessment tool. The work also provides guidance for those interested in management and governance at lower and intermediate levels (village, district), scales likely to grow in importance in the global effort to mitigate and adapt to climate change.
This book outlines a new paradigm, Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production (SICP), which aims to produce more from the same area of land by increasing efficiency, reducing waste, conserving resources, reducing negative impacts on the environment and enhancing the provision of ecosystem services. The use of ecologically based management strategies can increase the sustainability of agricultural production while reducing off-site consequences. The book also highlights the underlying principles and outlines some of the key management practices and technologies - such as minimum soil disturbance; permanent organic soil covers; species diversification; selection of suitable cultivars, planting time, age and spacing; balanced plant nutrition; agro-ecological pest management; efficient water management; careful management of farm machinery; and integrated crop-livestock production - required to implement SICP. The green revolution (by using high-yielding crop varieties, mono-cropping, fertilization, irrigation, and pesticides) has led to enormous gains in food production and improved world food security. In many countries, however, intensive crop production has had negative impacts on production, ecosystems and the larger environment, putting future productivity at risk. In order to meet the projected demands of a growing population expected to exceed 9 billion by 2050, farmers in the developing world must double food production, a challenge complicated by the effects of climate change and growing competition for land, water and energy. This book will be of immense value to all members of the scientific community involved in teaching, research and extension activities concerning sustainable intensification. The material can be used for teaching post-graduate courses, or as a useful reference guide for policy makers.
The startling message of this book is that the so-called virgin forests of the world owe much to their symbiotic relationship with the indigenous peoples who live in and on the margins of the forests. Human activities have for millenia "managed" (consciously or unconsciously) the world's forests, resulting in a greatly enriched biodiversity.The contributors to the book come from many different scientific disciplines, national and cultural backgrounds. Examples of forests are taken from Asia, Africa and South America, thus reflecting the global nature of the phenomenon. The book's conclusions will have far-reaching implications for all who are concerned with the conservation of forests and their indigenous human population.
This text covers the biology, ecology, genetics and aquaculture of the Asian Seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a commercially and recreationally valuable species. It brings together in the one place reviews written by world experts in Asian seabass taxonomy, genetics, nutrition, ecology, aquaculture, reproductive and developmental biology, climate change impacts, harvest quality and health management.
This book is an outcome of the keynote/lead papers presented by the experts from different disciplines in the Indian Ecological Society International Conference 2016 on "Natural Resource Management: Ecological Perspectives", organized at the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India. The book captures the essence of natural resource management from the intra and interdisciplinary perspectives of agricultural sciences (entomology, plant pathology, plant breeding and genetics, agronomy and soil sciences), social sciences (resource economics, agricultural extension education), medical sciences, and environmental sciences to stimulate discussion on the ecological perspectives of natural resource management. Wide-ranging topics on land and water resources, biodiversity, integrated farming system, role of microbes in agriculture, climate change and its impact on human health and crop pests, exploiting chemical ecology for pest management, human disease-causing pesticides, beneficial insects like lac insects, integrated pest management, resistance management in insect pests and Bt cotton , and diffusion and adoption of ecologically sustainable technologies at individual and organizational level are covered in the book.. The book will serve the professionals, researchers, academia, government, industry and students.
This comprehensive book discusses the ecophysiological features of trees affected by the two most prominent factors of climate change: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. It starts with the introduction of experimental methods at the leaf, branch, the whole-tree, and tree group scales, and in the following chapters elaborates on specific topics including photosynthesis of leaves, respiration of plant organs, water use efficiency, the production of and/or distribution patterns of carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, and nutrients, anatomy of cells and tissues, height and stem-diameter growth, biomass accumulation, leaf phenology and longevity, and model ecosystems (soil-litter-plant enclosures). The current knowledge is neatly summarized, and the author presents valuable data derived from his 30 years of experimental research, some of which is published here for the first time. Using numerous examples the book answers the fundamental questions such as: What are the interactions of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on tree growth and matter partitioning? How do different tree groups react? Are there any effects on organisms living together with trees? What kinds of models can be used to interpret the results from experiments on trees? This volume is highly recommended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the relevant fields. It is also a valuable resource for undergraduate students, decision-makers in the fields of forest management and environmental protection, and any other scientists who are interested in the effect of global change on ecosystems.
Under threat from natural and human disturbance, tropical dry forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the tropics, yet they rarely receive the scientific or conservation attention they deserve. In a comprehensive overview, Tropical Dry Forests in the Americas: Ecology, Conservation, and Management examines new approaches for data sampling and analysis using remote sensing technology, discusses new ecological and econometric methods, and critically evaluates the socio-economic pressures that these forest are facing at the continental and national levels. The book includes studies from Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil that provide in-depth knowledge about the function, status, and conservation efforts of these endangered forests. It presents key elements of synthesis from standardized work conducted across all sites. This unique contribution provides new light in terms of these forests compared to each other not only from an ecological perspective but also in terms of the pressures that they are facing, and their respective responses. Written by experts from a diversity of fields, this reference brings together the many facets of function, use, heritage, and future potential of these forests. It presents an important and exciting synthesis of many years of work across countries, disciplines, and cultures. By standardizing approaches for data sampling and analysis, the book gives readers comparison information that cannot be found anywhere else given the high level of disparity that exists in the current literature.
This compendium reviews different processes acting on bacterial groups that evolved one or more relationships with members of the most important invertebrate Phyla. Starting from principles of basic bacteriology the book provides data on bacteria interactions with pests, animal or human diseases. Being present in all environments, from deep see to crops, animals or plants, invertebrates represent the most significant and ancient fraction of the eukaryotic biomass on earth. Their evolutive adaptations and links with bacteria, established over time scales of ages, range from vectored diseases to speciation, within a wide range of environmental niches and biocenosis, including oceanic hydrothermal vents. Main functional processes include pathogenicity, parasitism, transmission, immunity, symbiosis and speciation. A review about recent advances achieved in these research topics is given, focussing on one or more aspects concerning significant evolutive paths of bacteria and underlying functional links. Rather than proceeding through the order and structure of taxonomies, the volume is organized by processes, examining their functional role in different lineages, including but not limited to insects or nematodes. Processes involved in parasitism focus, at a finer level, on examples from many taxa. Molecular aspects underpinning these and other functional processes include the effects of horizontal gene transfer, the mechanisms active in immune defense and vectoring, and the antibacterial peptides. Finally, the effects of climate warming, biological invasions and agriculture are examined, with particular attention to farming and environment.
The tightening of health and environmental regulations by banning chemical pesticides has generated the need for alternative technologies to solve grain storage problems. Aeration is such an option that can be applied to stored grain and a wide range of agricultural commodities to control insects and maintain quality. The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management demonstrates the most advanced theoretical solutions and practical approaches to aeration of stored grain. It will help those involved in the handling and processing of grain to maximize the end-use quality of food commodities and eliminate the occurrence of toxins, insects, pesticides, and chemical residues during storage.
Lessons, stories, and reflections from the Goat Midwife There is nothing about goat care that creates more anticipation, excitement, frustration, and fear than birthing goats. What can you expect with a goat pregnancy? What do you do if things go wrong when goats give birth? What happens when you have a challenging newborn kid? Seasoned goat farmer Deborah Niemann, author of Raising Goats Naturally, answers these questions and more by distilling the stories and experiences from over 600 goat pregnancies and births. Coverage includes: The differences between normal goat pregnancies Necessary C-sections Incidents that may turn deadly serious. For both new and experienced goat owners, Goats Giving Birth illuminates the joy, the sadness, and everything in between when birthing pregnant goats, giving you the confidence to handle a large spectrum of goat pregnancies and help birth happy thriving kids.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
We are just beginning to discover the importance of vitamin C in the health of natural and man-made ecosystems. Synthesis of ascorbic acid is well understood, but algae as the only source of ascorbate in the aquatic food pyramid has not been explored. There is an expanding field of the culture of aquatic organisms that demand formulated feeds to best meet their requirements for health, growth, and reproduction. With over 100 species now cultured for human consumption, the question arises as to whether we have reliable information for the dietary needs for vitamin C for even a small percentage of these organisms. A comprehensive approach to the role of vitamin C at the cellular level as well as in the aquatic food chains, this book discusses growth and reproduction, disease resistance, and toxicology of aquatic organisms. Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms was written as the offshoot of a special session on aquatic organisms and practical aquaculture at the 1998 World Aquaculture Society (WAS) meeting. This book reviews the research already available and identifies new directions for research. It is a unique combination of good nutrition research, ecology, and practical aquaculture (for instance brine shrimp enrichment). This interdisciplinary volume will appeal to marine fish culturists, aquatic biologists, comparative and evolutionary cellular physiologists, and environmental toxicologists.
A complete overview of the technologies and products for microbial-based pest control. It documents the use of genetically altered Bt and transgenic crops, microbial formulations, and synergistic interactions of microbials with synthetic chemicals, as well as the management of Bt foliar applications and Bt genes in transgenic crops. The book includes case studies and pathogen, products and manufacturers indices.
Sustainable Horticulture, Volume 2: Food, Health, and Nutrition addresses some of the most important topics facing horticulture around the world today. This volume, part of the two-volume compendium, focuses on research trends in sustainable horticulture that include postharvest management and processed food production from horticulture crops, crop protection and plant health management, and horticulture for human health and nutrition. Global food demand is expected to be double by 2050, while at the same time the production environment and natural resources are continually shrinking and deteriorating due to many complex factors. Horticulture, a major sector of agriculture, is vital to enhancing crop production and productivity in parity with agricultural crops to meet the emerging food demand. Implementing sustainable models of crop production is really an enormous endeavor. Promising technologies and management options are needed to increase productivity to meet the growing food demand despite deteriorating production environments.
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