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Invasive species have a critical and growing effect upon natural areas. They can modify, degrade, or destroy wildland ecosystem structure and function, and reduce native biodiversity. Landscape-level solutions are needed to address these problems. Conservation biologists seek to limit such damage and restore ecosystems using a variety of approaches. One such approach is biological control: the deliberate importation and establishment of specialized natural enemies, which can address invasive species problems and which should be considered as a possible component of restoration. Biological control can be an effective tool against many invasive insects and plants but it has rarely been successfully employed against other groups. Safety is of paramount concern and requires that the natural enemies used be specialized and that targeted pests be drivers of ecological degradation. While modern approaches allow species to be selected with a high level of security, some risks do remain. However, as in all species introductions, these should be viewed in the context of the risk of failing to reduce the impact of the invasive species. This unique book identifies the balance among these factors to show how biological control can be integrated into ecosystem restoration as practiced by conservation biologists. Jointly developed by conservation biologists and biological control scientists, it contains chapters on matching tools to management goals; tools in action; measuring and evaluating ecological outcomes of biological control introductions; managing conflict over biological control; and includes case studies as well as an ethical framework for integrating biological control and conservation practice. Integrating Biological Control into Conservation Practice is suitable for graduate courses in invasive species management and biological control, as well as for research scientists in government and non-profit conservation organizations.
Quinoa is an ancient grain that has grown in popularity in recent years. It has been known as a good source of both protein and fiber. As the demand for quinoa increases a comprehensive and up-to-date reference on the biology and production of the crop is essential. Quinoa: Improvement and Sustainable Production brings together authors from around the world to provide a complete assessment of the current state of global quinoa research and production. Topics covered include quinoa history and culture, genomics and breeding, agronomy, nutrition, marketing, and end-uses. The book focuses in particular on the emerging role of quinoa in providing increased food security to smallholder farmers and communities throughout the world. Quinoa will interest quinoa researchers, producers, crop scientists, agronomists, and plant geneticists, as well as advanced students working with this important grain.
A classic picture of the rural past in a remote Suffolk village, revealed in the conversations of old people who recall harvest customs, home crafts, poetic usages in dialect, old farm tools, smugglers' tales, and rural customs and beliefs going back to the time of Chaucer.
Text with fully-integrated illustrations which are mainly photographs showing different varieties and habitats, the nuts in their different stages of growth; processing for oil; uses of the timber; the walnut in art; culinary use including a collection of recipes. Practical advice on choosing, planting, maintaining and pruning walnut trees. Approx 80 colour illustrations plus b&w archive prints and drawings. Further reading list. Suppliers. Index.
Written by leading academics and practitioners in the field, Smart Villages in the EU and Beyond offers a detailed insight into issues and developments that shape the debate on smart villages, together with concepts, developments and policymaking initiatives including the EU Action for Smart Villages. This book derives from the realization that the implications of the increasing depopulation of rural areas across the EU is a pending disaster. This edited collection establishes a framework for action today, which will lead to sustainable revitalization of rural areas tomorrow. Using country-specific case studies, the chapters examine how integrated and ICT-conscious strategies and policy actions focused on wellbeing, sustainability and solidarity could provide a long-term solution in the revitalization of villages across the EU and elsewhere. Best practices pertinent to precision farming, energy diversification, tourism, entrepreneurship are discussed in detail. As an in-depth exploration of the Smart Village on a multinational scale, this book will serve as an indispensable resource for students, researchers and policy leaders in the fields of politics, strategic management and urban and rural studies.
The new Multilingual Illustrated Guide to the World's Commercail Warmwater Fish, the second in the series of Multilingual Illustrated Guides, follows a similar format to the first, and is, once more, published to the highest production standards achievable. Over 150 species are covered and all essential information is conveyed by means of tables and diagrams with descriptive text kept to a minimum. Each species entry gives the species name, the scientific name, and the family name. Common names are then listed in German, Japanese, Spanish, French, English, Italian, Danish, Norwegian, Dutch, Portugese, Russian swedish and Turksih. Local names are given in the language appropraite to each species. Average size (cm) and weight (kg) is also given. A superb full-colour illustration is followed by a brief description of the species with an overview of the development of its economic importance to the present day. Full nutritional data per 100g edible weight is also listed. Each individual guide consolidates a wealth of information which should be readily available for all who are internationally active in the commercial fishing and related industries
The Cadogan Estate in Chelsea is one of the few remaining ancient family estates in London, covering one of the capital's most dynamic, thriving and fashionable districts. The foundations of the Cadogan Estate were established in 1717 when Charles, 2nd Baron Cadogan married the daughter of Sir Hans Sloane, who had purchased the Manor of Chelsea in 1712. This lavish book celebrates the family's 300-year stewardship of the Estate, which continues in the hands of the present Viscount Chelsea who succeeded his father, Earl Cadogan as group chairman in 2012. Beautifully illustrated, this collection of essays by expert commentators looks at the history and lineage of this noble family and the formation of the Estate as we know it today, focusing on the architectural and horticultural heritage that has shaped the built environment of the area, the economic and social impact of the two world wars, twentieth-century arts and culture, pioneering fashion trends and the changing face of retail in Chelsea. Today the Estate is home to London's most glamorous and dynamic locations for retail, fashion and culture attracting a global clientele, yet continuing to invest and promote in local, independent business and culture.
Provides detailed information on planning a heathland garden, improving the soil, and choosing the appropriate conifers and heather varieties. * Making a choice * Planting and Cultivation * Propagation * Colour All Year-Round * Ornamental Conifers * Heathers for All Seasons * Full and useful Index
This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of on abiotic stresses in terms of the challenges; scope and opportunities; copping strategies for adaptation and mitigation using novel tools for building resilience in agricultural crops and livestock; as well as for policy implementation. Divided into four major parts: advances and prospects for understanding stress environments; adaptation and mitigation options; crop-based mitigation strategies; and mitigation options in animal husbandry, the book focuses on problem-solving approaches and techniques that are essential for the medium to long-term sustainability of agricultural production systems The synthesis and integration of knowledge and experiences of specialists from different disciplines offers new perspectives in the versatile field of abiotic stress management, and as such is useful for various stakeholders, including agricultural students, scientists, environmentalists, policymakers, and social scientists.
Wine is a traditional product with traditional explanations. Oft-romanticized, Old World notions of how to create fine wine have been passed down through generations and continue to dominate popular discussions of wine quality. However, many of these beliefs predate science and remain isolated from advances in the understanding of how crops grow and fruit ripens. Allegiance to them has frequently impeded open-minded investigation into how grapevines interact with the environment, thus limiting innovation in winegrowing. In Terroir and Other Myths of Winegrowing, Mark A. Matthews applies a scientist's skepticism and scrutiny to examine widely held beliefs about viticulture. Is terroir primarily a marketing ploy that obscures understanding of which environments really produce the best wine? Is reducing yield an imperative for high quality grapes and wine? What does it mean to have vines that are balanced or grapes that are physiologically mature? Matthews explores and dissects these and other questions to debunk the myths of winegrowing that may be holding us back from achieving a higher wine quality.
This books presents an updated compilation on fundamental interaction mechanisms of microbial communities with the plant roots and rhizosphere (belowground) and leaves and aerial parts (aboveground). Plant rhizopshere recruits its own microbial composition that survive there and help plants grow and develop better under biotic and abiotic conditions. Similar is the case with the beneficial microorganisms which are applied as inoculants with characteristic functions. The mechanism of plant-microbe interactions is interesting phenomenon in biological perspectives with numerous implications in the fields. The First volume focuses on the basic and fundamental mechanisms that have been worked out by the scientific communities taking into account different plant-microbe systems. This includes methods that decipher mechanisms at cellular, physiological, biochemical and molecular levels and the functions that are the final outcome of any beneficial or non-beneficial interactions in crop plants and microbes. Recent advances in this research area is covered in different book chapters that reflect the impact of microbial interactions on soil and plant health, dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities, interaction mechanisms of microbes with multiple functional attributes, microbiome of contrasting crop production systems (organic vs conventional), mechanisms behind symbiotic and pathogenic interactions, endophytic (bacterial and fungal) interaction and benefits, rhizoplane and endosphere associations, signalling cascades and determinants in rhizosphere, quorum sensing in bacteria and impact on interaction, mycorrhizal interaction mechanisms, induced disease resistance and plant immunization, interaction mechanisms that suppress disease and belowground microbial crosstalk with plant rhizosphere. Methods based on multiphasic and multi-omics approaches were discussed in detail by the authors. Content-wise, the book offers an advanced account on various aspects of plant-microbe interactions and valuable implications in agro-ecological perspectives.
From a country plagued with chronic food shortage, the Green Revolution turned India into a food-grain self-sufficient nation within the decade of 1968-1978. By contrast, the decade of 1995-2005 witnessed a spate in suicides among farmers in many parts of the country. These tragic incidents were symptomatic of the severe stress and strain that the agriculture sector had meanwhile accumulated. The book recounts how the high achievements of the Green Revolution had overgrown to a state of this `agrarian crisis'. In the process, it also brings to fore the underlying resilience and innovativeness in the sector which enabled it not just to survive through the crisis but to evolve and revive out of it. The need of the hour is to create an environment that will enable the sector to acquire the robustness to contend with the challenges of lifting levels of farm income and coping with Climate Change. To this end, a multi-pronged intervention strategy has been suggested. Reviving public investment in irrigation, tuning agrarian institutions to the changed context, strengthening of market institution for better farm-market linkage and financial access of farmers, and preparing the ground for ushering in technological innovations should form the major components of this policy paradigm.
Put your career in full bloom
Get started in a career that has a promising future and is financially rewarding. "Opportunities in Landscape Architecture, Botanical Gardens, and Arboreta Careers" provides you with a complete overview of the job possibilities, salary figures, and experience required to get started in this creative industry.
This career-boosting book will help you: Determine the specialty that's right for you, from landscape design to conservation to urban planning Acquire in-depth knowledge of landscape planning, cultivation, maintenance, and plant and flower care Find out what kind of salary you can expect Understand the daily routine of your chosen field Focus your job search using industry resources
ENJOY A GREAT CAREER AS A:
Focusing on organic farming, this book presents peer-reviewed contributions from leading international academics and researchers in the field of organic agriculture, plant ecosystems, sustainable horticulture and related areas of biodiversity science. It includes case studies and reviews on organic agriculture, horticulture and pest management, use of microorganisms, composting, crop rotation, organic milk and meat production, as well as ecological issues. This unique book addresses a wide array of topics from all continents, making it a valuable reference resource for students, researchers and agriculturists who are concerned with biodiversity, agroecology and sustainable development of agricultural resources.
This book reviews the latest developments in our understanding of microbial endophytes and their potential applications in enhancing productivity and disease protection. It covers all the latest discoveries regarding endophytes, their interactions with plants and application in agricultural productivity and protection. Our understanding of endophytes has increased exponentially in recent decades. These microbes, such as fungi, bacteria, and actinobacteria, establish a symbiotic or parasitic association with plants. A better understanding of endophytic microorganisms may help to elucidate their functions and potential role in developing sustainable systems of crop production and improved protection against biotic stresses. Endophytes play a vital role in plant growth and health promotion. Endophytic bacteria are of agrobiological interest because they create host-endophyte relationships, which can open exciting prospects for newer biotechnological applications. Endophytes have also proven to be a beneficial and sustainable alternative to agrochemicals due to their role in the biocontrol of pests and diseases. Further, endophytes are essential to the production of several secondary metabolites in grasses, in the process of gummosis in trees, and the production of useful metabolites such as alkaloids, pestaloside, cryptocandin, enfumafungin, subglutinols, etc. for the host plant. They are also involved in the production of enzymes, biosurfactants, biocontrol agents and plant growth promoters. As such, it is imperative that we explore these products' industrial applications in the fields of biotechnology, pharmacy and agriculture. This volume will offers a valuable guidance for botanists, microbiologists, biotechnologists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists, and those working for the protection of plant species of agricultural and medicinal importance.
As Britain industrialized in the early nineteenth century, animal breeders faced the need to convert livestock into products while maintaining the distinctive character of their breeds. Thus they transformed cattle and sheep adapted to regional environments into bulky, quick-fattening beasts. Exploring the environmental and economic ramifications of imperial expansion on colonial environments and production practices, Rebecca J. H. Woods traces how global physiological and ecological diversity eroded under the technological, economic, and cultural system that grew up around the production of livestock by the British Empire. Attending to the relationship between type and place and what it means to call a particular breed of livestock ""native,"" Woods highlights the inherent tension between consumer expectations in the metropole and the ecological reality at the periphery. Based on extensive archival work in the United Kingdom, New Zealand, and Australia, this study illuminates the connections between the biological consequences and the politics of imperialism. In tracing both the national origins and imperial expansion of British breeds, Woods uncovers the processes that laid the foundation for our livestock industry today.
This book explores various nanotechnology applications and their effect on the food industry, innovation and environmental issues. Nanotechnology has had a major impact on the food industry and the environment in recent years - it has increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products, food packaging, food quality, crop protection, plant nutrient management and aided the food industry through the introduction of food diagnostics.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
Most conventional gardening books concentrate on how and when to carry out horticultural tasks such as pruning, seed sowing and taking cuttings. Science and the Garden, Third Edition is unique in explaining in straightforward terms some of the science that underlies these practices. It is principally a book of 'Why' Why are plants green? Why do some plants only flower in the autumn? Why do lateral buds begin to grow when the terminal bud is removed by pruning? Why are some plants successful as weeds? Why does climate variability and change mean change for gardeners? But it also goes on to deal with the 'How', providing rationale behind the practical advice. The coverage is wide-ranging and comprehensive and includes: the diversity, structure, functioning and reproduction of garden plants; nomenclature and classification; genetics and plant breeding; soil properties and soil management; environmental factors affecting growth and development; methods of propagation; size and form; colour, scent and sound; climate; environmental change; protected cultivation; pest, disease and weed diversity and control; post-harvest management and storage; garden ecology and conservation; sustainable horticulture; gardens and human health and wellbeing; and gardens for science. This expanded and fully updated Third Edition of Science and the Garden includes two completely new chapters on important topics: * Climate and Other Environmental Changes * Health, Wellbeing and Socio-cultural Benefits Many of the other chapters have been completely re-written or extensively revised and expanded, often with new authors and/or illustrators, and the remainder have all been carefully updated and re-edited. Published in collaboration with the Royal Horticultural Society, reproduced in full colour throughout, carefully edited and beautifully produced, this new edition remains a key text for students of horticulture and will also appeal to amateur and professional gardeners wishing to know more about the fascinating science behind the plants and practices that are the everyday currency of gardening.
Potato virus Y (PVY) infects a wide host range mainly within the Solanaceae and is distributed worldwide. PVY is transmitted by more than 40 aphid species in a non persistent manner. Isolates of the PVY species are highly variable at biological, serological and molecular levels. Epidemiological studies have highlighted the emergence of distinct potato PVY variants able to induce necroses on potato tubers. Due to the lack of efficient resistance to PVY isolates inducing necrotic symptoms in cultivated varieties and the plant-to-plant transmission of isolates through the daughter tubers, PVY has become the most economically important virus for the potato industry. The review offers an overview of several decades of research on PVY but also focuses on the latest data obtained by expert on PVY worldwide on the biological characteristics of PVY, interactions between aphids-hosts, its evolution and management. Identified knowledge gaps to understand further PVY biology will be discussed.
Ask the Fellows Who Cut the Hay is a vivid portrait of the rural past of Blaxhall, a remote Suffolk village, in the time before mechanization changed the entire nature of farming, the landscape and rural life for good. In the 1950s, George Ewart Evans sought out those who could recall the nineteenth-century customs, crafts, dialects, tools, smugglers' tales and rural beliefs which had endured from the time of Chaucer, and created this fascinating picture of a now vanished world.
In the European Union nations, and other countries including Japan, Australia and Malaysia, it is a legal requirement that food products containing genetically modified organism (GMO) materials are labelled as such in order that customers may make informed purchasing decisions. For manufacturers and consumers to be confident about these assertions, systems must be in place along the entire food chain which support the co-existence of GM and non GM materials whilst maintaining a strict segregation between the two.
This book is an output of a European Union-funded project entitled "Co-Extra: GM and non-GM food and feed supply chains: their Co-Existence and Traceability." The objective of this four year project is to provide practical tools and methods for implementing co-existence that will: enable the co-existence of genetically modified (GM) and non-GM cropsenable the segregation and tracing of genetically modified organism (GMO) materials and derived products along the food and feed chainsanticipate the future expansion of the use of GMOs
The project is designed to foster a robustly science-based debate amongst all of the stakeholders involved in the food and feed chains, and the tools will be assessed not only from a technical point of view but with regard to the economic and legal aspects. It also surveys the GMO-related legal regimes and practices that exist in and beyond the EU.
This book examines the practical tools and methods available to implement the co-existence and traceability of GM and non-GM food materials along the entire food and feed chains, as demanded by consumers and by legislation in force in the EU and elsewhere. GM and Non-GM Supply Foods is a source of valuable information for food manufacturers, food research institutions and regulatory bodies internationally.
There is more sugar in the world's diet than ever before, but life is far from sweet for the exploited producers making nature's 'white gold' and the unhealthy consumers eating it. Why has the billion-dollar sugar trade created such inequities? In this insightful analysis, Ben Richardson argues that the most compelling answers to this question can be found in the dynamics of global capitalism. Led by multinational companies, the mass consumption of sweetened snacks has taken hold in the Global South and underpinned a new wave of foreign investment in sugar production. The expansion of large-scale and highly-industrialised farms across Latin America, Asia and Africa has kept the price of sugar down whilst pushing workers out of jobs and rural dwellers off the land. However, challenges to these practices are gathering momentum. Health advocates warning against costly diseases like diabetes, trade unions fighting for better pay, and local residents campaigning for a cleaner environment are all re-shaping the way sugar is consumed and produced. But to truly transform sugar, Richardson contends, these political activities must also address the profit-driven nature of food and farming itself.
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