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The United States is one of the world's largest producers, consumers, exporters, and importers of agricultural commodities. However, some of these imported products may contain exotic pests and diseases. According to the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), invasive species cause an estimated $136 billion in lost agricultural revenue annually. The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, heightened concerns about agriculture's vulnerability to terrorism, including the deliberate introduction of livestock, poultry, and crop diseases. Under the Agricultural Quarantine Inspection (AQI) program, international passengers and cargo at U.S. ports of entry are inspected to seize prohibited material and intercept foreign agricultural pests. Historically, the USDA was responsible for the AQI program, but the Homeland Security Act of 2002 split responsibility for the AQI program between DHS and the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services. This book examines and presents select analyses of the background, scope and success of the AQI, with a focus on management challenges and inspection fees.
This volume provides new insights and conceptual understandings of the human and gender dimension of vulnerability in relation to the dynamics of tenure reforms in the dryland forests of Asia and Africa. The book analyzes the interaction between biophysical factors such as climate variability (e.g. droughts) with socio-political processes (e.g. new institutions and authority) and gender dimensions at various temporal and spatial scales. The book presents a number of case studies based on empirical research on forest tenure reform and it consequences on forest-dependent people. In particular, it highlights the interaction between legal, policy and institutional reform and the inclusion and/or exclusion of local people from deriving benefits from forest resources in the drylands. The book focuses on the questions how land tenure reform and natural resource governance impacts upon marginal groups (along individual, collective and gender dimensions); how do forest-dependent people prepare for and respond to vulnerability; and what is the effect of forest tenure policy reform on the human rights, gender and citizenship issues in relation to the use and management of forest resources and on conflict in forest zones. These issues are approached from the perspective of marginalized groups (gender and social diversity such as indigenous peoples and herders) in vulnerable dryland forests with a high risk of being exposed to climate variability.
"Regenerative agriculture is going to be a key phrase in the decades ahead and this book will get you in on the ground floor, so to speak. Not much could be more important!" Bill McKibben, author of Falter Wondering what you can do to help address the global climate crisis? Joining the Grassroots Rising 'Regeneration Revolution' might be the best first step... Grassroots Rising is a passionate call to action for the global body politic; providing practical solutions for how to survive - and thrive - in catastrophic times. Author Ronnie Cummins educates and inspires citizens worldwide to organise and become active participants in preventing ecological collapse. This book offers a blueprint for building a 'Regeneration Movement' based on consumer activism, farmer innovation, political change, and regenerative finance, embodied most recently by the proposed Green New Deal in the US. Using regenerative agriculture practices that restore our agricultural and grazing lands, we can sequester massive amounts of carbon back into the soil. Coupled with an aggressive transition toward renewable energy sources, Cummins argues that we have the power to not only mitigate and slow down climate change, but actually reverse global warming. Grassroots Rising shows us that the solution lies right beneath our feet - and at the end of our forks - through the transformation of food systems around the world.
Abiotic stresses such as drought (water deficit), extreme temperatures (cold, frost and heat), salinity (sodicity) and mineral (metal and metalloid) toxicity limit productivity of crop plants worldwide and are big threats to global food security. With worsening climate change scenarios, these stresses will further increase in intensity and frequency. Improving tolerance to abiotic stresses, therefore, has become a major objective in crop breeding programs. A lot of research has been conducted on the regulatory mechanisms, signaling pathways governing these abiotic stresses, and cross talk among them in various model and non-model species. Also, various 'omics' platforms have been utilized to unravel the candidate genes underpinning various abiotic stresses, which have increased our understanding of the tolerance mechanisms at structural, physiological, transcriptional and molecular level. Further, a wealth of information has been generated on the role of chromatin assembly and its remodeling under stress and on the epigenetic dynamics via histones modifications. The book consolidates outlooks, perspectives and updates on the research conducted by scientists in the abovementioned areas. The information covered in this book will therefore interest workers in all areas of plant sciences. The results presented on multiple crops will be useful to scientists in building strategies to counter these stresses in plants. In addition, students who are beginners in the areas of abiotic stress tolerance will find this book handy to clear their concepts and to get an update on the research conducted in various crops at one place
There has been a resurgence of interest in environmental friendly, sustainable and organic cultural practices that warrants high yield and quality in agricultural crops. To enhance sustainable agricultural production and alleviate food scarcity, spoor of majority of microorganisms, especially plant growth and health promoting bacteria of eminent characteristics that allow them for exploitation in agro-ecosystem. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are the soil bacteria inhabiting around/on the root surface and are directly or indirectly involved in promoting plant growth and development via production and secretion of various regulatory chemicals in the vicinity of rhizosphere. Among various beneficial bacteria mediated mechanisms include direct production of phytohormones and biosurfactants experiencing quest of research and concept up gradation that can built emerging paradigm (agriculture model). Research on bacteria-mediated phytohormones is crucially important, provides key understanding of the plant growth and development. Various genera including PGPR group of bacteria are potential source of plant growth regulators. Application of such organism allow plants to survive under abiotic and biotic stress conditions besides govern phytohormone mediated immune response and manage to regulate hormones. Such group of bacteria also produce another important metabolite i.e. biosurfacatants which are involved in many important functions to bacteria itself as we ll as for the plants and their ecosystem. Biosurfactants may alter nutrient availability, endogenous metabolites such as antibiotics production, root colonization imparting protection from phytopathogens besides eradicating soil contaminants and other pollutants. The role and activities of surfactants produced by bacteria are multifarious in nature. Thus, bacterial phytohormones and biosurfactants are identified as effector molecules in plant- microbe interactions, in pathogenesis and phyto-stimulation which can either be beneficial for the bacteria itself or for the crops. This book highlights current applications and research on bacterial hormones and surfactants to provide a timely overview. The chapters have been contributed by subject experts from around the world and include topics of varied importance which include phytohormones production by rhizospheric and endophytic bacteria, their role in rhizosphere competence, plant growth regulation, bioremediation, biosurfactants as antibiofilm agents and other aspects. This major new work represents a valuable source of information to all those scientists interested in microbial technology with respect to the microbial innovative products and applications towards sustainable agroecosystem.
Top Withins farm on Stanbury Moor, West Yorkshire, is internationally famous as the inspiration for Emily Bronte's Wuthering Heights and is visited by hundreds of thousands of people from all over the world every year. Apart from the Bronte connection, it stands on the Pennine Way and is one of the highlights for the many who walk it each year. As well as tracing the history of the Withins farms and their inhabitants from 1567 to the present day, this book looks at the everyday life of the farmers who lived there. It gives a full account of the building history, farming practices, textile production and domestic life over the years, illustrated by Peter Brears' splendid reconstructions of the buildings and their interiors and of the tools and utensils used in farming, weaving and cooking. A walk from Stanbury to Top Withins and back to Haworth is described in detail, including the history of all the farms that are passed on the way. Many of these are now almost forgotten, but a surprising amount of information about them is included. The final chapter gives a full account of the life and work of Timmy Feather, the last of the handloom weavers on these moors. This book is the most complete and wide-ranging account of the life and work of a South Pennine hill farm ever attempted and is of relevance far beyond the small area with which it deals. It will appeal to all who are interested in the history of Yorkshire, to Bronte enthusiasts and to Pennine Way walkers.
This is the second volume in the new multi-volume set, Global Biodiversity.Each volume in this series covers the biodiversity of a selection of nations in particular regions of the world. The volumes discuss and summarize the available information on both wild and cultivated plants, wild and domesticated animals, and the variety of microbes of the different nations. Global Biodiversity, Volume 2: Selected Countries in Europe looks at the biodiversity of selected countries of Europe, providing an abundance of biodiversity information on Bosnia-Herzegovina, France, George, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Norway, Serbia, Slovakia, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. Each chapter features a different country and is written by research scientists and conservationists. The information covers geographical status, ecosystem diversity, species diversity, genetic diversity, and conservation efforts in that particular country. The authors provide statistical data on plants, animals, and microbes of that country along with genetic diversity with the focus on crop plants/cultivated plants and domesticated animals and their wild relatives.
This SpringerBrief reviews currently applied and potential solutions for improving the efficiency and quality of rural electricity supply in India, a major bottleneck for agricultural development. It provides background on the current state of supply and reviews recent and ongoing research and development projects. One selected project, designed and conducted by the authors, is outlined in detail. The research findings, project implementation, and evaluation are intended to provide development practitioners, policy makers, and applied researchers with experience from the field. At the core of this Brief is the integration of technical and social solutions, emphasizing the role of collective action, and the merits and demerits of small-scale, technically simple measures.
This book provides an up-to-date overview of international research work on sorghum. Its comprehensive coverage of our current understanding of transgenic development in sorghum and the strategies that are being applied in molecular breeding make this book unique. Important areas such as genetic diversity, QTL mapping, heterosis prediction, genomic and bioinformatics resources, post-genome sequencing developments, molecular markers development using bioinformatics tools, genetic transformation and transgenic research are also addressed. The availability of the genome sequence along with other recent developments in sequencing and genotyping technologies has resulted in considerable advances in the area of sorghum genomics. These in turn have led to the generation of a large number of DNA-based markers and resulted in the identification and fine mapping of QTL associated with grain yield, its component traits, biotic and abiotic stress tolerance as well as grain quality traits in sorghum. Though a large volume of information has accumulated over the years, especially following the sequencing of the sorghum genome, until now it was not available in a single reference resource. This book fills that gap by documenting advances in the genomics and transgenic research in sorghum and presenting critical reviews and future prospects. "Sorghum Molecular Breeding" is an essential guide for students, researchers and managers who are involved in the area of molecular breeding and transgenic research in sorghum and plant biologists in general.
Sugarcane is one of the most important crops commercially grown in about 115 countries of the world. India is a major producer as well as consumer of sugar in the world and has produced about 25MT of sugar from 360MT sugarcane in 2011-13, contributing about 15 percent of the total sugar production in the world. A quantum of sugar is produced from sugarcane, however, this crop faces a number of problems such as low cane productivity, biotic and abiotic stresses, high cost of cultivation, post-harvest losses, and low sugar recovery. In India, sugarcane research began in the beginning of the 19th century. Since then rapid advancement has been made in sugarcane cultivation by Indian researchers. The objective of this book is to provide a comprehensive account of all the major achievements based on Indian workers in sugarcane research. The book is a compilation of recent advancements made on sugarcane development, cultivation, and on improvement in cane and sugar yield using conventional and biotechnological approaches by different agricultural scientists and researchers of India.
"The real masterwork that Sue Hubbell has created is her life," David Quammen wrote in the New York Times. This book is, like its author, a unique achievement. Weaving a vivid portrait of her own life and her bees' lives through the seasons, Hubbell writes "about bees to be sure, but also about other things: the important difference between loneliness and solitude . . . the accommodating of oneself to nature" (Philadelphia Inquirer).
Through successive editions, Management and Welfare of Farm Animals has gained international recognition as a classic introductory textbook for students of agriculture and veterinary science. Conceived by the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (UFAW), the book has always sought to promote the humane treatment of livestock within the practical business context of modern farming.
Now fully revised and updated, this fifth edition remains the most comprehensive and accessible guide available. Three animal groups appear here for the first time (game birds, South American camelids, and ostriches), and a chapter on horses has also been restored. Throughout, the book offers clear advice for the humane management of all major farmed species in the primary context of large-scale food production.However, this edition also takes full account of consumer demand (and legal requirements) for alternative farming methods and enhanced welfare standards, whether in conventional agriculture or the smallest of 'hobby' farms. Brand new chapters reflect fresh understanding of welfare science, ethics, and the role of society in ensuring the best possible farm conditions. It remains an indispensable resource for students, and for all those seeking to promote animal welfare.Published as a part of the prestigious Wiley-Blackwell - UFAW Animal Welfare series. UFAW, founded 1926, is an internationally recognised, independent, scientific and educational animal welfare charity. For full details of all titles available in the UFAW series, please visit www.wiley.com/go/ufaw.
Pasture management in South Africa covers all major aspects of pasture production and management. Particular strengths are species selection, pasture establishment, fertilizer, grazing and forage management, and livestock related aspects of nutrient supplementation and feed budgeting. Pasture fertilizer practice is dealt with comprehensively. The range of regions and topics should make the title useful to students and practitioners beyond South Africa's borders.
There is more sugar in the world's diet than ever before, but life is far from sweet for the exploited producers making nature's 'white gold' and the unhealthy consumers eating it. Why has the billion-dollar sugar trade created such inequities? In this insightful analysis, Ben Richardson argues that the most compelling answers to this question can be found in the dynamics of global capitalism. Led by multinational companies, the mass consumption of sweetened snacks has taken hold in the Global South and underpinned a new wave of foreign investment in sugar production. The expansion of large-scale and highly-industrialised farms across Latin America, Asia and Africa has kept the price of sugar down whilst pushing workers out of jobs and rural dwellers off the land. However, challenges to these practices are gathering momentum. Health advocates warning against costly diseases like diabetes, trade unions fighting for better pay, and local residents campaigning for a cleaner environment are all re-shaping the way sugar is consumed and produced. But to truly transform sugar, Richardson contends, these political activities must also address the profit-driven nature of food and farming itself.
It is perhaps because fishes live in a buoyant medium, whether it be fresh or sea water, that they show a diversity in body shapes that is unparalleled by other vertebrates. There is also a unique diversity in the modes of reproduction, whether by external or internal fertilization, and this, with the morphology and fine structure of the reproductive system and its components, is the subject of the present volume. A large part of this book deals with the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, with some discussion of phylogenetic implications.
Genetically engineered (GE) varieties with pest management traits became commercially available for major crops in 1996. Over 15 years later, adoption of these varieties by U.S. farmers is widespread and U.S. consumers eat many products derived from GE crops -- including cornmeal, oils, and sugars -- largely unaware that these products were derived from GE crops. Despite the rapid increase in the adoption of corn, soybean, and cotton GE varieties by U.S. farmers, questions persist regarding their economic and environmental impacts, the evolution of weed resistance, and consumer acceptance. This book examines issues related to three major stakeholders in agricultural biotechnology: GE seed suppliers and technology providers (biotech firms), farmers, and consumers.
This open access book addresses a wide variety of events and technologies concerning the sago palm, ranging from its botanical characteristics, culture and use to social conditions in the places where it is grown, in order to provide a record of research findings and to benefit society. It discusses various subjects, including the sago palm and related species; differentiation of species of starch-producing palm; habitat, morphological, physiological and growth characteristics; culture and management; productivity of carbon dioxide; starch extraction and manufacture; characteristics and utilization of starch; and cultural anthropological and folkloristic aspects. Problems such as food shortages due to increasing populations, global warming and climate change, and decreasing reserves of oil and other underground resources, have become more pressing in recent years. In the context of these problems, the book examines the role of the sago palm in sustainable food production, in the manufacture of other foodstuffs, as a raw material for ethanol and in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. In addition to academics, this book will be useful to researchers and government officials working for international agencies, national governments, municipalities, and other research organizations; technicians, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and others working in industries such as agriculture, plant production, food production, manufacturing, chemical engineering, energy production, and distribution.
Perhaps the least appreciated dramatis personae in human history are plants. Humans, like all other animals, cannot produce their own food as plants do through photosynthesis, and must therefore acquire organic material for survival and growth by eating plants or by eating other animals that eat plants. Humans depend on plants not only as a food source, but also as building and clothing materials and as sources of medicines, psychoactive substances, spices, pigments, and more. With plants being such valuable resources, it is therefore not surprising that plants have been involved in practically all violent conflicts among different human societies. Ironically, plants have also been the source of materials to construct weapons or weapon parts. Wars have always constituted a large part of human history, and the overall theme of this book is that to understand the history of violent human conflict, we need to understand what specific materials plants make that people find so useful and worth fighting over, and what roles such plant products have played in specific conflicts. To do so, Plants and Human Conflict begins with a chapter explaining the basic biological facts of the interdependence between plants and humans, and the subsequent seven chapters describe the physical and chemical properties of specific plant products demonstrating how the human need for these products has led to wars as well as contributed to the prosecution of wars. These chapters recount some well-known (and some lesser known) historical events in which plants have played a central role. This book uniquely combines the modern scientific knowledge of plants with the human history of war, introducing readers to a new paradigm that will make them reconsider their understanding of human history, as well as to bring about a greater appreciation of plant biology.
The plant species that humans rely upon have an extended family of wild counterparts that are an important source of genetic diversity used to breed productive crops. These wild and weedy cousins are valuable as a resource for adapting our food, forage, industrial and other crops to climate change. Many wild plant species are also directly used, especially for revegetation, and as medicinal and ornamental plants. North America is rich in these wild plant genetic resources. This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them. Numerous maps using up-to-date information and methods illustrate the distribution of important species, and supplement detailed description on the potential value these resources have to agriculture, as well as their conservation statuses and needs. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants. Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity. The chapters 'Public Education and Outreach Opportunities for Crop Wild Relatives in North America' and 'Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives - A Canadian Perspective' are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
In China, as elsewhere, the debate over genetically modified organisms has become polarized into anti- and pro-GMO camps. Given the size of China's population and market, much is at stake in conflicts over regulation for domestic as well as international actors. In this book, Cong Cao provides an even-handed analysis that illuminates the tensions that have shaped China's policy toward agricultural biotechnology in a global perspective. Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China's policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has shifted that explains how China's changing GMO stances reflect its evolving position on the world stage. While China's scientific community has set the agenda, it has encountered resistance rooted in concerns over food safety and consumers' rights as well as issues of intellectual property rights and food sovereignty. Although Chinese leaders at first sought to take advantage of the biotech revolution by promoting GMO crop consumption, Cao demonstrates that policy has since become precautionary, as seen in new laws and regulations grounded in concerns over safety and the deferral of commercialization of GM rice. He presents China's policies in light of changing global attitudes toward GM crops: As shifts in China have closely followed global trends, so has domestic activism. Drawing on government and scientific documents as well as interviews with scientists, officials, policy analysts, activists, and journalists, GMO China is an important book for China studies, science and technology studies, policy analysts, and professionals interested in the Chinese biotechnology market.
Wildly Successful Farming tells the stories of farmers across the American Midwest who are balancing profitability and food production with environmental sustainability and a passion for all things wild. They are using innovative techniques and strategies to develop their "wildly" successful farms as working ecosystems. Whether producing grain, vegetables, fruit, meat, or milk, these next-generation agrarians look beyond the bottom line of the spreadsheet to the biological activity on the land as key measures of success. Written by agricultural journalist Brian DeVore, the book is based on interviews he has conducted at farms, wildlife refuges, laboratories, test plots, and gardens over the past twenty-five years. He documents innovations in cover cropping, managed rotational grazing, perennial polyculture, and integrated pest management. His accounts provide insight into the impacts regenerative farming methods can have on wildlife, water, landscape, soils, and rural communities and suggest ways all of us can support wildly successful farmers.
This book is a fully updated amalgamation of two previously published titles - Growing Vines (1972) and Wines from your Vines (1974). It is concise, yet detailed, and covers all aspects from planting the vines through cropping and vinification to enjoying the final product. The quality of English wine is constantly improving and this book will help the amateur to produce high-quality wine from home-grown grapes providing the right varieties are used and the simple rules followed.
This book provides a concise and up to date review of current knowledge on the biological processes affecting animal welfare, and the implications emerging from our improved understanding of those biological principles in terms of options available to assess and manage the welfare status of individuals and populations. Biological principles are embedded within wider consideration of the ethical basis for our concern about animals and their welfare, in recognition of the fact that concern and responsibility for welfare is strongly affected by cultural and ethical norms. The Biology and Management of Animal Welfare covers several topics not addressed in other texts. Thus it pays attention to the difference between animal welfare and animal rights and distinguishes between welfare and evolutionary fitness (which often causes confusion). The thorny problem of necessary versus unnecessary suffering is considered; most legislation provides for the prevention of unnecessary suffering but never defines it. In addition a box feature explores how human psychological development can affect attitudes to animals and how psychological dysfunctions (in terms of attitudes to other humans) can often be detected in advance from attitudes to animals. The book also includes consideration of alternatives to animal experimentation with a chapter devoted to the 3 Rs (Refine, Reduce, Replace). Written by authors who work in the field and all regularly contribute to postgraduate courses in animal welfare, in veterinary faculties and elsewhere, the text is deliberately kept short and concise to emphasise the essential principles, but is comprehensively referenced throughout in order to guide the reader in their own wider background reading around the framework provided by this overview. The book includes a number of dedicated box features that offer more detailed illustration or worked examples for some of the topics addressed in the text, or to focus attention on additional special topics.
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