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The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a unique agricultural policy worldwide. For many years, its status as the only common European Community (EC) policy governed by EC institutions put it at the heart of European integration. Today the CAP is not the only common European Union (EU) policy. Even while it remains the sole instance of a regionally integrated agricultural policy, the CAP no longer embodies the same degree of cross-national harmonization of agricultural policy among EC/EU member states that it once did.
The CAP has undergone policy reforms in the past two decades and these reforms have spawned a host of questions. What has caused the CAP to reform? How path-breaking are CAP reforms? Are they consistent with founding CAP goals or do they encompass new ideas about agriculture's place in the economy and society? And what are the consequences of agricultural policy reforms: for European farmers, consumers and taxpayers; for European ?public goods? such as environmental sustainability and preservation of rural communities and landscapes; and for third parties outside the EU, including the WTO?
This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Integration.
This full-color introduction to agronomy and crop science offers both traditional agricultural students and students with nonagricultural backgrounds a timely look at the principles of crop science, sustainable agriculture, and a host of related societal issues. A must-read text for anyone interested in what are arguably the most profoundly important issues of our time, INTRODUCTION TO AGRONOMY, second edition addresses the basics of safe and sustainable food and fiber production as well as big picture topics such as energy, ecology, and environmental quality. Throughout the text, readers will find information and illustrations on the latest agricultural methods, regulations, and practices--and how each is impacting our society and each individual within it.
Important Classical Reprints series specialising in Horticulture. The general principles of growing clover are described at length in this seminal work. Varieties of Clover are discussed at length and each variety is given its importance for agriculture and the rotation of crops.
Rich in bibliographic references, this book presents the current status of knowledge on the physiology of the pea crop. It draws on contributions from plant physiologists and researchers in various other disciplines who have been working together for many years on the production of plants rich in proteins. The text first discusses vegetative and reproductive development, growth under non-limiting conditions, and the nitrogen nutrition of the pea crop. It then explores the effects of the abiotic and biotic stresses on the development as well as the growth and nitrogen uptake by the plant. The book concludes with a global model of the functioning of the pea crop, which is proposed as a tool for the diagnosis of the yield-limiting factors.
This book had its genesis in Alexandria, Egypt in March 2002, at the Bibliotheca Alexandrina, when the new library hosted a conference on Biotechnology and Sustainable Development: "Voices of the South and North." Here, a group of modern scholars met to review the state of the art in relation to the applications of biosciences in human health, food and agriculture and the environment, and address the ethical, institutional, regulatory and socio-economic issues that affect their use. The goal was to identify ways and means by which the new life sciences could be mobilized in the service of humanity and especially to improve the livelihoods of poor people.
This book presents experiences and successful case studies of integrated pest management (IPM) from developed and developing countries and from major international centres and programmes. In nearly 40 chapters, the following themes are addressed: Emerging issues in IPM, such as biotechnology, pesticide policies, socio-economic considerations, country experiences from Africa, Asia, North and South America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, regional and international experiences, including FAO, the World Bank and CGIAR System-wide IPM Program.
Induced mutagenesis is a common and promising method for screening for new crops with improved properties. This title introduces the different methods and then focuses on the screening, detection and analysis of the novel mutations. Written by a global team of authors the book is an indispensable tool for all scientists working on crop breeding in industry and academia.
Divided into three volumes, Micropropagation of Orchids Third Edition retains the exhaustive list of micropropagation protocols for many genera and updates each section to include new and/or revised information about: * Culture media and vessels * Techniques and procedures for both orchids which were previously cultured and for those which were not * Plant hormones and growth regulators * Media components * Methods for tissue decontamination * Historical information * Procedures for the cultivation for plantlets which have been removed from flasks * Sources of light and illumination methods Written by two globally acknowledged experts in the field, the third edition of this definitive text on the micropropagation of orchids is a detailed and comprehensive collection of procedures and methods for multiplying orchids, including organ, tissue, and cell culture techniques in vitro and is intended for researchers in plant science and propagation, professional and amateur orchid growers, and plant breeding professionals. Much of the general information about techniques and procedures can be applied to plants other than orchids.
In this work, several modelling approaches are explored to represent spatial pattern dynamics of aquatic populations in aquatic ecosystems by the combination of models, knowledge and data in different scales.
It is shown that including spatially distributed inputs
retrieved from Remote Sensing images, a conventional
physically-based Harmful Algal Bloom model can be enhanced. Also,
Cellular Automata based models using high resolution photographs
prove to be good in representing aquatic plant growth. Multi-Agent
Systems can capture well the spatial patterns exhibited in GIS
density maps. A synthesis modelling framework was developed to
include biological/ecological growth and diffusive processes, and
local effects in conventional modelling framework. The results of
the complementary modelling paradigms investigated in this research
can be of help in achieving a sustainable environmental management
Bringing together the ideas of experts from around the world, this incisive text offers cutting-edge perspectives on the risk analysis and governance of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), supporting effective and informed decision-making in developing countries. Comprised of four comprehensive sections, this book covers: integrated risk analysis and decision making, giving an overview of the science involved and examining risk analysis methods that impact decision-making on the release of GMOs, particularly in developing countries; diversification of expertise involved in risk analysis and practical ways in which the lack of expertise in developing countries can be overcome; risk analysis based regulatory systems and how they can be undermined by power relationships and socio-political interests, as well as strategies for improving GMO policy development and regulatory decision-making; and case studies from developing countries providing lessons based on real-world experience that can inform our current thinking.
Plant-parasitic nematodes are recognized as one of the greatest threats to crop production throughout the world. Estimated annual crop losses of $8 billion in the United States and $78 billion worldwide are attributed to plant parasitic nematodes. Plant parasitic nematodes not only cause damage individually but form disease-complexes with other microorganisms thereby increasing crop loss. Nematode diseases of crops are difficult to control because of their insidious nature and lack of specific diagnostic symptoms which closely resemble those caused by other plant pathogens and abiotic diseases. Future developments of sustainable management systems for preventing major economical agricultural losses due to nematodes is focused on strategies that limit production costs, enhance crop yields, and protect the environment. This book presents a first compendium and overview for nematode problems and their management across North America. Each chapter provides essential information on the occurrence and distribution of plant parasitic nematodes, their major crop hosts, impact on crop production and sustainable management strategies for each region of the continent including, Canada, Mexico and all states of the USA. For each region, a thematic overview of changes in crop production affected by plant parasitic nematodes and their management strategies over time will provide invaluable information on the important role of plant parasitic nematodes in sustainable agriculture.
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
Nature and agriculture both shape the European countryside and one of the main challenges for the years to come will be to strengthen their interaction for the future development of rural areas. In this valuable and highly topical book, the authors demonstrate how economics and ecology can play a critical role in maintaining and sustaining this relationship. The book identifies the dilemmas facing European agriculture and explores their economic and ecological consequences. The authors believe a better understanding of these problems will be crucial in recognising the potential options for the future role of agriculture and nature policy and will guide the identification of suitable policy instruments. They highlight current threats to the relationship between agriculture and nature - such as abandonment and intensification - and demonstrate how these problems can be resolved by a rational policy mix. The book also provides extensive empirical evidence from four case studies and concludes by scrutinising the major changes in market conditions and the Common Agricultural Policy which could upset this important but fragile balance between agriculture and nature. Providing a state-of-the-art overview of current thinking on the relationship between agriculture and nature in the context of EU policy, this book will be welcomed by policymakers and those studying and working in the fields of agricultural and resource economics, geography, and agri-business.
In a world of high finance, unprecedented technological change, and cyber billionaires, it is easy to forget that a major source of global wealth is, literally, right under our noses. Coffee is one of the most valuable Southern exports, generating billions of dollars in corporate profits each year, even while the majority of the world's 25 million coffee families live in relative poverty. But who is responsible for such vast inequality? Many analysts point to the coffee market itself, its price volatility and corporate oligarchy, and seek to "correct" it through fair trade, organic and sustainable coffee, corporate social responsibility, and a number of market-driven projects. The result has been widespread acceptance that the "market" is both the cause of underdevelopment and its potential solution. Against this consensus, Gavin Fridell provocatively argues that state action, both good and bad, has been and continues to be central to the everyday operations of the coffee industry, even in today's world of "free trade." Combining rich history with an incisive analysis of key factors shaping the coffee business, Fridell challenges the notion that injustice in the industry can be solved "one sip at a time" - as ethical trade promoters put it. Instead, he points to the centrality of coffee statecraft both for preserving the status quo and for initiating meaningful changes to the coffee industry in the future.
How will the industrial changes implicit within new biotechnologies affect modern agriculture? This book investigates these changes and provides an economic analysis of the industrial and distributional impacts of new biotechnologies, addressing in detail the significant consequences for developing countries. One of the most important facets of biotechnological change is the development of new technologies for appropriating the value of innovations in related industries. In agriculture these new appropriation technologies are known as `genetic use restriction technologies', which enable the innovator to capture the value of innovative plant varieties by preventing their reproduction after purchase. This book analyses the implications of such technologies in terms of global agricultural production, the rate of innovation at the technological frontier and, in particular, the diffusion of these innovations across the globe. The authors set forth the economic and institutional framework within which innovations are occurring, focusing on the impacts on the least technologically advanced nations and their incentives to conserve genetic resources for use in future research and development. This stimulating book should be widely read by agricultural and resource economists, development economists, and scholars and researchers of environmental economics. Policymakers in developing countries will also gain valuable insights into the distribution of the potential benefits from biotechnology.
While a good grasp of the many separate aspects of agriculture is important, it is equally essential for all those involved in agriculture to understand the functioning of the farming system as a whole and how it can be best managed. It is necessary to re-assess and understand rain-fed farming systems around the world and to find ways to improve the selection, design and operation of such systems for long term productivity, profitability and sustainability. The components of the system must operate together efficiently; yet many of the relationships and interactions are not clearly understood. Appreciation of these matters and how they are affected by external influences or inputs are important for decision making and for achieving desirable outcomes for the farm as a whole. This book analyses common rain-fed farming systems and defines the principles and practices important to their effective functioning and management."
A lot of allelopathy research has been done in various fields of Agricultural and Plant Sciences. However, there is no compilation of various research methods used. To make available the standard methods for conducting allelopathy research independently, this multi-volume book has been planned. Since allelopathy is multi-disciplinary area of research, hence, volumes have been planned for each discipline. This book has been written to provide information about all aspects of Allelochemicals/Natural Products. The book is divided in 3 sections ? Sample Collection, Handling and Storage; Isolation, Identification and Structural Elucidation and Biological Activity of Natural Products. This book will serve as ready reference in the laboratory or class room to undergraduate and graudate students and Organic Chemists for Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Allelochemicals/Natural Products. The editors have tried to provide appropriate solutions to the problems of Isolation, Identification and Characterization of Allelochemicals/Natural Products. The users of this book can select suitable methods, according to the available facilities.
Emphasizes Centrality of the Ecosystem Perspective Sustainable management of agroecosystems in the 21st century faces unprecedented challenges. Protecting the environment while feeding a burgeoning population that could reach nine billion by mid-century, preserving the world's biodiversity, and sustaining agriculture in an increasingly urban world is a massive undertaking. Avoiding simple prescriptions for the application of ecological principles to agriculture, Sustainable Agroecosystem Management: Integrating Ecology, Economics, and Society emphasizes the continued centrality of the ecosystem perspective, and the need to integrate ecological, economic, and social considerations in agroecosystem science and management. Truly Interdisciplinary in Scope With contributions from distinguished leaders in the field of sustainable agriculture, this authoritative book first delineates the present and future challenges agroecosystems face. It then reviews the important contributions made by Dr. Ben Stinner, a pioneer in the field of agroecosystem ecology. Providing historical background of attempts to connect the ecological and agricultural sciences, this standard-setting resource highlights recent efforts to integrate natural and social science perspectives. It also examines the challenges for developing integrated approaches to agroecosystem management. Through a variety of case studies with global applications, the text makes it abundantly clear that purely technological approaches are insufficient for solving the food systems problems of the future. It explores practical innovative strategies, policies, and research needs necessary to develop management approaches that emphasize whole system productivity, diversify agricultural operations, and sustain multiple functions, including ecological integrity.
The global expansion of irrigated lands during the 20th century and beyond continues to contribute to food production, but also degrades the environment significantly. The consequent search for policy remedies has stimulated a vital body of economic research. The issues addressed in this comprehensive collection of previously published articles include the effects of existing government intervention on the environmental impacts of agriculture, the economic costs and benefits of environmental regulations for agriculture, and the economic and environmental merits of alternative mechanisms for water allocation and water quality protection. In this volume the editors present a sampling of economic research on the interface of irrigated agriculture with the environment. The articles included are by leading researchers in this field and span the topics of nonpoint pollution control, salinity management, and the allocation of water.
This famous book on botany was published for the first time in 1894 by Eduard Strasburger and his co-workers. The present edition is based on a translation of the 36th edition of the German "Strasburger" and contains additional contributions by renowned experts in the field. The "Strasburger" comprises a highly appealing and holistic approach to the structure, the systematics and evolution, the functioning, and ecology of plants. The book covers 14 chapters bundled into four main sections: (i) Molecular and morphological structure of plants and cells (ii) Physiology and metabolism (iii) Evolution and systematics of plants (iv) Ecology
Millets and sorghum are extremely important crops in many developing nations and because of the ability of many of them to thrive in low-moisture situations they represent some exciting opportunities for further development to address the continuing and increasing impact of global temperature increase on the sustainability of the world s food crops. The main focus of this thorough new book is the potential for crop improvement through new and traditional methods, with the book s main chapters covering the following crops: sorghum, pearl millet, finger millet, foxtail milet, proso millet, little millet, barnyard millet, kodo millet, tef and fonio. Further chapters cover pests and diseases, nutritional and industrial importance, novel tools for improvement, and seed systems in millets. Millets and Sorghum provides full and comprehensive coverage of these crucially important crops, their biology, world status and potential for improvement, and is an essential purchase for crop and plant scientists, and food scientists and technologists throughout the developed and developing world. All libraries in universities and research establishment where biological and agricultural sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important book on their shelves.
Building Beehives For Dummies (9781119544388) was previously published as Building Beehives For Dummies (9781118312940). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product. The easy way to build your own beehives and beekeeping equipment Building Beehives For Dummies is the follow-up book to the bestselling Beekeeping For Dummies. It provides everything you need to learn how to build some of the world's most popular hives and beekeeping accessories. For each design the book includes a detailed materials list (what lumber, hardware and fasteners you'll need), step-by-step building instructions, and illustrative drawings that show how the components all fit together. There are over a dozen plans in all, including the traditional Langstroth hive, the eight frame garden hive, designs for elevated hive stands, the Warre hive, screened bottom board, the Kenya top-bar hive, four-frame observation hive, hive top feeders, and more. The book contains introductory chapters that teach you the basic carpentry skills necessary to build any of the plans in the book. Whether you are a new beekeeper or a seasoned ol'timer, Building Beehives for Dummies provides you with the information you need to plan and succeed at building beehives (and other cool accessories). You'll discover what type of hive to build, hints on how to maintain your equipment, what bees need to stay happy and healthy, where to locate your hive, and much more. Covers "bee space," the critical technical measurement within a beehive that's crucial for easy inspection of your colonies Offers guidance on keeping both urban and suburban neighbors happy, getting proper permissions, and understanding regional laws and regulations Provides creative ideas for dressing up hives for fun and profit In today's world of self-sufficiency, back-to-basics and sustainability, building beehives is a fun hobby that both you and your bees will appreciate and benefit from.
This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channe ls. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
"A brilliantly readable account of double flowers, exploring everything from their many varieties to their biological development, their long history in our gardens and the powerful emotional responses they elicit. This supremely researched book will leave you appreciating double flowers as never before." - Stephen Blackmore, Queen's Botanist and former Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh With charms extending from the romantic allure of double roses and the attention-grabbing flamboyance of double tulips to the exquisite perfection of tiny double primroses, double flowers are among the most loved of our garden plants. Double Flowers is the first popular handbook to explore them in depth. Double flowers are simply flowers with a greater than normal number of petals or petal-like structures. They occur spontaneously in the wild and can also be selected and bred. This superbly illustrated guide - begun by bestselling garden writer Nicola Ferguson before her death in 2007, and completed by Charles Quest-Ritson - celebrates some of the many thousands of beautiful double flowers produced throughout history. The book examines how doubles have arisen; how they are constructed; how and where they will flourish; their particular appeal and how best to place them in the garden; and the advantages and disadvantages of such flowers - for gardeners, for flower-arrangers and for wildlife.
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