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To cope with the abiotic stress-induced osmotic problems, plants adapt by either increasing uptake of inorganic ions from the external solution, or by de novo synthesis of organic compatible solutes acting as osmolytes. Of the osmoregulants and protectants discussed in this volume, trehalose, fructans, ectoine and citrulline, which are generated in different species, in osmotically ineffective amounts, mitigate the stress effects on cells/plants and improve productivity. There are several pieces of encouraging research discussed in this volume showing significant improvement in stress tolerance and in turn productivity by involving genetic engineering techniques.
In autumn 2006 an unnerving phenomenon hit the United States: honeybees were mysteriously disappearing from hives across the nation, with beekeepers reporting losses of between 30 and 90 per cent of their entire colonies. The problem soon spread to parts of Europe and even Asia, earning the name Colony Collapse Disorder. To this day nobody is absolutely sure why it is happening and what the exact causes are. However, in 1923 Rudolf Steiner, a scientist, philosopher and social innovator, predicted that bees would die out within 100 years if they were to be reproduced using only artificial methods. Startlingly, and worryingly, his prediction appears to be coming true. "Queen of The Sun: What Are the Bees Telling Us?" is a companion book to the critically-acclaimed film of the same name. Compiled by the film's director Taggart Siegel, it makes a profound examination of the global bee crisis through the eyes of biodynamic and organic beekeepers, scientists, farmers, philosophers and poets. Revealing the mysterious world of the beehive and the complex social community of bees, the book unveils millennia of beekeeping, highlighting our historic and sacred relationship with bees, and how this is being compromised by highly-mechanized and intensive agro-industrial practices. The bees are messengers and their disappearance is a resounding wake-up call for humanity! With full colour, stunning photography throughout, this engaging, alarming but ultimately uplifting anthology begins with an account of how Siegel's film came to be made. It continues with a wealth of articles, interviews and poems that offer unique philosophical and spiritual insights. Besides investigating many contributory causes of Colony Collapse Disorder, the book offers remedies as well as hope for the future. "Queen of the Sun" features contributions from Carol Ann Duffy, Taggart Siegel, Jon Betz, David Heaf, Gunther Hauk, Horst Kornberger, Jennifer Kornberger, Jacqueline Freeman, Johannas Wirz, Kerry Grefig, Michael Thiele, Raj Patel, Vandana Shiva, Jeffery Smith and Matthew Barton. These compelling voices signal a growing movement striving to found a culture fully in balance with nature.
Descended from a Haddington family of printers and booksellers, Patrick Neill became head of the most prestigious printing firm in Edinburgh. Leaving his manager to run the business, he devoted his life to writing, natural history, horticulture and civic duties. His early tour of Orkney and Shetland provided an insight into the social life of the islands and he regaled readers of the Scots Magazine with an intriguing running commentary on events in the Lothians. His survey of both private and commercial gardens and orchards in Scotland was a landmark publication and he published a perceptive account of his travels in northern Europe to discover whether any of their horticultural methods might be worth adopting. As a founder member and secretary for 40 years of the Royal Caledonian Horticultural Society, he was a key figure in its successful establishment. He was also a founder member and secretary of the Wernerian Natural History Society, whose origins related to the dominating geological controversy of that era. His role as secretary brought him into contact with most of the natural scientists in Scotland and distinguished botanists and other scientists were frequently around Neill's dinner table. His wide circle of friends included famous figures such as William Jackson Hooker and his son Joseph, Robert Brown, Sir William Jardine, Sir Calverly Trevelyan, Robert Stevenson, the McNabs, father and son, of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and the maverick botanist George Don. To cap it all Neill won national recognition for the unparalleled diversity of species of plants, including newly-introduced species, in his remarkable garden at Canonmills. According to Loudon, the famous landscape designer, it was the richest urban garden in the country. This engaging book contains a wealth of historically valuable observations and also an insight into Edinburgh's scientific scene in the early 19th century. Patrick Neill is revealed as one the most interesting Scotsmen of the 19th century in terms of the variety of enterprises he fostered and the friendships he enjoyed with so many natural scientists of his day.
Ehrenfried Pfeiffer was a pioneer of biodynamics in North America. This short but comprehensive book is a collection of three key articles introducing the concepts, principles and practice of the biodynamic method, as well as an overview of its early history. The book also includes a short biography of Ehrenfried Pfeiffer by Herbert H. Koepf.
First published in 1990, The Economics of Salmon Aquaculture was the first book to systematically analyse the salmon aquaculture industry, from both a market and production perspective. Since publication of the first edition of this book, the salmon aquaculture industry has grown at a phenomenal rate, with salmon now being consumed in more than 100 countries worldwide. This second edition of a very popular and successful book brings the reader right up to date with all the major current issues pertaining to salmon aquaculture. Commencing with an overview of the production process in aquaculture, the following chapters provide in-depth coverage of the sources of the world s supply of salmon, the growth in productivity, technological changes, environmental issues, markets, market structure and competitiveness, lessons that can be learnt from the culture of other species, optimal harvesting techniques, production planning, and investment in salmon farms. Written by Frank Ashe and Trond Bjorndal, two of the world's leading experts in the economics of aquaculture, this second edition of The Economics of Salmon Aquaculture provides the salmon aquaculture industry with an essential reference work, including a wealth of commercially important information. This book is also a valuable resource for upper level students and professionals in aquaculture and economics, and libraries in all universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.
This reissue, first published in 1995, focuses on philosophy and social science in human ecology, and includes case studies dealing with the problems of political implementation of development plans and schemes. Part One deals with theory, including a comprehensive introduction to the field and an overview of the conceptual modelling typical in human ecology. Part Two moves towards questions of human behaviour and action, exploring the relationship between environmental ethics and policy in terms of the justification and implementation of human interactions with nature and the environment on an ecologically sustainable basis. In Part Three, the author focuses on environmental policy in China since 1949 and on a regional case study in India. The final part of the book discusses the prospects for sustainable development more broadly, in terms of favouring ecological and cultural variety in agriculture and of viewing the relationship between human beings and the natural environment as a matter of overexploitation rather than crisis.
The new Multilingual Illustrated Guide to the World's Commercail Warmwater Fish, the second in the series of Multilingual Illustrated Guides, follows a similar format to the first, and is, once more, published to the highest production standards achievable. Over 150 species are covered and all essential information is conveyed by means of tables and diagrams with descriptive text kept to a minimum. Each species entry gives the species name, the scientific name, and the family name. Common names are then listed in German, Japanese, Spanish, French, English, Italian, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Portugese, Russian swedish and Turksih. Local names are given in the language appropraite to each species. Average size (cm) and weight (kg) is also given. A superb full-colour illustration is followed by a brief description of the species with an overview of the development of its economic importance to the present day. Full nutritional data per 100g edible weight is also listed. Each individual guide consolidates a wealth of information which should be readily available for all who are internationally active in the commercial fishing and related industries
These exciting new companion handbooks are the only ones of their kind devoted solely to the effects of environmental variables on the physiology of the world's major fruit and nut crops. Their cosmopolitan scope includes chapters on tropical and temperate zone species written by scientists from several continents. The influence of environmental factors, such as irradiance, temperature, water and salinity on plant physiology and on vegetative and reproductive growth, is comprehensively discussed for each crop. In addition to being a thorough and up-to-date set of textbooks, the organzation of the two volumes makes them an excellent reference tool. Each chapter focuses on a single crop, or a group of genetically or horticulturally related crop, and is appropriately divided into subsections that address individual environmental factors. Some chapters emphasize whole-plant physiology and plant growth and development, while other chapters feature theoretical aspects of plant physiology. Several chapters provide botanical background discussions to enhance understanding of the crop's response to its environment.
A new addition to our series is a volume, which consolidates the welfare and production issues associated with beak trimming in poultry. The book outlines the reasons for beak trimming, history of the practice and new methods under development. The focus of the book is on the welfare issues associated with the practice. An assessment is made of the ethics of beak trimming and cannibalism. The contributors examine beak anatomy, acute and chronic pain and the physiological changes in the bird associated with beak trimming. Other areas covered include an evaluation of production, egg quality and health of birds relative to the severity and method of beak trimming. Beak trimming has been banned in some countries and is being phased out in others. A section in the book is devoted to an examination of alternatives to beak trimming. The contributors report genetic, environmental enrichment, nutritional and lighting strategies that could be used to replace beak trimming, and offer practical solutions, including the use of fitted devices and beak abrasives. The volume is an important information source on beak trimming for scientists, students, welfare groups, policy makers, poultry industry leaders and the community. It will improve knowledge on why, when and how birds are trimmed and responses of birds to trimming. Consumers, media and policy makers will get a better understanding of beak trimming and the alternatives methods to support sound debate on the issue.
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have accompanied mankind from its very early beginnings. Their utilization has co-evolved with homo sapiens itself bringing about a profound increase in our scientific knowledge of these species enabling them to be used in many facets of our life (e.g. pharmaceutical products, feed- and food additives, cosmetics, etc.). Remarkably, despite the new renaissance of MAPs usage, ca. 80 % of the world's population is relying on natural substances of plant origin, with most of these botanicals sourced from the wild state. This first volume and ultimately the series, provides readers with a wealth of information on medicinal and aromatic plants.
Horticultural Reviews presents state-of-the-art reviews on topics in horticultural science and technology covering both basic and applied research. Topics covered include the horticulture of fruits, vegetables, nut crops, and ornamentals. These review articles, written by world authorities, bridge the gap between the specialized researcher and the broader community of horticultural scientists and teachers.
'Biodynamics seeks the holistic and interrelated health of the diverse creatures and beings composing a farm, including human beings and the wider, surrounding community. It is not just a "method" but a whole approach to life - one which could have far-reaching benefits for the health of the soil, plants, animals and human beings across the globe...' Born from a series of eight lectures delivered by scientist and philosopher Rudolf Steiner in 1924, the movement for biodynamic agriculture today encompasses many hundreds of farms and millions of consumers worldwide. Much has been written about biodynamics' unique perspectives on farming, nutrition, the world of nature and the wider cosmos. But how does it work in practise? What is it like to run a farm based on its principles? England's Tablehurst and Plaw Hatch farms form a co-operative venture in which the local community plays a crucial role. As successful, commercial enterprises with high outputs, they have a growing reputation for the excellence of their produce. Through interviews, commentary and dozens of full colour photos, Biodynamics in Practise gives a guided tour of the farms from the viewpoint of a sympathetic visitor. It illustrates how biodynamic farms work, how they differ from conventional and organic farms, and why that difference is important. In short and accessible vignettes, the book looks at many aspects of farm life, including animal rearing and welfare - cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry - crop growth, dairy and cheesemaking, and even bee-keeping and caring for people with special needs. It also gives an introduction to biodynamics itself and brief histories of both farms. Farms are sometimes regarded simply as food-producing factories, but this book shows that they can be much more, offering spiritually-sustaining focal points of community cohesion and participation.
Factors Affecting Calf Crop summarizes the latest information
available from leading cattle physiologists and geneticists
regarding factors known to influence the production of live calves
at weaning. You get practical information on management techniques
for improving reproduction efficiency in the herd. You'll also
learn about the functioning of the reproductive system and how this
may affect reproductive processes in the cow herd. Managers will
benefit from a clearer understanding of the factors known to limit
efficient reproduction, while veterinarians and other professionals
who advise cattlemen will appreciate the substantial reference
material and color photographs for defining cow condition scores.
Color photographs are also used to illustrate the discussions of
testicular thermographies and their applications.
Plants are frequently exposed to unfavorable and adverse environmental conditions known as abiotic stressors. These factors can include salinity, drought, heat, cold, flooding, heavy metals, and UV radiation which pose serious threats to the sustainability of crop yields. Since abiotic stresses are major constraints for crop production, finding the approaches to enhance stress tolerance is crucial to increase crop production and increase food security. This book discusses approaches to enhance abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants on a global scale. Plants scientists and breeders will learn how to further mitigate plant responses and develop new crop varieties for the changing climate.
Environmental pollution resulting from widespread pesticide application has become a serious worldwide problem. Plant Pathogenesis and Disease Control is an important new reference that addresses this problem by exploring the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of plant pathogenesis and emphasizing the use of "pest control agents" rather than "pesticides" for plant disease control. Topics examined include pathogenicity, the resistance of plants against pathogens, the offensive and defensive struggle between hosts and parasites, methods for using natural defense mechanisms to develop environmentally sound disease control agents, and the use of modern biotechnology for plant disease control. The book will be an essential reference for phytopathologists, plant biochemists, pesticide chemists, mycologists, plant cell technologists, and agricultural researchers.
A reference and instruction guide to the mechanics of working the
This book reviews and synthesizes the recent advances in exploiting host plant resistance to insects, highlighting the role of molecular techniques in breeding insect resistant crops. It also provides an overview of the fascinating field of insect-plant relationships, which is fundamental to the study of host-plant resistance to insects. Further, it discusses the conventional and molecular techniques utilized/useful in breeding for resistance to insect-pests including back-cross breeding, modified population improvement methods for insect resistance, marker-assisted backcrossing to expedite the breeding process, identification and validation of new insect-resistance genes and their potential for utilization, genomics, metabolomics, transgenesis and RNAi. Lastly, it analyzes the successes, limitations and prospects for the development of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, maize, sorghum and millet, cotton, rapeseed, legumes and fruit crops, and highlights strategies for management of insect biotypes that limit the success and durability of insect-resistant cultivators in the field. Arthropod pests act as major constraints in the agro-ecosystem. It has been estimated that arthropod pests may be destroying around one-fifth of the global agricultural production/potential production every year. Further, the losses are considerably higher in the developing tropics of Asia and Africa, which are already battling severe food shortage. Integrated pest management (IPM) has emerged as the dominant paradigm for minimizing damage by the insects and non-insect pests over the last 50 years. Pest resistant cultivars represent one of the most environmentally benign, economically viable and ecologically sustainable options for utilization in IPM programs. Hundreds of insect-resistant cultivars of rice, wheat, maize, sorghum, cotton, sugarcane and other crops have been developed worldwide and are extensively grown for increasing and/or stabilizing crop productivity. The annual economic value of arthropod resistance genes developed in global agriculture has been estimated to be greater than US$ 2 billion Despite the impressive achievements and even greater potential in minimizing pest- related losses, only a handful of books have been published on the topic of host-plant resistance to insects. This book fills this wide gap in the literature on breeding insect- resistant crops. It is aimed at plant breeders, entomologists, plant biotechnologists and IPM experts, as well as those working on sustainable agriculture and food security.
Is natural gas the 'bridge' to our low-carbon future? In power generation, industrial processes, parts of the transportation sector, and for domestic use, natural gas still has the potential to play a greater role in various energy transition pathways around the world. But such a future is by no means certain. In this book, Michael Bradshaw and Tim Boersma offer a sober and balanced assessment of the place of natural gas in the global energy mix today, and the uncertainties that cloud our understanding of what that role may look like in the future. They argue that natural gas has become prominent in recent decades, spurred by two revolutions: the first has been the rise of unconventional natural gas production, and the second the coming of age of the market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, a third revolution is required to secure natural gas' long-term role in various energy transition pathways, as countries are increasingly pushing to address air quality concerns and curtail greenhouse gas emissions. This revolution has to take place as politicians, citizens, investors and shareholders are becoming increasingly vocal about the need to improve the environmental footprint of the fuel, while simultaneously, and perhaps paradoxically, demand for it continues to grow, in a world where geopolitical challenges seem to be mounting.
This volume brings together a cross-section of marine experts who provide a comprehensive exploration of the major facets of Asia's marine sector. It considers both the marine mineral and fish stocks in Asian waters. This extensive volume examines "official" statistics with an objective eye and provides an overview of fish stock with much focus on the access and management of tuna. It considers global economic issues concerning fishing rights, looks at joint ventures between nations, and considers law enforcement efforts. The volume devotes a section to sea lanes and another to off shore mineral deposits. It also considers current and growing problems and possible solutions regarding pollution:
An in-depth treatment of cutting-edge work being done internationally to develop new techniques in crop nutritional quality improvement Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops explores recent advances in biotechnological methods for the nutritional enrichment of food crops. Featuring contributions from an international group of experts in the field, it provides cutting-edge information on techniques of immense importance to academic, professional and commercial operations. World population is now estimated to be 7.5 billion people, with an annual growth rate of nearly 1.5%. Clearly, the need to enhance not only the quantity of food produced but its quality has never been greater, especially among less developed nations. Genetic manipulation offers the best prospect for achieving that goal. As many fruit crops provide proven health benefits, research efforts need to be focused on improving the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables through increased synthesis of lycopene and beta carotene, anthocyanins and some phenolics known to be strong antioxidants. Despite tremendous growth in the area occurring over the past several decades, the work has only just begun. This book represents an effort to address the urgent need to promote those efforts and to mobilise the tools of biotechnical and genetic engineering of the major food crops. Topics covered include: * New applications of RNA-interference and virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) for nutritional genomics in crop plants * Biotechnological techniques for enhancing carotenoid in crops and their implications for both human health and sustainable development * Progress being made in the enrichment and metabolic profiling of diverse carotenoids in a range of fruit crops, including tomatoes, sweet potatoes and tropical fruits * Biotechnologies for boosting the phytonutritional values of key crops, including grapes and sweet potatoes * Recent progress in the development of transgenic rice engineered to massively accumulate flavonoids in-seed Phytonutritional Improvement of Crops is an important text/reference that belongs in all universities and research establishments where agriculture, horticulture, biological sciences, and food science and technology are studied, taught and applied.
This book presents experiences and successful case studies of integrated pest management (IPM) from developed and developing countries and from major international centres and programmes. In nearly 40 chapters, the following themes are addressed: Emerging issues in IPM, such as biotechnology, pesticide policies, socio-economic considerations, country experiences from Africa, Asia, North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, regional and international experiences, including FAO, the World Bank and CGIAR System-wide IPM Program.
This book had its genesis in Alexandria, Egypt in March 2002, at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, when the new library hosted a conference on Biotechnology and Sustainable Development: "Voices of the South and North." Here, a group of modern scholars met to review the state of the art in relation to the applications of biosciences in human health, food and agriculture and the environment, and address the ethical, institutional, regulatory and socio-economic issues that affect their use. The goal was to identify ways and means by which the new life sciences could be mobilized in the service of humanity and especially to improve the livelihoods of poor people.
Although few remember their former significance, oysters were one of the largest U.S. fisheries at their peak in the late nineteenth century. As the fishery industrialized on-and offshore, oyster farms and canning factories spread along the Eastern Seaboard, with overharvesting becoming increasingly common. During the Progressive Era, state governments founded new agencies to cope with this problem and control this expanding economy. Regulators faced a choice: keep elaborate conservation systems based on common property rights or develop new ones with private, hatchery-stocked aquaculture farms. The tradition-preserving solution won, laying the groundwork for modern oyster management. The Aquatic Frontier explores the forms this debate took between 1870 and 1920 in law enforcement, legislative advising, natural science, and oyster cartography. Samuel P. Hanes argues that the effort to centralize and privatize the industry failed due to a lack of understanding of the complex social-ecological systems in place - a common dilemma for environmental managers in this time period and for fisheries management confronting dangers from dwindling populations today.
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