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This is a practical manual to managing woodland. It includes a Foreword written by HRH Prince Charles. It comes from conservation expert Charles Flower, author of highly acclaimed Where Have all the Flowers Gone? Charles Flower is passionate about restoring the countryside. He has spent many years working on and writing about the restoration of wild flowers to grasslands and has now turned his attention to ancient woodlands, many of which, though derelict, are treasure houses of diversity, an asset unrecognised by almost everyone including those in Government. Yet with a little effort glades and rides, which may represent less than ten per cent of the wood, can be opened up with remarkable results. Once light penetrates some wild flowers will reappear and all will thrive attracting back the insects, birds and animals that once flourished there. This book is not only a beautiful record of the ancient woodlands that, thanks to good management, have continued to thrive, it also constitutes a practical manual and provides inspiration for those working to preserve our existing ancient woodlands and those managing recently planted woods and planting the trees that will constitute our future woodland heritage.
A rapidly growing interdisciplinary field, disease ecology merges key ideas from ecology, medicine, genetics, immunology, and epidemiology to study how hosts and pathogens interact in populations, communities, and entire ecosystems. Bringing together contributions from leading international experts on the ecology of diseases among invertebrate species, this book provides a comprehensive assessment of the current state of the field. Beginning with an introductory overview of general principles and methodologies, the book continues with in-depth discussions of a range of critical issues concerning invertebrate disease epidemiology, molecular biology, vectors, and pathogens. Topics covered in detail include: Methods for studying the ecology of invertebrate diseases and pathogens Invertebrate pathogen ecology and the ecology of pathogen groups Applied ecology of invertebrate pathogens Leveraging the ecology of invertebrate pathogens in microbial control Prevention and management of infectious diseases of aquatic invertebrates Ecology of Invertebrate Diseases is a necessary and long overdue addition to the world literature on this vitally important subject. This volume belongs on the reference shelves of all those involved in the environmental sciences, genetics, microbiology, marine biology, immunology, epidemiology, fisheries and wildlife science, and related disciplines.
Sustainable management of soils is an important global issue of the 21st century. Feeding roughly 8 billion people with an environmentally sustainable production system is a major challenge, especially considering the fact that 10% of the world's population at risk of hunger and 25% at risk of malnutrition. Accordingly, the 68th United Nations (UN) general assembly declared 2016 the "International Year of Pulses" to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of pulses in human nutrition and welfare. Likewise, the assembly declared the year 2015 as the "International Year of Soils" to promote awareness of the role of "healthy soils for a healthy life" and the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) has declared 2015-2024 as the International Decade of Soils. Including legumes in cropping systems is an important toward advancing soil sustainability, food and nutritional security without compromising soil quality or its production potential. Several textbooks and edited volumes are currently available on general soil fertility or on legumes but' to date' none have been dedicated to the study of "Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management". This is important aspect, as the soil, the epidermis of the Earth (geoderma)' is the major component of the terrestrial biosphere. This book explores the impacts of legumes on soil health and sustainability, structure and functioning of agro-ecosystems, agronomic productivity and food security, BNF, microbial transformation of soil N and P, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofertilizers, etc. With the advent of fertilizers, legumes have been sidelined since World War II, which has produced serious consequences for soils and the environment alike. Therefore, legume-based rational cropping/soil management practices must support environmentally and economically sustain able agroecosystems based on (sequential) rotation and intercropping considerations to restore soil health and sustainability. All chapters are amply illustrated with appropriately placed data, tables, figures, and photographs, and supported with extensive and cutting-edge references. The editors have provided a roadmap for the sustainable development of legumes for food and nutritional security and soil sustainability in agricultural systems, offering a unique resource for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, agronomy, ecology, and the environmental sciences.
Presents an exhaustive study of economic zoology. All kinds of animal pathogens - such as protozoans, helminths, nematodes, mites and ticks and household insects, directly or indirectly causing diseases in other animals including humans - are described in detail, covering every aspect of their life history along with the symptoms appearing on the hosts, and their prevention, control and cure. Furthermore, along with the animal pathogens mentioned above, plant pathogens, such as insects, acting as pests of a variety of crops are also described in detail.Key features:Chapters enriched with photomicrographs present a realistic description.Exclusive life cycle diagrams of pathogens.Exhaustive coverage of the subject matter helps students to understand the concepts.Chapter-end review questions help students to prepare for examinations and assess their knowledge.
Plants have a very specific and efficient mechanism to obtain, translocate and store nutrients from the surrounding environment. The precise mechanism that helps a plant in nutrient translocation from root to shoot also, in the same way, transfers and stores toxic metals within their structure. Metal toxicity generally causes multiple direct or indirect effects on plants, affecting nearly all of their physiological functions. Plant tolerance to heavy metals depends largely on plant efficiency in uptake, translocation and sequestration of heavy metals in specific cell organelles or specialized tissues. The main purpose of this book is to present a holistic view of the recent advancement in the field of accumulation and remediation using plants, the green solar powered alternative to ameliorate heavy metal from the polluted environment. The key features of the book are related to metal transporters and metal accumulation mechanisms under heavy metal stress in plants, plant transcriptional regulation and responses under metal contamination, multiple toxic metal contaminations and its phytoremediation approaches etc. Based on the advancement of research in recent years, the information compiled in this book will bring an in-depth knowledge on the bioaccumulation of metals, their transportation in natural conditions or genetically modified plants and their strategy to cope with the toxicity to survive in the hostile environment.
A fascinating study of freedom and slavery, told through the life of an escaped slave who built a life in the Hudson Valley In 1793 James F. Brown was born a slave, and in 1868 he died a free man. At age 34 he ran away from his native Maryland to pass the remainder of his life as a gardener to a wealthy family in the Hudson Valley. Two years after his escape and manumission, he began a diary which he kept until his death. In Freedom's Gardener, Myra B. Young Armstead uses the apparently small and domestic details of Brown's diaries to construct a bigger story about the transition from slavery to freedom. In this first detailed historical study of Brown's diaries, Armstead utilizes Brown's life to illuminate the concept of freedom as it developed in the United States in the early national and antebellum years. That Brown, an African American and former slave, serves as such a case study underscores the potential of American citizenship during his lifetime.
Food for cities in Africa is changing under the triple effect of growth demography, urbanization and transformations in agricultural production and trade. These changes create risks: African cities increasingly face the challenges of undernutrition and malnutrition. But they also generate new opportunities: the economy food is the continent's main source of employment and will remain so in the near future, both to ensure agricultural production, agro-food processing and product distribution. At the center of this economy are the intermediaries market, which link producers and consumers, and whose ineffectiveness explains that about a third of the production evaporates in food losses.
A comprehensive collection of 500 beekeeping tips written by life-long beekeeper Jim Tew covers all aspects of beekeeping including: Becoming a Beekeeper, Beekeeping Equipment, The Beekeeping Year, Getting Live Bees, Colony Management, Honey, Bee By-Products, Pollination, Ailments, and Bee Biology. The tips are grouped logically so that novices can build their knowledge gradually, while old hands may prefer to dip in and out at random or use the index to refer to specific topics. Illustrated throughout with specially commissioned linocut prints by award-winning printmaker Melvyn Evans, Wisdom for Beekeepers is an ideal introductory read for newcomers to beekeeping, and a perfect gift for more experienced beekeepers.
This book, the only one of its kind on ravine lands, reflects the significant advances made over the past two decades in our understanding of gully erosion, its controlling factors, and various aspects of gully erosion. It also addresses central research gaps and unanswered questions, which include historical studies on gully erosion to better understand the different stages of their formation; appropriate measuring techniques for monitoring or assessing the geological and hydrological parameters and processes involved in gully development; interaction of hydrological and other soil degradation processes; ecology and biodiversity of fragile ravines; impact of climate and environmental changes on soil erosion processes; development of effective and reliable gully erosion models; effective gully prevention and control measures; watershed-based management options; and ravine rehabilitation policies. The present book is a highly timely publication and deals with various aspects of ravine ecology and rehabilitation of degraded lands, particularly with the aid of biological approaches. As such, it offers a valuable guide for all scientists working in the fields of soil conservation / rehabilitation and agroforestry, students, environmentalists, educationists, and policymakers. More importantly, it focuses on the rehabilitation of one of the world's most degraded and fragile ecosystems, ensuring the livelihoods of resource-poor farmers and landless families living in harsh ecologies that are more vulnerable to climate change.
Has anyone today any conception of the grandeur, the extent, the million board feet a day production...the entire meaning of the forests of the Pacific Northwest-the "Big Woods"? The photographs alone in this absorbing book will instantly transport the reader into this former world. Here was the greatest stand of Douglas fir timber in existence and here was labor for the Poles, Finns, Swedes and Norskies lured out of the Midwest to convert the mammoth trees into the lumber that helped build the West Coast cities. Ralph Andrews presents a fascinating subject-the hope, courage and tragedy in the lives of the men and women who opened up the dense native forests or as the loggers said "brought daylight into the swamp," and converted the trees into the lumber which built the West Coast cities. Here are many nostalgic scenes showing high climbers, fallers balanced on high springboards, yokes of oxen and up to eight spans of horses dragging logs on skidroad, yokes of oxen and up to eight spans of horses dragging logs on skidroads to flumes, rivers and salt water, early donkey engines, railroads on steep grades, logging camps as well as devastating fires. Andrews' style of writing is graphic and spirited with strong emphasis on human interest.
This is a new and up-to-date edition of the farming section in the hugely popular "People's Workbook." Originally written for the millions of SouthernAfrica's small farmers who help themselves by growing their own vegetables or keeping their own chickens and a few goats, this book will also help any small farmer or small-holder in developing countries to help themselves.This book is easy to read and easy to use, with hundreds of helpful illustrations. It includes interviews with small farmers from all over Southern Africa, as well as a new chapter on sustainable agriculture - on keeping the land healthy and fertile so that it can go on producing for the generations to come.
Fresh from receiving a doctorate from Cornell University in 1933,
but unable to find work, Charles M. Wiltse joined his parents on
the small farm they had recently purchased in southern Ohio. There,
the Wiltses scratched out a living selling eggs, corn, and other
farm goods at prices that were barely enough to keep the farm
Many countries around the world are struggling with the challenges of water scarcity, including water for crops. Micro irrigation methods are an effective means to make the most efficient use of available water. This volume, Micro Irrigation Scheduling and Practices, continues the efforts of the book series Innovations and Challenges in Micro Irrigation to provide informative and comprehensive knowledge on micro irrigation methods and practices. This new book presents some of the latest information and research on micro irrigation and covers the area of performance, practices, and design, focusing particularly on the performance of vegetable, fruit and row crops in conjunction with different scheduling and practices. Irrigation scheduling is an important water management strategy, and this book addresses scheduling methods and issues. Design aspects of micro irrigation systems have also been discussed in the book. The authors present their research and studies on scheduling practices and design micro irrigation systems with a variety of fruits and vegetables, including peppers, chili, watermelon, oranges, banana, litchi, rice, sugarcane, sorghum, and marigolds. Micro Irrigation Scheduling and Practices will serve as a valuable reference for researchers, water resources professionals, agricultural extension agencies, farmers, and faculty and students.
Divided into three volumes, Micropropagation of Orchids Third Edition retains the exhaustive list of micropropagation protocols for many genera and updates each section to include new and/or revised information about: * Culture media and vessels * Techniques and procedures for both orchids which were previously cultured and for those which were not * Plant hormones and growth regulators * Media components * Methods for tissue decontamination * Historical information * Procedures for the cultivation for plantlets which have been removed from flasks * Sources of light and illumination methods Written by two globally acknowledged experts in the field, the third edition of this definitive text on the micropropagation of orchids is a detailed and comprehensive collection of procedures and methods for multiplying orchids, including organ, tissue, and cell culture techniques in vitro and is intended for researchers in plant science and propagation, professional and amateur orchid growers, and plant breeding professionals. Much of the general information about techniques and procedures can be applied to plants other than orchids.
This Open Access book is for scientists and experts who work on urban food policies. It provides a conceptual framework for understanding the urban food system sustainability and how it can be tackled by local governments. Written by a collective of researchers, this book describes the existing conceptual frameworks for an analysis of urban food policies, at the crossroads of the concepts of food system and sustainable city. It provides a basis for identifying research questions related to urban local government initiatives in the North and South. It is the result of work carried out within Agropolis International within the framework of the Sustainable Urban Food Systems program and an action research carried out in support of Montpellier Mediterranee Metropole for the construction of its agroecological and food policy.
This book explores basic and applied aspects of microorganisms, which have a unique ability to cope with abiotic stresses such as drought, salinity and changing climate, as well as biodegrader microorganisms and their functional roles. Further, readers will find detailed information on all aspects that are required to make a microbe "agriculturally beneficial." The book's primary focus is on microbes that are essentially "hidden miniature packages of nature" that influence agro-ecosystems. Inviting papers by prominent national and international scientists working in the field of agricultural microbiology, it addresses the biogdegrader group of microbial inoculants. Each chapter covers the respective mechanism of action and recent advances in agricultural microbiology. In addition, the book especially highlights innovations involving agriculturally beneficial microorganisms, including strategies for coping with a changing climate, and methods for developing microbial inoculants and promoting climate-smart agriculture. The information presented here is based on the authors' extensive experience in the subject area, gathered in the course of their careers in the field of agricultural microbiology. The book offers a valuable resource for all readers who are actively involved in research on agriculturally beneficial microorganisms. In addition, it will help prepare readers for the future challenges that climate change will pose for agriculture and will help to bridge the current gaps between different scientific communities.
Today's irrigation management faces challenges and competition with other sectors (ie: household, industry, and environmental), quality degradation, and uncertain climatic conditions. To cope with these situations, the irrigation managers need precise estimation/determination of irrigation needs for crops, advance/water-saving techniques for water application, water conservation approaches, economic considerations in irrigation, and potentials for using marginal quality water in irrigation (such as saline water, and waste-water). This book focuses on all of the above issues: starting with irrigation management strategies for field crops -- to suitability of saline and waste-water as irrigation water. The book is useful to identify the need and adopt emerging technologies for irrigation management, as well as to identify appropriate methodologies for social, economic, and environmental benefits of improved irrigation management.
Cereal processing can be said to incorporate three stages: harvesting, which includes threshing and winnowing, in preparation for storage of the cereal grain; primary processing, which involves further treatment of the grain such as hulling and milling; and secondary processing, which includes processes such as baking or fermenting which make the grain suitable for human consumption.;"Cereal Processing" focuses on the processing of four cereals - maize (or corn), rice (or paddy), sorghum, and wheat - which are important foodstuffs around the world, looking at traditional and improved methods and equipment, especially threshers, mills and hullers. There are also checklists and case studies to help those intending to set up a cereal processing enterprise to make informed decisions about processes and technology.;Food Cycle Technology Source Books are designed for people who have no technical background or previous knowledge of the technologies. The titles in this series offer information on ways of improving the technology of food processing and increasing the quality and range of foodstuffs produced. While not providing instructions for actual processing, these source books are inte
Becoming Salmon is the first ethnographic account of salmon aquaculture, the most recent turn in the human history of animal domestication. In this careful and nuanced study, Marianne Elisabeth Lien explores how the growth of marine domestication has blurred traditional distinctions between fish and animals, recasting farmed fish as sentient beings, capable of feeling pain and subject to animal-welfare legislation. Drawing on fieldwork on and off salmon farms, Lien follows farmed Atlantic salmon through contemporary industrial husbandry, exposing how salmon are bred to be hungry, globally mobile, and "alien" in their watersheds of origin. Attentive to both the economic context of industrial food production and the materiality of human-animal relations, this book highlights the fragile and contingent relational practices that constitute salmon aquaculture and the multiple ways of "becoming salmon" that emerge as a result.
The tale of Honeybee Hotel begins over one hundred years ago, with the Astor family and the birth of the iconic Manhattan landmark, the magnificent Waldorf Astoria. In those early days the posh art deco masterpiece had its own rooftop garden for guests to enjoy. Fast-forward to the turn of the twenty-first century, and we meet executive chef David Garcelon, the creative genius behind the idea of restoring the celebrated rooftop garden. His vision included six hives containing some 300,000 honeybees, which would provide a unique flavor for his restaurant's culinary masterpieces. Yet Garcelon's dream was much grander than simply creating a private chefs' garden: he wanted the honeybee garden to serve as a bond among people. Soon the staff of the hotel, the guests, local horticulturists, and beekeeping experts formed a community around the bees and the garden, which not only raised vegetables, herbs, and honey to be served in the hotel but also provided healthy food to the homeless shelter across the street at St. Bartholomew's Church. Through her meticulous research and interviews with culinary glitterati, entomologists, horticulturists, and urban beekeepers, Leslie Day leads us on a unique insider's tour of this little-known aspect of the natural world of New York City. She familiarizes us with the history of the architectural and cultural gem that is the Waldorf and introduces us to the lives of Chef Garcelon and New York City's master beekeeper, Andrew Cote. Day, an urban naturalist and incurable New Yorker, tells us of the garden's development, shares delectable honey-based recipes from the hotel's chefs and mixologist, and relates the fate of the hotel in the wake of the Waldorf's change of ownership. During our journey, we learn quite a bit about apiaries, as well as insect and flower biology, through the lives of the bees that travel freely around the city in search of nectar, pollen, and resin. This absorbing narrative unwraps the heart within the glamour of one of the world's most beloved cities, while assuring us that nature can thrive in the ultimate urban environment when its denizens care enough to foster that connection.
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