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In this ready reference, a global team of experts comprehensively
cover molecular and cell biology-based approaches to the impact of
increasing global temperatures on crop productivity.
This book is a compendium of knowledge, experience and insight on agriculture, biotechnology and development. Beginning with an account of GM crop adoptions and attitudes towards them, the book assesses numerous crucial processes, concluding with detailed insights into GM products. Drawing on expert perspectives of leading authors from 48 different institutions in 18 countries, it provides a unique, global overview of ag-biotech following 20 years of adoption. Many consider GM crops the most rapid agricultural innovation adopted in the history of agriculture. This book provides insights as to why the adoption has occurred globally at such a rapid rate. This is a rich and varied collection of research, which will appeal to scholars, academics and practitioners worldwide. An invaluable resource, this book will be a first point of reference to anyone with an interest in ag-biotech and studies into agriculture, biotechnology and development.
Once, the UK's farmers employed thousands of shepherds, but a slump in sheep farming has cut a swathe through their ranks; nowadays shepherds are virtually a thing of the past, and most flocks are herded by farmers on quad bikes. "The Last Shepherds" follows hill shepherds Dave Baxter and Stewart and Gwen Wallace through the cycle of hill farming in the Cheviot Hills of Northumberland - lambing in spring, haymaking, shearing in the summer, then autumn lamb sales and winter feeding. This engrossing book is an extraordinary record of a vanishing way of life on Britain's traditional hill farms.
The aim of this open access book is to review and analyse the goods and services of bivalve shellfish. How they are defined, what determines the ecological functions that are the basis for the goods and services, what controversies in the use of goods and services exist, and what is needed for sustainable exploitation of bivalves from the perspective of the various stakeholders. The book is focused on the goods and services, and not on impacts of shellfish aquaculture on the benthic environment, or on threats like biotoxins; neither is it a shellfish culture handbook although it can be used in evaluating shellfish culture. The reviews and analysis are based on case studies that exemplify the concept, and show the strengths and weaknesses of the current applications. The multi-authored reviews cover ecological, economic and social aspects of bivalve goods and services. The book provides new insights for scientists, students, shellfish producers, policy advisors, nature conservationists and decision makers. This book is open access under the CC BY license.
A comprehensive collection of 500 beekeeping tips written by life-long beekeeper Jim Tew covers all aspects of beekeeping including: Becoming a Beekeeper, Beekeeping Equipment, The Beekeeping Year, Getting Live Bees, Colony Management, Honey, Bee By-Products, Pollination, Ailments, and Bee Biology. The tips are grouped logically so that novices can build their knowledge gradually, while old hands may prefer to dip in and out at random or use the index to refer to specific topics. Illustrated throughout with specially commissioned linocut prints by award-winning printmaker Melvyn Evans, Wisdom for Beekeepers is an ideal introductory read for newcomers to beekeeping, and a perfect gift for more experienced beekeepers.
The Backyard Beekeeper, now in its 4th edition, makes the time-honored and complex tradition of beekeeping an enjoyable and accessible backyard pastime that will appeal to urban and rural beekeepers of all skill levels. More than a guide to beekeeping, this handbook features expert advice for: Setting up and caring for your own colonies Selecting the best location to place your new bee colonies for their safety and yours The most practical and nontoxic ways to care for your bees Swarm control Using top bar hives Harvesting the products of a beehive and collecting and using honey Bee problems and treatments What's New? Information for urban bees and beekeepers Using your smoker the right way Better pest management Providing consistent and abundant good food Keeping your hives healthy With this complete resource and the expert advice of Bee Culture editor Kim Flottum, your bees will be healthy, happy, and more productive.
Providing a practical and easy to follow guide, this is an ideal book for people beginning with keeping chickens, covering the basics of poultry husbandry. The authors are experienced smallholders and share their advice with the aim of keeping healthy, happy chickens. The physical and behavioural attributes of domestic chickens are discussed in detail, advice on laying hens, breeding and raising chicks, housing, feeding, nutrition and health maintenance are covered, along with egg production, slaughter, collecting eggs and poultry meat products, and egg based recipes.Keeping Chickens is highly illustrated and adapted from the bestselling German book in its 9th edition.
A book for everyone who loves trees and woodlands...This 2015 edition of the 2001 classic is written from the heart by an innovative woodsman who is deeply committed to sustainability, this radical book presents an immensely practical alternative to conventional woodland management. Through his personal experience, Ben Law clearly demonstrates how you can create biodiverse, healthy environments, yield a great variety of value added products, provide secure livelihoods for woodland workers and farmers, and benefit the local community. He argues the case for a new approach to planning, encouraging the creation of permaculture woodlands for the benefit of people, the local environment and the global climate.
A Sunday Times top ten bestseller. Amanda Owen has been seen by millions on ITV's The Dales and Channel 5's Our Yorkshire Farm, living a life that has almost gone in today's modern world, a life ruled by the seasons and her animals. She is a farmer's wife and shepherdess, living alongside her husband Clive and seven children at Ravenseat, a 2000 acre sheep hill farm at the head of Swaledale in North Yorkshire. It's a challenging life but one she loves. In The Yorkshire Shepherdess she describes how the rebellious girl from Huddersfield, who always wanted to be a shepherdess, achieved her dreams. Full of amusing anecdotes and unforgettable characters, the book takes us from fitting in with the locals to fitting in motherhood, from the demands of the livestock to the demands of raising a large family in such a rural backwater. Amanda also evokes the peace of winter, when they can be cut off by snow without electricity or running water, the happiness of spring and the lambing season, and the backbreaking tasks of summertime - haymaking and sheepshearing - inspiring us all to look at the countryside and those who work there with new appreciation.
Since the beginning of the 1990s, the supremacy of `Old World' countries (France and Italy) in the international wine market has been challenged by new players, such as Australia, Argentina, Chile and South Africa, which are recording stunning performances in terms both of export volume and value. This book demonstrates that such a spectacular example of catch-up goes beyond simply copying new technologies; it entails creative adaptation and innovation, and introduces a new growth trajectory in which consistent investments in research and science play a key role.
The brown recluse is a fascinating spider very well adapted to dwelling in houses and other buildings. Because of this very quality and the ghastly reputation associated with the medical consequences of its bite, it has become infamous throughout North America. Although recluse spiders can cause serious skin injuries and, in very rare cases, death, the danger posed by this spider is often exaggerated as a result of arachnophobia and the misdiagnosis of non-spider-related conditions as brown recluse bites. These misdiagnoses often occur in areas of North America where the spider does not exist, making legitimate bites improbable. One of the greatest factors that keeps the myths alive is misidentification of common (and harmless) spiders as brown recluses. With this book, Richard S. Vetter hopes to educate readers regarding the biology of the spider and medical aspects of its bites, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnoses, and to quell misplaced anxiety.In The Brown Recluse Spider, Vetter covers topics such as taxonomy, identification, misidentification, life history characteristics and biology, medical aspects of envenomations, medical conditions misdiagnosed as brown recluse bites, other spider species of medical consideration (several of which have been wrongly implicated as threats to human health), and the psychology behind the entrenched reasons why people believe so deeply in the presence of the spider in the face of strong, contradictory information. Vetter also makes recommendations for control of the spider for households in areas where the spiders are found and describes other species of recluse spiders in North America. Although The Brown Recluse Spider was written for a general audience, it is also a valuable source of information for arachnologists and medical personnel.
This book reports the results from on-site research into radioactive cesium contamination in various agricultural systems affected by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident that occurred in March 2011. This is the second volume from the research groups formed in the Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences of The University of Tokyo who have published the initial data in their first volume. In this book, additional data collected in the subsequent years are presented to show how the radioactivity level in agricultural products and their growing environments have changed with time. The data clarify the route by which radioactive materials entered agricultural products and their movement among different components (e.g., soil, water, and trees) within an environmental system (e.g., forests). The book consists of various topics, including radioactivity inspection of food products; decontamination trials for rice and livestock production; the state of contamination in wild animals and birds, trees, mushrooms, and timber; the dynamics of radioactivity distribution in mountain and paddy fields; damage incurred by the forestry and fishery industries; and the change in consumers' minds. The last chapter introduces a real-time radioisotope imaging system, the forefront technique to visualize actual movement of cesium in soil and in plants. This is the only book to provide systematic data about the actual change of radioactivity, and thus is of great value for all researchers who wish to understand the effect of radioactive fallout on agriculture. The project is ongoing; the research groups continue their work in the field for further evaluation of the long-term effects.
Find out more about natural wine-made naturally from organically or biodynamically grown grapes - from leading authority Isabelle Legeron MW. Wine-making has become ever-more unnatural, from the use of blanket crop-spraying in vineyards, to the over-use of sulfites and additives in the cellar, but luckily there is another way, as Master of Wine Isabelle Legeron explains. Isabelle, who campaigns for natural wine around the world and runs the hugely successful RAW wine fairs in London, Berlin and New York, reveals why the finest, most authentic wines are those made naturally. While currently not regulated by an official definition, natural wines are made from sustainably farmed, organic (or biodynamic) grapes, with nothing removed or added during winemaking, bar at most a dash of sulfites. It is good old-fashioned grape juice fermented into wine - just as nature intended. If you care about what's in your glass, want to explore unique flavours, or are keen to support small-scale producers, then you need to know more about natural wine, and where to find it. The second edition of this consumer guide to natural wine has been fully updated, and explains the processes involved, introduces you to some of the growers, and suggests over 140 of the best wines for you to try. "A joyous celebration of all that Legeron believes is good and pure in the world of wine and wine production." TLS Shortlisted for the Andre Simon Food & Drink Awards 2015. the Fortnum and Mason Food & Drink Awards 2014, and the Louis Roederer International Wine Writers Awards 2015.
"Daniel Pauly is a friend whose work has inspired me for years." --Ted Danson, actor, ocean activist, and co-author of Oceana "This wonderfully personal and accessible book by the world's greatest living fisheries biologist summarizes and expands on the causes of collapse and the essential actions that will be required to rebuild fish stocks for future generations." --Dr. Jeremy Jackson, ocean scientist and author of Breakpoint The world's fisheries are in crisis. Their catches are declining, and the stocks of key species, such as cod and bluefin tuna, are but a small fraction of their previous abundance, while others have been overfished almost to extinction. The oceans are depleted and the commercial fishing industry increasingly depends on subsidies to remain afloat. In these essays, award-winning biologist Dr. Daniel Pauly offers a thought-provoking look at the state of today's global fisheries--and a radical way to turn it around. Starting with the rapid expansion that followed World War II, he traces the arc of the fishing industry's ensuing demise, offering insights into how and why it has failed. With clear, convincing prose, Dr. Pauly draws on decades of research to provide an up-to-date assessment of ocean health and an analysis of the issues that have contributed to the current crisis, including globalization, massive underreporting of catch, and the phenomenon of "shifting baselines," in which, over time, important knowledge is lost about the state of the natural world. Finally, Vanishing Fish provides practical recommendations for a way forward--a vision of a vibrant future where small-scale fisheries can supply the majority of the world's fish.
In 1998, Gary and Rosemary Barletta purchased seven acres of land on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake. Descending to the west from the state route that runs along on the ridge overlooking the lake, the land was fertile, rich with shalestone and limestone bedrock, and exposed to moderating air currents from the lake. It was the perfect place to establish a vineyard, and the Barlettas immediately began to plant their vines and build the winery about which they had dreamed for years.
The Barlettas' story, as John C. Hartsock tells it, is a window onto the world of contemporary craft winemaking, from the harsh realities of business plans, vineyard pests, and brutal weather to the excitement of producing the first vintage, greeting enthusiastic visitors on a vineyard tour, and winning a gold medal from the American Wine Society for a Cabernet Franc. Above all, Seasons of a Finger Lakes Winery describes the connection forged among the vintner, the vine, and terroir. This ancient bond, when tended across the cycle of seasons, results in excellent wines and the satisfaction, on the part of the winemaker and the wine enthusiast, of tasting a perfect harvest in a single glass.
Today, Long Point Winery sits on seventy-two acres (eight of which are under cultivation with vinifera grapes) and produces sixteen varieties of wine, a number of which are estate wines made from grapes grown on their property. With interest in winemaking continuing to grow, the Barlettas' experience of making award-winning wines offers both practical advice for anyone running (or thinking of running) their own winery, whether in the Finger Lakes or elsewhere, as well as insights into the challenges and joys of pursuing a dream.
In today's world, food security is an important issue. Food shortages push prices up, impacting upon the health and well-being of hundreds of millions of rural poor across the globe. One way to increase food security is to decrease the amount of yield lost to pests. The Pesticide Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the fight against pests, covering chemical pesticides, biocontrol agents and biopesticides. It also covers interrelated topics such as pesticide toxicity, legislation and regulation, handling, storage and safety aspects, IPM techniques, resistance management, interaction of pesticides with soil and the environment. An important reference for policy makers, advisers and students and researchers of crop science, this book also includes useful notes on commonly known plant diseases and pests.
The use of synthetic pesticides has undoubtedly resulted in the achievement of increased crop production. However, in recent times, there has been a considerable pressure on consumers and farmers to reduce or eliminate the use of synthetic pesticides in horticulture, since fruits and vegetables are consumed afresh. This concern has encouraged looking for better alternatives which are cheaper and eco-friendly than synthetic pesticides. It is well known that plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play an important role in maintaining crop and soil health through versatile mechanisms. There are two main outcomes or effects from beneficial microorganisms: enhanced plant growth and crop protection, both of which represent the two main constraints to agriculture. The information on biomanagement of pests (insect and nematode pests, fungal, bacterial and viral/phytoplasma diseases) of horticultural crops (fruits, vegetables, plantation, spice, tuber, ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops) using PGPR is very much scattered. There is no book at present which comprehensively and exclusively deals with the above aspects on horticultural crops. The present book deals with biomanagement of pests in horticultural crops in detail using PGPR. The present book deals with biomanagement of pests in horticultural crops in detail using PGPR. The present book is divided into six sections. The first section deals with the importance of PGPR including introduction, potential role of PGPR in agriculture, genera of PGPR, disease management, nematode management, insect pest management, integrated pest management, mechanism of biocontrol, mass production, formulation, delivery and commercialization. Pest management in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate fruit crops is dealt in Section II. The third section deals with pest management in Solanaceous, bulbous, Malvaceous, Cruciferous, Leguminous, Cucurbitaceous, leafy and root and tuber vegetable crops. Pest management in plantation and spice crops is in Section IV. Section V deals with pest management in ornamental, medicinal and aromatic crops. The last section deals with a road map ahead including challenges, future prospective and conclusions. The book is extensively illustrated with excellent quality photographs enhancing the quality of publication. The book is written in lucid style, easy to understand language along with adoptable recommendations involving eco-friendly components of IPM.
This open access book presents simple, robust pre-field screening protocols that allow plant breeders to screen for enhanced tolerance to heat stress in rice. Two critical heat-sensitive stages in the lifecycle of the rice crop are targeted - the seedling and flowering stages - with screening based on simple phenotypic responses. The protocols are based on the use of a hydroponics system and/or pot experiments in a glasshouse in combination with a controlled growth chamber where the heat stress treatment is applied. The protocols are designed to be effective, simple, reproducible and user-friendly. The protocols will enable plant breeders to effectively reduce the number of plants from a few thousands to less than 100 candidate individual mutants or lines in a greenhouse/growth chamber, which can then be used for further testing and validation in the field conditions. The methods can also be used to classify rice genotypes according to their heat tolerance characteristics. Thus, different types of heat stress tolerance mechanisms can be identified, presenting opportunities for pyramiding different (mutant) sources of heat stress tolerance.
This book provides a comprehensive description of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and highlights methods for the use of microphos in different crop production systems. The focus is on understanding both the basic and applied aspects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and how phosphorus-deficient soils can be transformed into phosphorus-rich ones by applying phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. The interaction of rhizosphere phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and environmental variables, as well as their importance in the production of crops such as legumes, cereals, vegetables etc. are discussed and considered. The use of cold-tolerant phosphate solubilizing microorganisms to enhance crop productivity in mountainous regions is examined, as are the ecological diversity and biotechnological implications of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms. Lastly, the role of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms in aerobic rice cultivation is highlighted. This volume offers a broad overview of plant disease management using phosphate solubilizing microbes and presents strategies for the management of cultivated crops. It will therefore be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. This timely reference book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material, as it includes recent findings on phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and their role in crop production.
Biomass obtained from agricultural residues or forest can be used to produce different materials and bioenergy required in a modern society. As compared to other resources available, biomass is one of the most common and widespread resources in the world. Thus, biomass has the potential to provide a renewable energy source, both locally and across large areas of the world. It is estimated that the total investment in the biomass sector between 2008 and 2021 will reach the large sum of $104 billion. Presently bioenergy is the most important renewable energy option and will remain so the near and medium-term future. Previously several countries try to explore the utilization of biomass in bioenergy and composite sector. Biomass has the potential to become the world s largest and most sustainable energy source and will be very much in demand. Bioenergy is based on resources that can be utilized on a sustainable basis all around the world and can thus serve as an effective option for the provision of energy services. In addition, the benefits accrued go beyond energy provision, creating unique opportunities for regional development.The present book will provide an up-to-date account of non-wood, forest residues, agricultural biomass (natural fibers), and energy crops together with processing, properties and its applications to ensure biomass utilization and reuse. All aspects of biomass and bioenergy and their properties and applications will be critically re-examined. The book consists of three sections, presenting Non wood and forest products from forestry, arboriculture activities or from wood processing, agricultural biomass (natural fibers) from agricultural harvesting or processing and finally energy crops: high yield crops and grasses grown especially for energy production."
This book is a compilation of the most challenging and significant chapters on the diagnosis and management of important bacterial, fungal, viral, viroid, phytoplasma, non parasitic diseases and various physiological disorders, in various crops. The chapters have been contributed by eminent plant pathologists, having wide experience of teaching and research on various crops with different types of diseases, which cause great economic losses. The book would be very useful for students, teachers and researchers of plant pathology. This book highlights recent advances made in the development of new types of resistance in host plants and alternative strategies for managing plant diseases to improve food quality and reduce the negative public health impact associated with plant diseases. Having entered into 21st century advancements in the Diagnosis of Plant Pathogens and Plant Disease Management need to be closely examined and adequately applied, so that newer challenges facing plant pathology could be adequately addressed in attaining food security for the growing population. Substantial advancements have been made in terms of expanding knowledge base of the biology of plant-microbial interactions, disease management strategies and application and practice of Plant Pathology. Application of molecular biology in Plant Pathology has greatly improved our ability to detect plant pathogens and in increasing our understanding, their ecology and epidemiology. Similarly, new technologies and resources have been evolved for the development of sustainable crop protection systems by different control strategies against various pests and pathogens that are important components of the integrated pest management programme. Natural products and chemical compounds discovered as a result of basic research and molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis have led to the development of "biorational" pesticides. Biological control has been found to be the most significant approach to plant health management during the twentieth century and promises using modern biotechnology, to be even more significant in the twenty-first century.
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