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This volume is a collection of informative chapters on various subjects. It provides information on the effects of pesticides on avian fauna, the impact of microbial ecosystems to solve environmental problems, a detailed review on issues in membrane distillations process, microbial sensor for detection of pollutants, microbial biosurfactants, biotechnological applications of immobilised microalgae as well as a review on Biochar production. Most importantly, this book contains a critical review on microbial degradation of plastic wastes and highlights the Biodegradation and Bioremediation of Herbicides.
This book catalogues the multi-scale impact of agronomy and economy on Cardamom, known as the "Queen" of spices. Cardamom is the second most important spice crop in the world, after Black pepper, known as the "King" of spices. Spices were the symbols of luxury and royalty, and cardamom was used in the manufacture of perfumes during the Greek and Roman times. It became one of the most important Oriental spices used in both Greek and Roman cuisine as well as its pharmacological applications. The book is divided into 15 chapters and concentrates on aspects of cardamom production and processing, the taxonomic aspects of cardamom, chemistry, pathology, entomology and is concluded with the future of cardamom. Special emphasis is given to the utility of "The Nutrient Buffer Power Concept", a soil management technique in precise fertilizer management, especially with regard to Potassic fertilizers in cardamom production.
In China, as elsewhere, the debate over genetically modified organisms has become polarized into anti- and pro-GMO camps. Given the size of China's population and market, much is at stake in conflicts over regulation for domestic as well as international actors. In this book, Cong Cao provides an even-handed analysis that illuminates the tensions that have shaped China's policy toward agricultural biotechnology in a global perspective. Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China's policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has shifted that explains how China's changing GMO stances reflect its evolving position on the world stage. While China's scientific community has set the agenda, it has encountered resistance rooted in concerns over food safety and consumers' rights as well as issues of intellectual property rights and food sovereignty. Although Chinese leaders at first sought to take advantage of the biotech revolution by promoting GMO crop consumption, Cao demonstrates that policy has since become precautionary, as seen in new laws and regulations grounded in concerns over safety and the deferral of commercialization of GM rice. He presents China's policies in light of changing global attitudes toward GM crops: As shifts in China have closely followed global trends, so has domestic activism. Drawing on government and scientific documents as well as interviews with scientists, officials, policy analysts, activists, and journalists, GMO China is an important book for China studies, science and technology studies, policy analysts, and professionals interested in the Chinese biotechnology market.
There is more sugar in the world's diet than ever before, but life is far from sweet for the exploited producers making nature's 'white gold' and the unhealthy consumers eating it. Why has the billion-dollar sugar trade created such inequities? In this insightful analysis, Ben Richardson argues that the most compelling answers to this question can be found in the dynamics of global capitalism. Led by multinational companies, the mass consumption of sweetened snacks has taken hold in the Global South and underpinned a new wave of foreign investment in sugar production. The expansion of large-scale and highly-industrialised farms across Latin America, Asia and Africa has kept the price of sugar down whilst pushing workers out of jobs and rural dwellers off the land. However, challenges to these practices are gathering momentum. Health advocates warning against costly diseases like diabetes, trade unions fighting for better pay, and local residents campaigning for a cleaner environment are all re-shaping the way sugar is consumed and produced. But to truly transform sugar, Richardson contends, these political activities must also address the profit-driven nature of food and farming itself.
This book is a fully updated amalgamation of two previously published titles - Growing Vines (1972) and Wines from your Vines (1974). It is concise, yet detailed, and covers all aspects from planting the vines through cropping and vinification to enjoying the final product. The quality of English wine is constantly improving and this book will help the amateur to produce high-quality wine from home-grown grapes providing the right varieties are used and the simple rules followed.
Perhaps the least appreciated dramatis personae in human history are plants. Humans, like all other animals, cannot produce their own food as plants do through photosynthesis, and must therefore acquire organic material for survival and growth by eating plants or by eating other animals that eat plants. Humans depend on plants not only as a food source, but also as building and clothing materials and as sources of medicines, psychoactive substances, spices, pigments, and more. With plants being such valuable resources, it is therefore not surprising that plants have been involved in practically all violent conflicts among different human societies. Ironically, plants have also been the source of materials to construct weapons or weapon parts. Wars have always constituted a large part of human history, and the overall theme of this book is that to understand the history of violent human conflict, we need to understand what specific materials plants make that people find so useful and worth fighting over, and what roles such plant products have played in specific conflicts. To do so, Plants and Human Conflict begins with a chapter explaining the basic biological facts of the interdependence between plants and humans, and the subsequent seven chapters describe the physical and chemical properties of specific plant products demonstrating how the human need for these products has led to wars as well as contributed to the prosecution of wars. These chapters recount some well-known (and some lesser known) historical events in which plants have played a central role. This book uniquely combines the modern scientific knowledge of plants with the human history of war, introducing readers to a new paradigm that will make them reconsider their understanding of human history, as well as to bring about a greater appreciation of plant biology.
This second edition of Natural Enemies will give students, professionals, and anyone wishing to learn the basics of biological control a fully updated and thorough introduction. The book discusses the huge diversity of organisms used in the control of pests, weeds and plant pathogens, and compares the many different strategies referred to as 'biological control': the introduction of exotic natural enemies, application of predators, parasitoids, and microorganisms as biopesticides, and manipulation of the environment to enhance natural enemy populations. The authors present the ecological concepts which form the bases of biological control and discuss recent changes to make biological control safe for the environment. Case studies are included throughout, providing in-depth examples of the use of different organisms and strategies in a variety of ecosystems. A new chapter covers the current challenges; the impact of climate change, the problem of invasive species, and how biological control can aid sustainability.
Is natural gas the 'bridge' to our low-carbon future? In power generation, industrial processes, parts of the transportation sector, and for domestic use, natural gas still has the potential to play a greater role in various energy transition pathways around the world. But such a future is by no means certain. In this book, Michael Bradshaw and Tim Boersma offer a sober and balanced assessment of the place of natural gas in the global energy mix today, and the uncertainties that cloud our understanding of what that role may look like in the future. They argue that natural gas has become prominent in recent decades, spurred by two revolutions: the first has been the rise of unconventional natural gas production, and the second the coming of age of the market for liquefied natural gas (LNG). However, a third revolution is required to secure natural gas' long-term role in various energy transition pathways, as countries are increasingly pushing to address air quality concerns and curtail greenhouse gas emissions. This revolution has to take place as politicians, citizens, investors and shareholders are becoming increasingly vocal about the need to improve the environmental footprint of the fuel, while simultaneously, and perhaps paradoxically, demand for it continues to grow, in a world where geopolitical challenges seem to be mounting.
Soil is a vital support system for all life forms, and is directly or indirectly exposed to various pollutants and harmful chemicals. Any pollutant entering the soil system not only affects the quality of the soil, but also the plants and crops growing in it. Further, soil pollution has far-reaching impacts, since harmful chemicals can become biomagnified and enter the food chain, causing severe health concerns. Degraded soils can adversely affect various plant systems by creating biotic and abiotic stress, which increases the chances of biochemical and physiological disorders. Chronic diseases and lower yield have been reported as consequences of soil pollution. Drawing on decades of soil-related research, this book focuses on soil pollution, types of soil pollutants, and their impacts on plant physiological and biochemical systems, along with crop productivity. The book begins with a brief introduction to soil pollution and continues with a discussion of the different types and their effects, together with remediation methods. It highlights various sources of soil pollution such as herbicides, acidification, chemical fertilizers, sewage sludge, heavy metals, and radioactive pollutants. It also covers plant responses to combinations of pollutants, effects of pollutants on plant ultrastructure, interactions between pollutants and plant diseases, and interactions between pollutants and agricultural practices. In closing, it addresses the challenges involved in the restoration of degraded land, side effects of agricultural practices in the form of greenhouse gases, and strategies for mitigating these effects. Plant Responses to Soil Pollution offers an essential guide for students, environmental consultants, researchers and other professionals involved in soil and plant-related research.
Teucrium species are an intersting object of research in the various aspects of science with multiple applications. With more than 300 species, Teucrium is one of the largest and well distributed genera of the Lamiaceae family. Known medicinal Teucrium species have a long traditional use as well as different potential applications in pharmacy, food and beverage industry. Teucrium species are very rich in a variety of secondary metabolites with significant biological activities. Based on that, the book contains 15 chapters which discusses recent advances in exploring the unique features of Teucrium species including morphology, systematics, taxonomy, biogeography, ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological activity such as genotoxic, antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anticancer, anticholinesterase, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activity of secondary metabolites as well as applications including current challenges and further perspectives. Some medicinal Teucrium species in excessive use can cause certain consequences. This phenomenon and precaution is also described. Whilst this book is primarily aimed at scientists, researchers, beginners in the investigations of Teucrium species, graduate and post-graduate students in biology, botany, biotechnology, agriculture, and pharmacy, as well as science enthusiasts and practitioners involved in medicinal plants applications. Book provides complete Teucrium species list, color photographs of selected Teucrium species on natural habitats, as well as up-to-date bibliography related to Teucrium genus.
A detailed and practical guide to training donkeys-for farmers and homesteaders So you've gone and done it, you've bought a donkey! You know she can be useful around the farm-that's why you bought her. You know that throughout history, the donkey has been one of our most useful partners in labor: a low-impact power source that also produces fertilizer. But now, as she stands there eating, how do you get any of that dreamed-of usefulness out of her? This book can show you how. Get Your Ass to Work! is a practical, hands-on guide to training donkeys to work-in harness and packing-to serve the needs of small farmers and homesteaders. It offers a clear and detailed program for each step of training, designed to enable you to bring an untrained donkey into the animal work force within a month or six weeks. Although there are several books in print of general interest on donkeys and donkey care, none deal satisfactorily with training. Get Your Ass to Work! will help you train your donkey to haul loads on a sled or cart, pull farm equipment, skid logs, and pack firewood, tools, or camping gear while respecting and protecting the health of your animal and keeping you safe. The book outlines how to care for your donkey, including feed, shelter, and basic hoof care. The text is abundantly illustrated by original photographs of donkeys working, with artistic sketches and diagrams to show techniques. This book will be relevant to the homesteader and small farmer, enjoyable for everyone who enjoys donkeys and mules, and appealing to any animal lover.
For centuries, travel was an important part of a gardener's initial and continuing professional training. Educational journeys to parks and gardens at home and abroad were consistently recorded in lengthy reports and articles for professional journals. The travel report by Hans Jancke (1850-1920), a court gardener who served the Prussian kings in Potsdam, Germany, is typical of this genre. Jancke's manuscript, which until now remained unpublished, describes his 1874-1875 apprenticeship at Knowsley, the seat of the Earl of Derby near Liverpool, England.
Ehrenfried Pfeiffer was a pioneer of biodynamics in North America. This short but comprehensive book is a collection of three key articles introducing the concepts, principles and practice of the biodynamic method, as well as an overview of its early history. The book also includes a short biography of Ehrenfried Pfeiffer by Herbert H. Koepf.
Balancing life as a family-business entrepreneur, here's how one woman left a corporate career to become a farmer. Even though her feet don't quite reach the tractor pedals, this city-girl-turned-shepherd found happiness and love with one husband, two kids, grumpy rams, ewes and lambs, Mavis the Sheepdog, and a very fat pony. Ever dream of reinventing yourself and starting over? Sally Urwin did and this is her story--inspiring, touching, and often very, very funny. Once employed to market the insolvency services of a large accounting firm, now Sally and her husband, Steve, run High House Farm in Northumbria. Built around 1840, High House is a working farm where the whole family (including two children) pitches in. In a fresh and funny voice all her own, Sally tells her story of the shepherding life--which at High House also includes the sideline businesses of a tearoom, winery, and a barn for weddings. Diary of a Pint-Sized Farmer reveals the highs and lows of the shepherding life and the hard work in making a living from the land. Filled with grit and humor, eccentric animals and local characters, this is the perfect book for anyone who has ever wondered what it's like to pack up and find a new life on the other side of the fence.
A biodynamic farm is an integrated, holistic organism which balances animal husbandry with growing a range of plants, crops and trees. Balance is of the utmost importance, and will result in a sustainable farm. This book focuses in depth on one aspect of biodynamic farming: growing crops. It addresses all aspects of crop husbandry, from the nature of plants and issues of land use to cultivating grassland, weed control, crop rotation, seeds and sowing, and growing cereals, row crops, legumes, fodder crops and herbs. This is a comprehensive overview of crops and cropping for biodynamic farmers, written by experts in their field.
This book sets out to bridge the order scales among pike researchers, populations, communities, management, and fisheries. It emphasizes the progress of pike research during the last two decades, during which the order-bridging approach emerged. This framework underpins the text and the message, to convey its importance to pike research and to fish research in general. In addition, a considerable part of the book is devoted to management implications and highlights aspects of human dimensions in recreational fisheries.
Wildly Successful Farming tells the stories of farmers across the American Midwest who are balancing profitability and food production with environmental sustainability and a passion for all things wild. They are using innovative techniques and strategies to develop their "wildly" successful farms as working ecosystems. Whether producing grain, vegetables, fruit, meat, or milk, these next-generation agrarians look beyond the bottom line of the spreadsheet to the biological activity on the land as key measures of success. Written by agricultural journalist Brian DeVore, the book is based on interviews he has conducted at farms, wildlife refuges, laboratories, test plots, and gardens over the past twenty-five years. He documents innovations in cover cropping, managed rotational grazing, perennial polyculture, and integrated pest management. His accounts provide insight into the impacts regenerative farming methods can have on wildlife, water, landscape, soils, and rural communities and suggest ways all of us can support wildly successful farmers.
This book provides comprehensive information on the rapidly developing field of urban horticulture for sustainable use of land resources and creating a better environment. It presents peer-reviewed chapters from leading international researchers in the field of horticulture technologies, environmental issues, urban horticulture, and landscaping and its role in society. It covers a wide array of topics on this subject and constitutes a valuable reference guide for students, professors, researchers, builders, and agriculturists concerned with urban horticulture, city planning, biodiversity, and the sustainable development of horticultural resources. Urban horticultural technologies facilitate the efficient use of available land in urban and residential areas, helping meet the demand for fresh fruits and vegetables to feed ever-growing urban populations. The amount of green space in urban areas is dwindling due to rising land prices, while the climbing numbers of multi-story buildings are producing various environmental and health issues. Technological advances provide tools and techniques for high-density and vertical cropping in small areas, promoting efficient and sustainable resource utilization. As such, urban horticulture is gaining importance in city planning - not only to bolster the food supply but also to improve the aesthetic value, environmental conditions, landscape, and business environment, while also reducing the consumption of fossil fuel in transportation.
The politics of food is changing fast. In rich countries, obesity is now a more serious problem than hunger. Consumers once satisfied with cheap and convenient food now want food that is also safe, nutritious, fresh, and grown by local farmers using fewer chemicals. Heavily subsidized and underregulated commercial farmers are facing stronger push back from environmentalists and consumer activists, and food companies are under the microscope. Meanwhile, agricultural success in Asia has spurred income growth and dietary enrichment, but agricultural failure in Africa has left one-third of all citizens undernourished - and the international markets that link these diverse regions together are subject to sudden disruption. The second edition of Food Politics has been thoroughly updated to reflect the latest developments and research on today's global food landscape, including biofuels, the international food market, food aid, obesity, food retailing, urban agriculture, and food safety. The second edition also features an expanded discussion of the links between water, climate change, and food, as well as farming and the environment. New chapters look at livestock, meat and fish and the future of food politics. Paarlberg's book challenges myths and critiques more than a few of today's fashionable beliefs about farming and food. For those ready to have their thinking about food politics informed and also challenged, this is the book to read.
'The task is to create a form of social life by which the soil, the plants, the animals are in harmony with each other.' -- Karl Koenig Karl Koenig was deeply concerned for the relationship between the earth and humanity, and how landscape, plants and animals contribute to that relationship. This book presents sixteen lectures and essays by Koenig, which explore the connection between biodynamics, domestic animals, elemental beings and many other aspects of farming and agriculture, all the time looking for how harmony and balance can be achieved in relation to the needs of human beings. This includes a revised edition of material previously published in Earth and Man.
In the developing world, day to day crop management is often women's work. Yet women's interest and knowledge are often ignored. In addition to empowerment, involving women can provide significant support to crop protection programmes. This book addresses many aspects of plant protection. Most chapters, however, relate to integrated pest management (IPM). Practical lessons on women's roles in crop protection and ways to increase access to information and training are evident. Contributions come from Bhutan, Vietnam, Indonesia, Russia, Costa Rica, Honduras, Tanzania, and Ghana.
The European Garden Flora is the definitive manual for the accurate identification of cultivated ornamental flowering plants. Designed to meet the highest scientific standards, the vocabulary has nevertheless been kept as uncomplicated as possible so that the work is fully accessible to the informed gardener as well as to the professional botanist. This new edition has been thoroughly reorganised and revised, bringing it into line with modern taxonomic knowledge. Although European in name, the Flora covers plants cultivated in most areas of the United States and Canada as well as in non-tropical parts of Asia and Australasia. Volume 4 contains accounts of 82 families, mostly rather small, but including the Primulaceae (with Primula as its largest genus) and Ericaceae (with Rhododendron, the largest genus in the Flora).
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