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Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
We are just beginning to discover the importance of vitamin C in the health of natural and man-made ecosystems. Synthesis of ascorbic acid is well understood, but algae as the only source of ascorbate in the aquatic food pyramid has not been explored. There is an expanding field of the culture of aquatic organisms that demand formulated feeds to best meet their requirements for health, growth, and reproduction. With over 100 species now cultured for human consumption, the question arises as to whether we have reliable information for the dietary needs for vitamin C for even a small percentage of these organisms. A comprehensive approach to the role of vitamin C at the cellular level as well as in the aquatic food chains, this book discusses growth and reproduction, disease resistance, and toxicology of aquatic organisms. Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms was written as the offshoot of a special session on aquatic organisms and practical aquaculture at the 1998 World Aquaculture Society (WAS) meeting. This book reviews the research already available and identifies new directions for research. It is a unique combination of good nutrition research, ecology, and practical aquaculture (for instance brine shrimp enrichment). This interdisciplinary volume will appeal to marine fish culturists, aquatic biologists, comparative and evolutionary cellular physiologists, and environmental toxicologists.
A complete overview of the technologies and products for microbial-based pest control. It documents the use of genetically altered Bt and transgenic crops, microbial formulations, and synergistic interactions of microbials with synthetic chemicals, as well as the management of Bt foliar applications and Bt genes in transgenic crops. The book includes case studies and pathogen, products and manufacturers indices.
The Sunday Times Top 10 bestseller. As seen on Channel 5's Our Yorkshire Farm. 'With its fizzing energy and celebration of nature and community, this is perfect comfort reading for uncertain times' Daily Mail ______________________________ Amanda Owen loves her traditional life on her hill farm alongside her nine children and husband Clive. And, as readers of her previous bestsellers will know, every day at Ravenseat brings surprises. In Adventures of the Yorkshire Shepherdess Amanda takes us from her family's desperate race to save a missing calf to finding her bra has been repurposed as a house martin's nest, and from wild swimming to the brutal winter that almost brought her to her knees. As busy as she is with her family and flock though, an exciting new project soon catches her eye . . . Ravenseat is a tenant farm and may not stay in the family, so when Amanda discovers a nearby farmhouse up for sale, she knows it is her chance to create roots for her children. The old house needs a lot of renovation and money is tight, so Amanda sets about the work herself, with some help from a travelling monk, a visiting plumber and Clive. It's fair to say things do not go according to plan! Funny, evocative and set in a remote and beautiful landscape, this book will delight anyone who has hankered after a new life in the country.
Sustainable Horticulture, Volume 2: Food, Health, and Nutrition addresses some of the most important topics facing horticulture around the world today. This volume, part of the two-volume compendium, focuses on research trends in sustainable horticulture that include postharvest management and processed food production from horticulture crops, crop protection and plant health management, and horticulture for human health and nutrition. Global food demand is expected to be double by 2050, while at the same time the production environment and natural resources are continually shrinking and deteriorating due to many complex factors. Horticulture, a major sector of agriculture, is vital to enhancing crop production and productivity in parity with agricultural crops to meet the emerging food demand. Implementing sustainable models of crop production is really an enormous endeavor. Promising technologies and management options are needed to increase productivity to meet the growing food demand despite deteriorating production environments.
This book explains how cultural heritage can be a tool for enhancing urban agriculture and improving landscape and life quality. It cuts across the existing literature and fills the gaps between urban agriculture, considered as a food, social and environmental opportunity and cultural heritage, considered as resource. It focuses the role of the countryside for urban areas, in the history of the city and today. Its attention is on the quality for all areas, both outstanding, ordinary and degraded, as well as large, little or fragmented (European landscape convention 2000). It considers agricultural landscape as a system of tangible and intangible heritage components and relationships, to be retained, enhanced and transmit, in a process of inevitable but appropriate dynamic conservation and management over time (ICOMOS-IFLA Principles 2017). This book can benefit the collaboration among local players - such as farmers, citizens, associations, public institutions, stakeholders - in conserving and enhancing agrarian heritage and reinforcing the identity of places and people. It can strengthen collective action and generate positive effects on good large and local -scale management. The first part has a methodological character in order to enlighten the integrated approach between cultural heritage and urban agriculture. The second part exemplifies cases where the heritage has been recognised but not yet translated into concrete action. The third Part discloses ongoing process of co-construction, where policies have recognized the cultural, environmental and social meaning of urban agriculture as heritage. This book aims to reach scholars, local administrations, professionals, farmers and citizens. It involves many authors, many of whom are directly engaged with action-research in safeguarding and implementing the mutual interaction between urban agriculture activities and agrarian heritage.
Genetic transformation is a key technology, in which genes are transferred from one organism to another in order to improve agronomic traits and ultimately help humans. However, there is apprehension in some quarters that genetically modified crops may disturb the ecosystem. A number of non-governmental organizations continue to protest against GM crops and foods, despite the fact that many organisms are genetically modified naturally in the course of evolution. In this context, there is a need to educate the public about the importance of GM crops in terms of food and nutritional security. This book provides an overview of various crop plants where genetic transformation has been successfully implemented to improve their agronomically useful traits. It includes information on the gene(s) transferred, the method of gene transfer and the beneficial effects of these gene transfers and agronomic improvements compared to the wild plants. Further, it discusses the commercial prospects of these GM crops as well as the associated challenges. Given its scope, this book is a valuable resource for agricultural and horticultural scientists/experts wanting to explain to the public, politicians and non-governmental organizations the details of GM crops and how they can improve crops and the lives of farmers.
Based on work by the Miombo Network in southern Africa, this book helps decision-makers and general readers alike improve their understanding of the socio-ecology of the Miombo woodlands across southern Africa. It also highlights the importance of and the need for further research on the unique Miombo ecology and its link with economic development. One major challenge facing these woodlands is the influence that direct (both natural and anthropogenic) and indirect drivers of change, as well as interactions between these, have had over the centuries. As such the book explores the socio-economic and ecological interactions that occur in these woodlands and discusses the need for further research to provide a better understanding of these interactions. Drawing on data and information from numerous studies conducted in the last 20 years, the book presents a comparative analysis of policy changes and management experiences in the countries concerned. It also addresses issues of global climate change, since they have an impact on Miombo ecosystem management and restoration, and provides future projections based on an assessment of how climate change has affected the Miombo woodlands in the past.
Achieving zero hunger and food security is a top priority in the United Nations Development Goals (UNDGs). In an era characterized by high population growth and increasing pressure on agricultural systems, efficiency in the use of natural resources has become central to sustainable agricultural practices. Fundamentally speaking, eco-efficiency is about maximizing agricultural outputs, in terms of quantity and quality, using less land, water, nutrients, energy, labor, or capital. The concept of eco-efficiency involves both the ecological and economic aspects of sustainable agriculture. It is therefore essential to understand the interaction of ecosystem constituents within the extensive agricultural landscape, as well as farmers' economic needs. This book examines the latest eco-efficient practices used in agro-systems. Drawing upon research and examples from around the world, it offers an up-to-date overview, together with insights into directly applicable approaches for poly-cropping systems and landscape-scale management to improve the stability of agricultural production systems, helping achieve food security. The book will be of interest to educators, researchers, climate change scientists, capacity builders and policymakers alike. It can also be used as additional reading material for undergraduate and graduate courses on agriculture, forestry, soil science, and the environmental sciences.
With interest growing in areas of forestry, conservation and other natural sciences, the need to organize and tabulate large amounts of forestry and natural science information has become a necessary skill. Previous attempts of applying statistical methods to these areas tend to be over-specialized and of limited use; an elementary text using methods, examples and exercises that are relevant to forestry and the natural sciences is long overdue. This book utilizes basic descriptive statistics and probability, as well as commonly used statistical inferential tools to introduce topics that are commonplace in a forestry context such as hypothesis texting, design of experiments, sampling methods, nonparametric tests and statistical quality control. It also contains examples and exercises drawn from the fields of forestry, wood science, and conservation.
Lameness is one of the major ailments of dairy cows. The distress it causes to the afflicted animals is reflected in decreased milk yields and an increase in infertility. Over the past twenty years, there has been a continuous programme of research in Britain and overseas into all aspects of the disease. In particular, our understanding of the changes in hoof growth around the time of calving has greatly increased. This enlarged and completely revised new edition takes into account all the recent research findings and presents the results in a readable manner. The highly illustrated text is fully referenced for students who wish to enquire further, but above all it is a straightforward manual for the practical use of those dealing with dairy cows.
This book focuses on irrigation sources together with water management for agricultural development in Uttar Pradesh state of India. Being the most populous state of the country, it bears a burden of feeding about 199 million people of which major section relies on agriculture for their subsistence. This study makes comparison in the growth trends in the irrigated area, crop land use patterns and crop productivity at the district level in different periods of time. The book emphasizes on irrigation water management to optimize crop yields in order to increase Water Productivity of crops in low productivity regions of the state applying suitable technology. This book appeals to researchers and students in geography and planning working on the topics of agriculture as well as irrigation and water management aspects.
The author has completely revised his book for the Fourth Edition, paying particular attention to recent developments in our understanding of gut worm resistance to medicines, the increased prevalence of Caseous lymphadenitis and changes to scrapie controls in the EU. Topics such as farm biosecurity and herd health plans have been added and the section on notifiable diseases expanded to make this a more comprehensive book on all aspects of goat disease. He also includes many new colour photographs (for the first time integrated with the text).
Amidst Mad Cow scares and consumer concerns about how farm animals are bred, fed, and raised, many farmers and homesteaders are rediscovering the traditional practice of pastoral farming. Grasses, clovers, and forbs are the natural diet of cattle, horses, and sheep, and are vital supplements for hogs, chickens, and turkeys. Consumers increasingly seek the health benefits of meat from animals raised in green paddocks instead of in muddy feedlots. In All Flesh Is Grass: The Pleasures and Promises of Pasture Farming, Gene Logsdon explains that well-managed pastures are nutritious and palatable-virtual salads for livestock. Leafy pastures also hold the soil, foster biodiversity, and create lovely landscapes. Grass farming might be the solution for a stressed agricultural system based on an industrial model and propped up by federal subsidies. In his clear and conversational style, Logsdon explains historically effective practices and new techniques. His warm, informative profiles of successful grass farmers offer inspiration and ideas. His narrative is enriched by his own experience as a "contrary farmer" on his artisan-scale farm near Upper Sandusky, Ohio. All Flesh Is Grass will have broad appeal to the sustainable commercial farmer, the home-food producer, and all consumers who care about their food.
Food security is once again an urgent international priority. Agricultural extension methods that relied on imposing centrally-developed technological solutions have been ineffective, since small farmers in developing countries often cultivate marginal lands, working under constraints for which these solutions were not designed. Since 2006, a flexible agricultural extension approach has been implemented in Northern Tanzania, inspired by the Farmer Field School approach, and offering farmers a basket of technology options from which farmers can choose what serves their needs and resources best. The focus is on extending improved low-cost farming techniques adaptable to local conditions in a pragmatic and flexible process. The interventions are locally known as RIPAT, and they have received financial and technical support from the Rockwool Foundation."Farmers Choice" outlines the RIPAT intervention, and examines how effective it has been. This evaluation of RIPAT brings together the analyses of economists, agricultural scientists, and anthropologists who studied the impact, implementation, adoption, and spread of the program approaches. They asked: what has been the impact on poverty and food security among participating farmers? How effective has the implementation of the program been? Which elements of the program have been most enthusiastically and enduringly adopted? This book relates the sometimes unexpected outcomes and benefits of the program among the farmers and their children."Farmers Choice" should be read by all those interested in improving the food security and incomes of poor farmers in the Global South: agricultural scientists, anthropologists, staff of NGOs, researchers and students of development studies."
Plants whose DNA is modified using genetic engineering techniques are known as transgenic plants. In most cases the aim is to introduce a new trait to the plant which does not occur naturally in this species. Examples include resistance to certain pests, diseases or environmental conditions, or the production of a certain nutrient or pharmaceutical agent. This book gathers and presents current research on transgenic plants including an examination of the release, persistence and transport of transgenic plant DNA in saturated and unsaturated mediums, such as soils and sediments; high-efficient plant cultivation with artificial light sources; the impact of three antibiotics on seed germination, hydroponic growth and nutritional qualities of vegetables; growth responses of Bt and non-Bt cottons to soil phosphorous, copper and cadmium levels; site-specific recombination systems for genome manipulation in transgenic plants; and amplification of small interfering RNAs in transgenic plants.
Across America, U.S. grain flows from farm to elevator to destinations around the world. The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA), Federal Grain Inspection Services (FGIS), an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), helps move that grain into the marketplace by providing farmers, grain handlers, processors, exporters, and international buyers with information that accurately and consistently describes the quality and quantity of grain being bought and sold. This book examines the nationally accepted grain standards and inspection procedures that provide producers, elevator operators, and others who trade grain with common terms for describing grain; a means for determining storability and end-product yield; and a framework for improving grain quality.
This book compiles information relevant to understanding soybean production processes and condenses it into a single volume. The authors identify production practices and bring together diverse information that suggests ways for producers to better utilize the soil and climatic resources of the midsouthern U.S. to enhance production of this valuable and versatile crop. This publication makes a special effort to focus on information that will enhance soybean production in the midsouth, where yields have been lower than those in the upper midwester n portion of the U.S., however, much of the information, such as statistics and crop models, will be applicable to other regions, from Texas to the Carolinas.
One-Straw Revolutionary represents the first commentary on the work of the late Japanese farmer and philosopher Masanobu Fukuoka (1913 - 2008), widely considered to be natural farming's most influential practitioner. Mr. Fukuoka is perhaps most known for his bestselling book The One-Straw Revolution (1978), a manifesto on the importance of no-till agriculture, which was at the time of publication a radical challenge to the global systems that supply the world's food, and still inspires readers today. Larry Korn, who apprenticed with Mr. Fukuoka in Japan at the time, translated the manuscript and brought it to the United States, knowing it would change the conversation about food forever. The One-Straw Revolution, edited by Korn and Wendell Berry, was an immediate international success, and established Mr. Fukuoka as a leading voice in the fight against conventional industrial agriculture. In this new book, through his own personal narrative, Larry Korn distills his experience of more than thirty-five years of study with Mr. Fukuoka, living and working on his farm on Shikoku Island, and traveling with Mr. Fukuoka to the United States on two six-week visits. One-Straw Revolutionary is the first book to look deeply at natural farming and intimately discuss the philosophy and work of Mr. Fukuoka. In addition to giving his personal thoughts about natural farming, Korn broadens the discussion by pointing out natural farming's kinship with the ways of indigenous cultures and traditional Japanese farming. At the same time, he clearly distinguishes natural farming from other forms of agriculture, including scientific and organic agriculture and permaculture. Korn also clarifies commonly held misconceptions about natural farming in ways Western readers can readily understand. And he explains how natural farming can be used practically in areas other than agriculture, including personal growth and development. The book follows the author on his travels from one back-to-the-land commune to another in the countryside of 1970s Japan, a journey that eventually led him to Mr. Fukuoka's natural farm. Korn's description of his time there, as well as traveling with Mr. Fukuoka during his visits to the United States, offers a rare, inside look at Mr. Fukuoka's life. Readers will delight in this personal insight into one of the world's leading agricultural thinkers.
In the last few years, with increasing frequency, modern medicine directs attention to natural products with biological and therapeutic properties and their use in clinical practice. The major arguments for implementing natural products, such as honey, are low cost and the absence of antimicrobial resistance risk. This book presents original current research and clinical results on the leading edge of honey research. Topics discussed include the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of honey; possible anticancer and anti-diabetic properties of honey; immunomodulatory effects of honey on cutenous and immune cells during wound healing process; topical applications of honey and the use of honey in the treatment of burns, non-healing wounds and eye diseases.
This book forms the proceedings of the 18th European ICID conference on irrigation and drainage. Water is not a free commodity and demand is becoming more and more intense for its allocation. This book focuses on the role of irrigation and drainage in the debate on water and should be of interest to planners, designers, policy makers in the water industry, national and local government, academic researchers and environment agencies.
Tropical fruits such as banana, mango, papaya, and pineapple are familiar and treasured staples of our diets, and consequently of great commercial importance, but there are many other interesting species that are little known to inhabitants of temperate regions. What delicacies are best known only by locals? The tropical regions are home to a vast variety of edible fruits, tubers, and spices. Of the more than two thousand species that are commonly used as food in the tropics, only about forty to fifty species are well known internationally. Illustrated with high-quality photographs taken on location in the plants' natural environment, this field guide describes more than three hundred species of tropical and subtropical species of fruits, tubers, and spices.In Tropical Fruits and Other Edible Plants of the World, Rolf Blancke includes all the common species and features many lesser known species, including mangosteen and maca, as well as many rare species such as engkala, sundrop, and the mango plum. Some of these rare species will always remain of little importance because they need an acquired taste to enjoy them, they have too little pulp and too many seeds, or they are difficult to package and ship. Blancke highlights some fruits-the araza (Eugenia stipitata) and the nutritious peach palm (Bactris gasipaes) from the Amazon lowlands, the Brunei olive (Canarium odontophyllum) from Indonesia, and the remarkably tasty soursop (Annona muricata) from Central America-that deserve much more attention and have the potential to become commercially important in the near future.Tropical Fruits and Other Edible Plants of the World also features tropical plants used to produce spices, and many tropical tubers, including cassava, yam, and oca. These tubers play a vital role in human nutrition and are often foundational to the foodways of their local cultures, but they sometimes require complex preparation and are often overlooked or poorly understood distant from their home context.
Sub-Saharan Africa has an irrigation potential of about 42 million hectares of which only 17% is developed. Despite several investments in irrigation the growth is slow. This study aims at helping to achieve sustainable irrigation in sub-Saharan Africa, through gaining a better understanding of productive irrigation water use and effective management of irrigation development. The study is conducted in the White Volta sub-basin specifically in Northern Ghana and Southern Burkina Faso which have been experiencing rapid irrigation development since the mid 1990s. The study identified growing markets for irrigated products as an important driving force behind the expansion of irrigation which has given rise to new technologies. The new technologies have spread because they gave farmers direct control over water sources. These new technologies allow relatively small farm sizes which can be adequately managed by the surveyed farmers. As a result high productivities are achieved. The hydrological impact of upscaling irrigation in the sub-basin is sustainable and will maximize the overall benefits derived from water resources in the Volta Basin.
This book represents an original research contribution in the area of aroma volatile biochemistry and the molecular analysis of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars of India. It demonstrates the utility of headspace-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with the gas chromatography-flame ionization detection (GC-FID) method, an approach that can help to understand not only the different volatiles contributing to pleasant aroma but also the volatile profile that generates the characteristic cultivar-specific aroma. In addition, the book provides detailed information on diversity, grain morphology, physico-chemical and cooking quality assessment, genetic diversity assessment and marker validation for important quality parameters. As such, it offers a valuable ready reference for agriculture scientists, biochemists, researchers and students involved in quality parameters of rice at the regional and global level.
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