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This book deals with the basic principles of husbandry, feeding, housing, health, behaviour, economics and welfare. It explains relevant aspects of calf function and evaluates conventional and novel husbandry systems in terms of their effects on animal performance, health and welfare.
8 lectures, Koberwitz, June 7-20, 1924 (CW 327) The audio book, complete and unabridged (10 CD set), is read by respected actor and speech teacher Peter Bridgmont, author of Liberation of the Actor When Rudolf Steiner gave these lectures eighty years ago, industrial farming was on the rise and organic methods were being replaced in the name of science, efficiency, and technology. With the widespread alarm over food quality in recent years, and with the growth of the organic movement and its mainstream acceptance, perceptions are changing. The qualitative aspect of food is on the agenda again, and in this context Steiner's only course of lectures on agriculture is critical to the current debate. With these talks, Steiner created and launched "biodynamic" farming--a form of agriculture that has come to be regarded as the best organically produced food. However, the agriculture Steiner speaks of here is much more than organic--it involves working with the cosmos, with the earth, and with spiritual beings. To facilitate this, Steiner prescribes specific "preparations" for the soil, as well as other distinct methods born from his profound understanding of the material and spiritual worlds. He presents a comprehensive picture of the complex dynamic relationships at work in nature and gives basic indications of the practical measures needed to bring them into full play. These lectures are reprinted here in the "classic" translation made by Rudolf Steiner's English interpreter, George Adams. This edition also features a preface by Steiner's colleague the medical doctor Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, as well as eight color plates. This is the course that began the biodynamic movement. Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course is the essential work for anyone wanting to understand and use Steiner's methods of food production. This book is a translation from German of Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft. Landwirtschaftlicher Kursus (GA 327).
This book summarizes studies on climate and ecosystem change adaptation and resilience in Africa (CECAR-Africa), a collaboration with the goal of creating an integrated resilience enhancement strategy as a potential model for semi-arid regions across Sub-Saharan Africa by combining climate change and ecosystem change research. The case studies were conducted at multiple scales - local, national, and regional - and incorporate the natural sciences, social sciences and engineering in a transdisciplinary manner while also integrating the needs of local communities. The book chiefly addresses three thematic areas, namely: Forecast and assessment of climate change impacts on agro-ecosystems; Risk assessment of extreme weather hazards and development of adaptive resource management methods; and Implementing capacity development programs for local leaders and practitioners. The collaborative nature of the project and the use of various quantitative and qualitative research technique s and methods - such as field surveys, questionnaires, focus group discussions, land use and cover change analysis, and climate downscaled modeling - make the book truly unique. Especially at a time when both long-term climate change and short-term extreme weather events such as droughts and floods are worsening, this book offers potential approaches to developing an integrated framework for assessing the local ability to cope with floods and droughts, and for enhancing the resilience of farming communities in developing countries, which are the most vulnerable to these changes and extreme weather events. As such, it will be of interest to a wider audience, including academics, professionals, and government officials alike.
Not only is the cod one of the most valuable marine food fish it is also important as a predator in ocean ecosystems and is the subject of a great deal of research into its biology and exploitation. In recent years world stocks of commercially fished cod have collapsed, most famously the Northern cod stocks of the North East Coast of Canada. Now, massively falling catches in the North Sea have led to the recent heavy cuts in catch quotas. This important book is a comprehensive handbook, covering all major aspects of the cod including biology, ecology, life histories, behaviour, commercial exploitation and conservation. Written by world experts on the species, this book is an essential purchase for all fisheries scientists, managers and fish biologists.
Already renowned as a user-friendly beginners guide to soil science, Soil Science Simplified, 6th Edition is an updated version of the beloved textbook that includes even more thorough applications of soil science to interdisciplinary fields. It includes the most recent research concerning uses of soil in municipal, engineering, and other areas, conversion agriculture covering no-till, hoe-till, and the methodology of cover crops, crop rotations, N contribution, and worldwide trends in conversion agriculture. The experienced authors have fully revised and updated the fundamental chapters on physical, chemical, and biological properties to create an ideal introductory text.
Agriculture as a social-ecological system embraces many disciplines. This book breaks through the silos of individual disciplines to bring ecologists and economists together to consider agriculture through the lens of resilience. It explores the economic, environmental and social uncertainties that influence the behaviour of agricultural producers and their subsequent farming approach, highlighting the importance of adaptability, innovation and capital reserves in enabling agriculture to persist under climate change and market volatility. The resilience concept and its relation to complexity theory is explained and the characteristics that foster resilience in agricultural systems, including the role of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are explored. The book discusses modelling tools, metrics and approaches for assessing agricultural resilience, highlighting areas where interdisciplinary thinking can enhance the development of resilience. It is suitable for those researching sustainable agriculture or those engaged in agricultural policy decisions and analysis, as well as students of ecology, agriculture and socioeconomics.
Beekeeping's popularity as a hobby continues to skyrocket. Beekeeper's Lab gives you 52 bee-inspired labs to do all year long, and are accessible enough to share with the family. Fill the year ahead with weekly activities from around and about the hive, including art projects, recipes, experiments, garden activities, and more! Bees are important to local ecosystems, now more than ever. Whether you're already a beekeeper, or are still considering getting your first hive, Beekeeper'sLab has projects perfect for you. This extensive guide book features 52 beekeeping and hive-inspired projects to keep you involved with your bees and hive all year long. The tutorials are brief, accomplishable, rewarding, and best of all, they are presented in a friendly lab-style format. Try a new technique each week with how-tos and sidebars with tips that are perfect for including the whole family. Beekeeping is a fun hobby for the whole family to enjoy, plus, who doesn't want their own supply of honey?
Examine the world's leading aquaculture producers! Sustainable Aquaculture: Global Perspectives is a one-of-a-kind primer on the world's leading sources of aquatic production, presenting expert commentary that includes the latest advancements, developments, and research findings. The book examines essential elements of aquaculture (water quality, nutrition, genetics, culture methods) and addresses problems such as over-fishing, coastal and wetland destruction, and habitat and environmental degradation. Sustainable Aquaculture: Global Perspectives addresses policy measures that are essential for the long-term sustainability of the world's fisheries and the long-term employment of those who rely on the aquaculture industry for their livelihood. As the world's population increases at an alarming rate, the question of how to ensure global food security is one of extreme importance. But the world's total yield is below expectations and the book examines the reasons why: the under-utilization of natural resources, the lack of adoption of modern scientific methods, the lack of standardized, proven pond fertilization protocols; long-term inbreeding and the loss of genetic variability due to genetic drift. Sustainable Aquaculture: Global Perspectives also addresses: freshwater pearl culture breeding programs pond fertilization regimes fish diseases in tropical climates indoor recirculating culture systems water quality management for shrimp farming and much more! With much of its information available in one place for the first time, Sustainable Aquaculture: Global Perspectives is invaluable as a textbook for introductory aquaculture courses and is an essential resource for professionals and researchers.
When farmers own their own land they are more likely to produce more food and to farm the land in a sustainable way. Dramatic increases in food output have occurred when farmers have been given land under agrarian reform programmes.;In the early 1990s the world is facing a desperate situation over food supplies for millions of people, many of whom are hungry to the point of starvation. And with little "new" land available to bring into production, world population is set to increase by 50% over the next 30 years. It is therefore vital that existing land is worked in the best possible way, to sustain both present and future generations.;Drawing on the experiences of farmers in Africa, Asia and Latin America, "Land is Life" explores some of the issues involved. It includes papers that were presented to a conference in Berlin in November 1991, called "Soil for Life: Promoting Sustainable Land Use", which was organized by two non-governmental organizations, the German-based Stiftung Entwicklung und Frieden (Foundation Development and Peace) and the Swedist-based Right Livelihood Award. This was probably the first international conference to link up the issues of sustainable agriculture
This single volume explores the theoretical and the practical aspects of crop physiological processes around the world The marked decrease over the past century in the land available for crop production has brought about mounting pressure to increase crop yields, especially in developing nations. Physiology of Crop Production provides cutting-edge research and data for complete coverage of the physiology of crop production, all in one source, right at your fingertips. This valuable reference gives the extensive in-depth information soil and crop professionals need to maximize crop productivity anywhere the world. Leading soil and plant scientists and researchers clearly explain theory, practical applications, and the latest advances in the field. Crop physiology is a vital science needed to understand crop growth and development to facilitate increases of plant yield. Physiology of Crop Production presents a wide range of information and references from varying regions of the world to make the book as complete and broadly focused as possible. Discussion in each chapter is supported by experimental data to make this book a superb resource that will be used again and again. Chapter topics include plant and root architecture, growth and yield components, photosynthesis, source-sink relationship, water use efficiency, crop yield relative to water stress, and active and passive ion transport. Several figures and tables accompany the extensive referencing to provide a detailed, in-depth look at every facet of crop production. Physiology of Crop Production explores management strategies for: ideal plant architecture maximizing root systems ideal yield components maximizing photosynthesis maximizing source-sink relationship sequestration of carbon dioxide reducing the effects of drought improving N, P, K, Ca, Mg, and S nutrition improving micronutrient uptake Physiology of Crop Production is an essential desktop resource for plant physiologists, soil and crop scientists, breeders, agronomists, agronomy administrators in agro-industry, educators, and upper-level undergraduate and graduate students.
This book is a compilation of writings focused on conventional and unconventional insect products. Some of these products are commercials successes, while others are waiting to be launched and are the potential produce of the future. In addition to the well known products honey, mulberry silk, and lac, the book primarily concentrates on silk producing insects other than the mulberry silkworm, insects as food, as sources of medicines, pest and weed managers, and as pollinators. The book highlights the all pervasive role of insects in improving human lives at multiple levels. Accordingly, while most books on insects concentrate on how to limit growth in their population, it instead focuses on how to propagate them. In each chapter, the book brings to the fore how insects are far more beneficial to us than their well publicised harmful roles. This book approaches both unconventional and conventional insect products, such as honey, silk and lac in much more depth than the available literature. It investigates different aspects of the production of these insects, such as the related processes, problems and utilities, in dedicated chapters. Because this book deals with the production of insects or their produce, it has been named Industrial Entomology, perhaps the only book that truly reveals the tremendous potential of insects to help humans live better lives. Based on the research and working experience of the contributors, who are global experts in their respective fields, it provides authentic, authoritative and updated information on these topics. The book offers a unique guide for students, teachers, policy planners, small scale industrialists, and government ministries of agriculture and industry across the globe. It will provide a much required stimulus to insect appreciation and generate enthusiasm for research and the broader acceptance for insect produce. Hopefully, it will also present the Indian perspective on these topics to a global readership.
A guide for farmers on recognising and treating pig infertility.
All gardeners and farmers should be plant breeders, says author Carol Deppe. Developing new vegetable varieties doesn't require a specialized education, a lot of land, or even a lot of time. It can be done on any scale. It's enjoyable. It's deeply rewarding. You can get useful new varieties much faster than you might suppose. And you can eat your mistakes.
Authoritative and easy-to-understand, Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties: The Gardener's and Farmer's Guide to Plant Breeding and Seed Saving is the only guide to plant breeding and seed saving for the serious home gardener and the small-scale farmer or commercial grower. Discover:
how to breed for a wide range of different traits (flavor, size, shape, or color; cold or heat tolerance; pest and disease resistance; and regional adaptation)
how to save seed and maintain varieties
how to conduct your own variety trials and other farm- or garden-based research
how to breed for performance under organic or sustainable growing methods
In this one-size-fits-all world of multinational seed companies, plant patents, and biotech monopolies, more and more gardeners and farmers are recognizing that they need to "take back their seeds." They need to save more of their own seed, grow and maintain the best traditional and regional varieties, and develop more of their own unique new varieties. Breed Your Own Vegetable Varieties: The Gardener's and Farmer's Guide to Plant Breeding and Seed Saving shows the way, and offers an exciting introduction to a whole new gardening adventure.
Covering the most important pathogens, this handbook provides clear, concise descriptions of the symptoms and cycles of diseases and disorders, and the pests that commonly prey on potato crops, their distribution and importance, and advice on their control. The text is illustrated with some 235 superb color photographs of affected crops to aid in the rapid and accurate identification of disease. It provides a practical reference for professionals and students involved with potato production, handling, and storage worldwide.
For more than two thousand years, Ethiopia's ox-plow agricultural system was the most efficient and innovative in Africa, but has been afflicted in the recent past by a series of crises: famine, declining productivity, and losses in biodiversity. James C. McCann analyzes the last two hundred years of agricultural history in Ethiopia to determine whether the ox-plow agricultural system has adapted to population growth, new crops, and the challenges of a modern political economy based in urban centers. This agricultural history is set in the context of the larger environmental and landscape history of Ethiopia, showing how farmers have integrated crops, tools, and labor with natural cycles of rainfall and soil fertility, as well as with the social vagaries of changing political systems. McCann traces characteristic features of Ethiopian farming, such as the single-tine scratch plow, which has retained a remarkably consistent design over two millennia, and a crop repertoire that is among the most genetically diverse in the world. People of the Plow provides detailed documentation of Ethiopian agricultural practices since the early nineteenth century by examining travel narratives, early agricultural surveys, photographs and engravings, modern farming systems research, and the testimony of farmers themselves, collected during McCann's five years of fieldwork. He then traces the ways those practices have evolved in the twentieth century in response to population growth, urban markets, and the presence of new technologies.
In many ways this book tells a familiar story in British industry: of innovation and enterprise in the early decades ...of worldwide dominance at a time when Britain was the workshop of the world ...of wars and economic downturns ...of foreign competition ...and of relative and absolute decline on the path of - de-industrialisation in the latter part of the twentieth century. For most of this period the farm machine industry grew and matured. It is an inspiring story of technological achievement and of industrial success, as farmers and engineers brought iron and steel to fields which had - previously been the domain of locally made timber implements and power provided by horses.Agricultural technology moved on, inexorably, from broad-cast seed and the sound of the threshing flail, via the portable steam engine and the threshing machine, right through to the modern world of giant tractors - each with the power of 200 horses - combine harvesters and - impressively efficient farming methods.This book traces the broad sweep of the whole industry over 200 years, looking at many individual companies and products to explain how and why the farm machinery industry developed in the way it did. Important individual machines are described and illustrated in detail. The British farm machine industry is unlikely ever again to be large by world standards, nor to dominate the world stage as once it did. Yet the author traces a rich vein of innovation, enterprise and technological inspiration, often taking place within the large number of relatively small-scale, craft-based workshops which were so prevalent in the early decades. Rather than mere manufacturing, therefore, perhaps it is this tradition of technical innovation and invention which marked out the British farm machinery industry for historical greatness, and perhaps it is this tradition which will continue to mark it out in the future.
Miombo forest occurs in a swathe across central and southern Africa, including parts of Zambia, Zimbabwe, Angola, Zaire, Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania. It is rich in tree life, and has enormous value as a wildlife habitat. Traditionally shifting cultivators have farmed in miombo, and allowed it to regenerate, but increasingly the demands for fuelwood have resulted in deforestation.;This text provides comprehensive details of the climate, environment, ecology and species characteristics of miombo, and describes methods for assessing the timber and other resources, through inventories, in order to use the forest sustainably. Management guidelines give practical advice on propagation and harvesting techniques, as well as discussing how to design plans to conserve biodiversity and to protect water catchments.
What's not to love about goats? They will feed you, clean up the overgrown mess in the fields, and take long hikes with you while carrying your supplies. They will make you laugh when you're sad, provide extra income for even the smallest farm, carry you to town and back in a little cart, and perhaps best of all, they will gaze upon your face with earnest adoration. If you have dreams of becoming a goat farmer, The Joy of Keeping Goats can help you turn that dream into a reality. In this comprehensive manual you'll learn about the different goat breeds, as well as everything from goat housing systems to feeding, health, and breeding. For those who are excited about the prospect of keeping goats for their deliciously sweet milk and low-fat, nutritious meat, author Laura Childs will walk you through the milking process, and then offer suggestions for what to do with all that milk (Goat milk feta cheese anyone?), and provides a recipe for curried goat, a traditional Caribbean dish. As you embark on this adventure, you'll discover the joy in keeping them, learning about their care, and getting to know each goat's individual personality.
This famous book on botany was published for the first time in 1894 by Eduard Strasburger and his co-workers. The present edition is based on a translation of the 36th edition of the German "Strasburger" and contains additional contributions by renowned experts in the field. The "Strasburger" comprises a highly appealing and holistic approach to the structure, the systematics and evolution, the functioning, and ecology of plants. The book covers 14 chapters bundled into four main sections: (i) Molecular and morphological structure of plants and cells (ii) Physiology and metabolism (iii) Evolution and systematics of plants (iv) Ecology
This book discusses the latest developments in our understanding of microbial endophytes, their ecology, diversity and potential biotechnological applications. It covers all the latest advances concerning the endophytic interaction of microorganisms in a wide array of plants, reported on by experts from the entire globe. The diverse microbial community, which consists of archaeal, bacterial, fungal and protistic taxa, can be found in all plants. The endophytic lifecycle reveals how microorganisms play essential roles in plant growth, fitness and diversification. Diversity is an integral component of ecology. In soil ecology, below-ground interactions of plant and microorganisms are accomplished by endophytes, which reside in the plant's internal tissues. The microbial world in general and endophytes in particular reflect a unique degree of genetic and functional (metabolic) diversity. Currently, significant attention is being paid to endophytic microorganisms, as their repertoire of cells and metabolites hold immense potential with regard to biotechnological applications for sustainable development. The diversity of bacterial endophytes guarantees that there are endophytes capable of forming compatible associations with all agronomically important plants, including monocots and dicots. The study of endophytes' diverse nature in connection with biodiesel, medicinal and agriculturally important crop can lead to a better understanding of applicable facets. The topics in this dynamic field of study are so diverse and vast. This volume will benefit all botanists, microbiologists, ecologists, plant pathologists, physiologists, agronomists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists and NGOs working to protect species and prevent the loss of biologically significant genetic material.
Nutrition is a very broad discipline, encompassing biochemistry, physiology, endocrinology, immunology, microbiology and pathology. Presenting the major principles of nutrition of both domestic and wild animals, this book takes a comparative approach, recognising that there are considerable differences in nutrient digestion, metabolism and requirements among various mammalian and avian species. Explaining species differences in food selection, food-seeking and digestive strategies and their significance to nutritional needs, chapters cover a broad range of topics including digestive physiology, metabolic disorders and specific nutrients such as carbohydrates proteins and lipids, with particular attention being paid to nutritional and metabolic idiosyncrasies. It is an essential text for students of animal and veterinary sciences.
Fermentation and the use of micro-organisms is one of the most important aspects of food processing - an industry that is worth billions of US dollars world-wide. Integral to the making of goods ranging from beer and wine to yogurt and bread, it is the common denominator between many of our favorite things to eat and drink. In this updated and expanded second edition of Food, Fermentation, and Micro-organisms, all known food applications of fermentation are examined. Beginning with the science underpinning food fermentations, the author looks at the relevant aspects of microbiology and microbial physiology before covering individual foodstuffs and the role of fermentation in their production, as well as the possibilities that exist for fermentation's future development and application. Many chapters, particularly those on cheese, meat, fish, bread, and yoghurt, now feature expanded content and additional illustrations. Furthermore, a newly included chapter looks at indigenous alcoholic beverages. Food, Fermentation, and Micro-organisms, Second Edition is a comprehensive guide for all food scientists, technologists, and microbiologists working in the food industry and academia today. The book will be an important addition to libraries in food companies, research establishments, and universities where food studies, food science, food technology and microbiology are studied and taught.
The monoculture systems that have been encouraged by governments since the 1960s have led to major socio-economic and environmental crises. Now the diversification of tree crop systems is advancing throughout the tropics. Why and when does diversification take place? What categories of farmers diversify? What obstacles do they have to overcome, and how do public and private policies interfere in this process? How do land use systems and landscapes evolve as a result of this diversification? According to the authors of this volume, diversification is certainly a response to market risks, but also to the depletion of environmental resources. Ecological changes such as declining soil fertility and increasing pressure from pests, diseases and weeds intensify at the end of monoculture cycles, driving crop change and diversification of farming systems. Through 15 case studies from Africa, Latin America, Asia and the Pacific, the authors provide us with in-depth insights into the economy and ecology of family agriculture and its recent developments.
"Growing Green: Animal-Free Organic Techniques" is an essential guide about organic growing and is perfect for absolute beginners as well as experienced professionals. This book introduces the concept of stockfree-organic and shows, through case studies, that when growers abandon the use of slaughterhouse by-products and manures they can be rewarded with healthier crops, less weeds, pests and diseases. In an age where dreams of self-sufficiency seem unattainable, "Growing Green" shows that making a living from growing organic vegetables can be achieved by anyone who is willing to rent land. Until now there have been no comprehensive guidelines on how to follow the organic standards at the different scales of vegetable production using tractors, small machinery and hand tools. This practical and easy-to-follow guide answers: What tools and machinery will I need? What are the benefits of compost? How do I manage different green manures? Can I make seed compost without slaughterhouse by-products? What rotations should I use for year-round vegetable supply? How do I grow, harvest and store 60 different vegetables? How can I weed without chemicals? How can I reduce pest and diseases? How can I encourage wildlife? Where should I sell my produce? How can I ensure that I am reducing my ecological footprint? An invaluable guide for the grower, researcher and student; this book will prove to be an important step forward for the organic movement.
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