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Pheromones are chemical cues that pass between members of the same species that convey specific, adaptive information. These cues, and related chemicals whose function are less well defined, are especially important to fishes because of their aquatic environments and complex behaviors. Pheromones are also of increasing interest in both basic and applied aspects of fish biology because they can be used to manipulate fish behavior and may explain phenomena such as fishery collapse. Fish Pheromones and Related Cues provides a timely synthesis of this growing body of research in freshwater and marine species and explores everything from how these chemical signals evolved, are produced, released and then processed, and finally to potential applications in fish culture and conservation. Fish Pheromones and Related Cues opens with a useful overview on the theory of chemical communication and definitions. Chapters then progress by examining the biological importance of pheromones in inter- and intra-species communication, the role these chemical cues play in a variety biological functions from reproduction to predation, and then how they evolved and are detected and recognized by fish nervous systems. Final chapters provide valuable insight into how pheromones can be measured, how pheromonal disruption can explain effects of environmental pollution, and lastly how they pheromones are being applied in real-world efforts to culture fish species and to conserve our wild populations and control invasive species. With far-reaching economic, evolutionary and ecological implications, Fish Pheromones and Related Cues will be an essential volume for anyone working in the fields of chemical communication, fish biology, fisheries science, aquatic conservation, ecology, invasive species control, and aquaculture
Asia, Smallholder, Agrarian change
This book provides a concise and up to date review of current knowledge on the biological processes affecting animal welfare, and the implications emerging from our improved understanding of those biological principles in terms of options available to assess and manage the welfare status of individuals and populations. Biological principles are embedded within wider consideration of the ethical basis for our concern about animals and their welfare, in recognition of the fact that concern and responsibility for welfare is strongly affected by cultural and ethical norms. The Biology and Management of Animal Welfare covers several topics not addressed in other texts. Thus it pays attention to the difference between animal welfare and animal rights and distinguishes between welfare and evolutionary fitness (which often causes confusion). The thorny problem of necessary versus unnecessary suffering is considered; most legislation provides for the prevention of unnecessary suffering but never defines it. In addition a box feature explores how human psychological development can affect attitudes to animals and how psychological dysfunctions (in terms of attitudes to other humans) can often be detected in advance from attitudes to animals. The book also includes consideration of alternatives to animal experimentation with a chapter devoted to the 3 Rs (Refine, Reduce, Replace). Written by authors who work in the field and all regularly contribute to postgraduate courses in animal welfare, in veterinary faculties and elsewhere, the text is deliberately kept short and concise to emphasise the essential principles, but is comprehensively referenced throughout in order to guide the reader in their own wider background reading around the framework provided by this overview. The book includes a number of dedicated box features that offer more detailed illustration or worked examples for some of the topics addressed in the text, or to focus attention on additional special topics.
'HEIDA IS A FORCE OF NATURE . . . EXACTLY THE RIGHT SORT OF MODERN ROLE MODEL' SUNDAY TIMES The inspiring story of Icelandic sheep farmer, former model and feminist heroine Heida Asgeirsdottir has become a double prize-winning international bestseller. As heard on Radio 4's Start the Week I'm not on my own because I've been sitting crying into a handkerchief or apron over a lack of interested men. I've been made every offer imaginable over the years. Men offer themselves, their sons . . . drunk fathers sometimes call me up and say things like: "Do you need a farmhand?" "I can lift the hay bales" "I can repair your tractors". . . Heida is a solitary farmer with a flock of 500 sheep in a remorseless area bordering Iceland's highlands. It's known as the End of the World. One of her nearest neighbours is Iceland's most notorious volcano, Katla, which has periodically driven away the inhabitants of Ljotarstadir ever since people first started farming there in the twelfth century. This portrait of Heida written with wit and humour by one of Iceland's most acclaimed novelists, Steinunn Sigurdardottir, tells a heroic tale of a charismatic young woman, who walked away from a career as a model to take over the family farm at the age of 23. I want to tell women they can do anything, and to show that sheep farming isn't just a man's game. Divided into four seasons, Heida tells the story of a remarkable year, when Heida reluctantly went into politics to fight plans to raise a hydro-electric power station on her land. This book paints a unforgettable portrait of a remote life close to nature. Translated into six languages, Heida has won two non-fiction prizes and has become an international bestseller. We humans are mortal; the land outlives us, new people come, new sheep, new birds and so on but the land with its rivers and lakes and resources, remains. 'UTTERLY CHARMING' MAIL ON SUNDAY 'REVELATORY AND INSPIRING' HERALD
The masi are the equivalent of farms in the Alpine area of the Dolomites (Sudtirol/Alto Adige in northern Italy). Val Gardena, one of the valleys of Sudtirol, houses a great number of masi, some dating back to the thirteenth century. The historical importance of these farms resides in the richness and variety of their building techniques and the sheer beauty of their vernacular architecture perfectly integrated in the stunning landscape of the Dolomites. Recent socio-economic development and the difficulty to adapt the older masi to modern needs has endangered them. A movement to map and preserve these precious witnesses of the material culture of Val Gardena is taking place. Photographing and exhibiting the images of these buildings - shedding light on their cultural role, forms and the architectural elements - in the mountain villages and later in the Architecture Departments of universities in Italy and surrounding countries (Austria, Germany) is a way to increase awareness on the importance of preserving this distinctive vernacular architecture. Text in Ladin, German, Italian with short abstracts in English.
This book offers a state-of-the-art overview of on abiotic stresses in terms of the challenges; scope and opportunities; copping strategies for adaptation and mitigation using novel tools for building resilience in agricultural crops and livestock; as well as for policy implementation. Divided into four major parts: advances and prospects for understanding stress environments; adaptation and mitigation options; crop-based mitigation strategies; and mitigation options in animal husbandry, the book focuses on problem-solving approaches and techniques that are essential for the medium to long-term sustainability of agricultural production systems The synthesis and integration of knowledge and experiences of specialists from different disciplines offers new perspectives in the versatile field of abiotic stress management, and as such is useful for various stakeholders, including agricultural students, scientists, environmentalists, policymakers, and social scientists.
An updated guide to plant pathogens and their management The impact of plant disease is far-reaching. Its effects are felt not only in the spheres of agriculture and horticulture, but also in human health and wellbeing. The challenges of population growth, climate change and global food security all increase the need to protect crops from disease and reduce the losses caused by plant pathogens. This requires ongoing research and novel solutions, making the detailed analysis offered by Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens more relevant than ever. Striking a balance between laboratory- and field-based aspects of its subject, this revised fourth edition of the text places plant disease in a wide biological context. Its contents cover causal agents and diagnosis, host-pathogen interactions, and disease management, including breeding for resistance, chemical, biological and integrated control. New to this edition are updated sections on molecular epidemiology, biosecurity, pathogenomics, and the biotechnological advances that are helping scientists make great strides in the fight against plant disease. Authored by a leading authority on plant pathology Offers new coverage of recent advances in molecular genetics and genomics, biotechnology, and plant breeding Places emphasis on interaction biology and biological concepts, such as immunity and comparisons with animal systems Includes access to a supplementary website featuring slides of all figures in the book Plant Pathology and Plant Pathogens is an ideal textbook for graduate and upper-level undergraduate students in biology, botany, agricultural sciences, applied microbiology, plant-microbe interactions, and related subjects. It will also be a practical and enlightening resource for professionals in agricultural institutions, along with crop consultants seeking additional training or information.
For centuries, travel was an important part of a gardener's initial and continuing professional training. Educational journeys to parks and gardens at home and abroad were consistently recorded in lengthy reports and articles for professional journals. The travel report by Hans Jancke (1850-1920), a court gardener who served the Prussian kings in Potsdam, Germany, is typical of this genre. Jancke's manuscript, which until now remained unpublished, describes his 1874-1875 apprenticeship at Knowsley, the seat of the Earl of Derby near Liverpool, England.
This book is concerned with the growing and maintenance of trees
from the point of view of ornament and amenity, whether they are in
the town or the countryside. It includes details of such matters as
spacing, transplanting, pruning, protection and safety, and
provides valuable information on the identification and treatment
of many of the diseases and insect pests that attack trees.
In 1999, off the coast of the Pacific Northwest, the first grey whale in seven decades was killed by Makah whalers. The hunt marked the return of a centuries-old tradition and, predictably, set off a fierce political and environmental debate. Whalers from the Makah Indian Tribe and anti-whaling activists from across the country have clashed for over twenty years, with no end to this conflict in sight. In Contesting Leviathan, anthropologist Les Beldo describes the complex judicial and political climate for whale conservation in the United States, and the limits of the current framework in which whales are treated as "large fish" managed by the National Marine Fisheries Service. Emphasizing the moral dimension of the conflict between the Makah, the US government, and anti-whaling activists, Beldo brings to light the lived ethics of human-animal interaction, as well as how different groups claim to speak for the whale--the only silent party in this conflict. A timely and sensitive study of a complicated issue, this book calls into question anthropological expectations regarding who benefits from the exercise of state power in environmental conflicts, especially where indigenous groups are involved. Vividly told and rigorously argued, Contesting Leviathan will appeal to anthropologists, scholars of indigenous culture, animal activists, and any reader interested in the place of animals in contemporary life.
Losses of forests and their insect inhabitants are a major global conservation concern, spanning tropical and temperate forest regions throughout the world. This broad overview of Australian forest insect conservation draws on studies from many places to demonstrate the diversity and vulnerability of forest insects and how their conservation may be pursued through combinations of increased understanding, forest protection and silvicultural management in both natural and plantation forests. The relatively recent history of severe human disturbance to Australian forests ensures that reasonably natural forest patches remain and serve as 'models' for many forest categories. They are also refuges for many forest biota extirpated from the wider landscapes as forests are lost, and merit strenuous protection from further changes, and wider efforts to promote connectivity between otherwise isolated remnant patches. In parallel, the recent attention to improving forest insect conservation in harmony with insect pest management continues to benefit from perspectives generated from better-documented faunas elsewhere. Lessons from the northern hemisphere, in particular, have led to revelations of the ecological importance and vulnerability of many insect taxa in forests, together with clear evidence that 'conservation can work' in concert with wider forest uses. A brief outline of the variety of Australian tropical and temperate forests and woodlands, and of the multitude of endemic and, often, highly localised insects that depend on them highlights needs for conservation (both of single focal species and wider forest-dependent radiations and assemblages). The ways in which insects contribute to sustained ecological integrity of these complex ecosystems provide numerous opportunities for practical conservation.
This book explores various nanotechnology applications and their effect on the food industry, innovation and environmental issues. Nanotechnology has had a major impact on the food industry and the environment in recent years - it has increased the nutritional and functional properties of a number of food products, food packaging, food quality, crop protection, plant nutrient management and aided the food industry through the introduction of food diagnostics.
Ehrenfried Pfeiffer was a pioneer of biodynamics in North America. This short but comprehensive book is a collection of three key articles introducing the concepts, principles and practice of the biodynamic method, as well as an overview of its early history. The book also includes a short biography of Ehrenfried Pfeiffer by Herbert H. Koepf.
This volume in the series is devoted to Africa, a continent that possesses a vast treasure of medicinal plants and has produced some exclusive materials for the world market. This volume is expected to strengthen the medicinal plant sector in African countries by making comprehensive information on medicinal and aromatic plants available to policy-makers and entrepreneurs. It can be used to frame effective policies and create an environment conducive to the growth of the plant-based medicine industry, bringing economic benefit to African nations. It will help health organizations to improve the health of their people by using their own resources and a less expensive system of medicine, which is accepted by African society. It could also lead scientific communities to increase R&D activities in the field.
"This is a delightful book, full of interesting aspects of animal
welfare. An excellent guide to the academic study of animal welfare
"Understanding Animal Welfare: The Science in its Cultural Context" takes a completely fresh and thought-provoking approach. It is essential reading for anyone interested, studying or currently working in the fascinating field of animal welfare science. David Fraser places modern-day welfare issues within their historical framework by tracing the evolving ideas that led to current thinking. He also highlights some intriguing issues relating to the contradiction inherent in the term 'animal welfare science' and the practical problem of how to assess emotional states in animals.
Special features: Encompasses ideas from a variety of disciplines to give a broad perspective of the topic.Discusses methods of measuring animal welfare and their strengths and limitations.Examines contemporary debates and applications of the science to policy issues.
..". an impressive historical narrative of the genesis and
growth of animal welfare as a scientific discipline.... The book
will be invaluable for anyone involved with animal welfare issues
on an academic level or those involved with the integration of
these principles into current care and handling issues facing
agriculture, companion, laboratory, wild, or zoo animals."
"Fraser offers insights only possible from someone with his
considerable experience and understanding."
This book is part of the UFAW/Wiley-Blackwell Animal Welfare Book Series. This major series of books produced in collaboration between UFAW (The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare), and Wiley-Blackwell provides an authoritative source of information on worldwide developments, current thinking and best practice in the field of animal welfare science and technology. For details of all of the titles in the series see www.wiley.com/go/ufaw.
This 35-chapter book is based on several oral and poster presentations including both invited and contributory chapters. The book is thematically based on four pillars of sustainability, with focus on sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Environment, Economic, Social and Institutional. The environmental sustainability, which determines economic and social/institutional sustainability, refers to the rate of use of natural resources (soil, water, landscape, vegetation) which can be continued indefinitely without degrading their quality, productivity and ecosystem services for different ecoregions of SSA. This book will help achieve the Sustainable Development Goals of the U.N. in SSA. Therefore, the book is of interest to agriculturalists, economists, social scientists, policy makers, extension agents, and development/bilateral organizations. Basic principles explained in the book can be pertinent to all development organizations.
The agricultural industry is dealing with enormous challenges across the globe, including the limited availability of arable lands and fresh water, as well as the effect of climate change. Machinery plays a crucial role in agriculture and farming systems, in order to feed the world's growing population. In the last decade, we have witnessed major advances in agricultural machinery and technologies, particularly as manufacturers and researchers develop and apply various novel ways of automation as well as the data and information gathering and analyzing capabilities of their machinery. This book presents the state-of-the-art information on the important innovations in the agricultural and horticultural industry. It reviews and presents different novel technologies and implementation of these technologies to optimize farming processes and food production. There are four sections, each addressing a specific area of development. Section I discusses the recent development of farm machinery and technology. Section II focuses on water and irrigation engineering. Section III covers harvesting and post-harvest technology. Section IV describes computer modelling and simulation. Each section highlights current industry trends and latest research progress. This book is ideal for those working in or are associated with the fields of agriculture, agri-food chain and technology development and promotion.
This book sets out to bridge the order scales among pike researchers, populations, communities, management, and fisheries. It emphasizes the progress of pike research during the last two decades, during which the order-bridging approach emerged. This framework underpins the text and the message, to convey its importance to pike research and to fish research in general. In addition, a considerable part of the book is devoted to management implications and highlights aspects of human dimensions in recreational fisheries.
This book highlights the water-energy-food nexus as one of the most important and fundamental global environmental issues facing the world. Climate and social changes are putting increased pressure on water, energy and food resources. As water is the central aspect within this cluster, the book focuses on the inherent tradeoffs in water resources between producing/consuming energy and food. In addition, it discusses an inter- and trans-disciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of the water-energy-food nexus system, and creating policy options to reduce the tradeoffs among resources. The content integrates a variety of academic disciplines, including not only the natural sciences (e.g. hydrology, coastal oceanography, costal aquatic bioscience, fisheries, environmental earth science etc.) but also the humanities and social sciences (e.g. marine policy, environmental energy policy, resource governance, policy process theory etc.). The book can be used as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level sustainability science courses. Further, its practical content and trans-disciplinary approach to addressing nexus issues with stakeholders offers vital information for practitioners and administrators alike.
This book focuses on the environmental components of sustainability, including aspects of resourcing and the environmental impacts of human societies. Marine and tropical forest ecosystems, food security and other natural resources, as well as technologies for the environmental control of societal impacts are examined. This volume is multi-disciplinary, but with a consistent focus on the natural environment. This 2-volume set discusses a wide range of topics concerning sustainability and human security in Asia, particularly South East Asia. The individual chapters have been contributed by authors from various fields, and due to the breadth of the material are separated into two thematic volumes. The set offers a valuable resource for professionals and researchers in the urban planning industry, postgraduates, policymakers, government officials and natural resources managers. In addition, it can be used in courses on Environmental Engineering, Agriculture and Forestry, Public Policy and Earth Science.
This book presents the latest advances in rice genomics, genetics and breeding, with a special focus on their importance for rice biology and how they are breathing new life into traditional genetics. Rice is the main staple food for more than half of the world's population. Accordingly, sustainable rice production is a crucial issue, particularly in Asia and Africa, where the population continues to grow at an alarming rate. The book's respective chapters offer new and timely perspectives on the synergistic effects of genomics and genetics in novel rice breeding approaches, which can help address the urgent issue of providing enough food for a global population that is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050.
This book presents state-of-the-art research on the many facets of the plant microbiome, including diversity, ecology, physiology and genomics, as well as molecular mechanisms of plant-microbe interactions. Topics considered include the importance of microbial secondary metabolites in stimulating plant growth, induced systemic resistance, tolerance to abiotic stress, and biological control of plant pathogens. The respective contributions show how microbes help plants to cope with abiotic stresses, and represent significant progress toward understanding the complex regulatory networks critical to host-microbe interaction and plant adaptation in extreme environments. New insights into the mechanisms of microbial actions in inducing plant stress tolerance open new doors for improving the efficacy of microbial strategies, and could produce new ways of economically increasing crop yields without harming the environment. As such, this book offers an essential resource for students and researchers with an interest in plant-microbe interaction, as well as several possibilities for employing the plant microbiome in the enhancement of crop productivity under future climate change scenarios.
Practical Statistics and Experimental Design for Plant and Crop Science provides an introduction to the principles of plant and crop experimentation. Avoiding mathematical jargon, this text explains how to plan and design an experiment, analyse results, interpret computer output and present findings. Using specific crop and plant case studies this user-friendly guide presents:
This open access book addresses a wide variety of events and technologies concerning the sago palm, ranging from its botanical characteristics, culture and use to social conditions in the places where it is grown, in order to provide a record of research findings and to benefit society. It discusses various subjects, including the sago palm and related species; differentiation of species of starch-producing palm; habitat, morphological, physiological and growth characteristics; culture and management; productivity of carbon dioxide; starch extraction and manufacture; characteristics and utilization of starch; and cultural anthropological and folkloristic aspects. Problems such as food shortages due to increasing populations, global warming and climate change, and decreasing reserves of oil and other underground resources, have become more pressing in recent years. In the context of these problems, the book examines the role of the sago palm in sustainable food production, in the manufacture of other foodstuffs, as a raw material for ethanol and in the manufacture of biodegradable plastics. In addition to academics, this book will be useful to researchers and government officials working for international agencies, national governments, municipalities, and other research organizations; technicians, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and others working in industries such as agriculture, plant production, food production, manufacturing, chemical engineering, energy production, and distribution.
This book summarizes studies on climate and ecosystem change adaptation and resilience in Africa (CECAR-Africa), a collaboration with the goal of creating an integrated resilience enhancement strategy as a potential model for semi-arid regions across Sub-Saharan Africa by combining climate change and ecosystem change research. The case studies were conducted at multiple scales - local, national, and regional - and incorporate the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering in a transdisciplinary manner while also integrating the needs of local communities. The book chiefly addresses three thematic areas, namely: Forecast and assessment of climate change impacts on agro-ecosystems; Risk assessment of extreme weather hazards and development of adaptive resource management methods; and Implementing capacity development programs for local leaders and practitioners. The collaborative nature of the project and the use of various quantitative and qualitative research technique s and methods - such as field surveys, questionnaires, focus group discussions, land use and cover change analysis, and climate downscaled modeling - make the book truly unique. Especially at a time when both long-term climate change and short-term extreme weather events such as droughts and floods are worsening, this book offers potential approaches to developing an integrated framework for assessing the local ability to cope with floods and droughts, and for enhancing the resilience of farming communities in developing countries, which are the most vulnerable to these changes and extreme weather events. As such, it will be of interest to a wider audience, including academics, professionals, and government officials alike.
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