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This book is the first comprehensive coverage of Red Sea fisheries to inform researchers and decision makers. The Red Sea is a geologically young sea, but also an area with the oldest record of human sea food exploitation. Examining the fisheries of the Red Sea has become extremely important to understand the ecosystem and the direct human impact of fishing on Red Sea ecosystems. This volume gives extensive data on different fisheries sectors identified and described for each country bordering the Red Sea. Furthermore, its catch and specific composition is also described over the period 1950 to 2010. Combined with the ecosystem model this useful information can uniquely help managing fisheries and ecosystems of the Red Sea.
Honey. Drizzled over a slice of fresh bread or eaten directly from the spoon is one of life s great pleasures. And with beehives on urban rooftops, in next door s back garden even schemes for adopting bees or renting hives becoming a honey producer seems possible. So how easy is it and what s involved? By sharing the journey of young beekeeper Orren Fox, you ll discover that keeping your own honeybees is easier than you think. Find out: -How and where to set up your hive -The tools and equipment you need to get started -The job of inspecting the hive -How and when to harvest your honey. With delicious honey-based recipes shared by talented and resourceful chefs and cooks, including Honey and Co., you ll learn all about bees and their inspiring world of work and honey production. And may even be tempted to buy your first bee suit.
The introduction and rapid spread of two Eurasian mussel
species, "Dreissena polymorpha "(zebra mussel) and "Dreissena
rostriformis bugensis "(quagga mussel), in waters of North America
has caused great concern among industrial and recreational water
users. These invasive species can create substantial problems for
raw water users such as water treatment facilities and power
plants, and they can have other negative impacts by altering
aquatic environments. In the 20 years since the first edition of
this book was published, zebra mussels have continued to spread,
and quagga mussels have become the greater threat in the Great
Lakes, in deep regions of large lakes, and in the southwestern
Unites States. Quagga mussels have also expanded greatly in eastern
and western Europe since the first book edition was
In Calabria, Italy, where bergamot has been successfully cultivated since the eighteenth century, it is commonly defined as "the prince of the Citrus genus." Written by an international panel of experts from multiple disciplines, Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and its Derivatives represents the most complete treatise on bergamot and its derivatives currently available.
Although production of bergamot and its derivatives is
comparatively small, its chemical composition and biological
properties have been of great scientific interest and the oil is
considered essential in many high-quality perfumes. There is also
an increased demand for bergamot oil for food flavorings and
gastronomy. A tribute to bergamot, Citrus bergamia: Bergamot and
its Derivatives covers all aspects of bergamot, from its historical
and botanical origins, cultural practices, and transformation
technologies to the use of its derivatives, possible
contaminations, and biological activity.
Mountain agriculture has attracted attention both for its complex adaptation to particular circumstances, and for its marginality and instability in a changing world. Irrigation plays a range of roles in mountain farming systems and their dynamics or change. Hill Irrigation examines the environmentalconstraints and socio-economic contexts to successful mountain agriculture, and reviews the policies and technological approaches used to promote irrigation in different mountain regions. This survey is accompaned by a detailed bibliography of over 500 entries of literature on the subject.
Scottie Jones lived a typical suburban, professional life in Phoenix until her husband, Greg, got into a near-fatal car accident. While recovering, he became convinced that they needed a change and a simpler way of life, one more connected with nature and with each other. So, driven by a desire to cut ties with a material and convenient suburban life that had left them feeling empty, they bought a peaceful-looking farmhouse on sixty acres in Oregon and said good-bye to everything they knew. But though the grass may look greener, the road to pastoral bliss is fraught with financial woes, relentless rural roadblocks, and colossal failures. When the burden becomes almost too much to bear, Scottie hits on the idea of turning a house they initially built for their daughter into a Farm Stay, where people could visit and learn about Leaping Lamb Farm. The Farm Stay becomes the niche that rescues them from foreclosure-having found both a sense of purpose and a sense of place, the couple now finds the means to sustain it. In a world increasingly filled with questions of where our food comes from and dissatisfactions about our modern lives, Country Grit is a story that will resonate with countless people itching to get back to the land. Told with humor and hard-earned wisdom, it is also an account of what small-scale farmers across the country experience everyday and a warning that the farming life is not for everyone.
Emphasizing the unpredictable nature of plant behaviour under stress and in relation to complex interactions of biological pathways, this work covers the versatility of plants in adapting to environmental change. It analyzes environmentally triggered adaptions in developmental programmes of plants that lead to permanent, heritable DNA modifications.
Aiming to improve work efficiency in such areas as tillage in agriculture, earth-moving in civil engineering, and tunnel-making in sea-bed operations, this work offers an introduction to Finite Element Method (FEM) analysis of soil-machine systems. It explains the advantage of FEM's numerical approach over traditional analytical and empirical methods of dealing with complex factors from nonlinear mechanical behaviour to geometric configurations.
Ours is the Age of Food. Food is a central obsession in all cultures, nations, the media, and society. Our future supply of food is filled with risk, and history tells us that lack of food leads to war. But it also presents us with spectacular opportunities for fresh human creativity and technological prowess. Julian Cribb describes a new food system capable of meeting our global needs on this hot and overcrowded planet. This book is for anyone concerned about the health, safety, affordability, diversity, and sustainability of their food - and the peace of our planet. It is not just timely - its message is of the greatest urgency. Audiences include consumers, 'foodies', policymakers, researchers, cooks, chefs and farmers. Indeed, anyone who cares about their food, where it comes from and what it means for them, their children and grandchildren.
Medicinal Plants, Volume 6 of the Genetic Resources, Chromosome Engineering, and Crop Improvement series summarizes landmark research and describes medicinal plants as nature's pharmacy. Highlights Examines the use of molecular technology for maintaining authenticity and quality of plant-based products Details reports on individual medicinal plants including their history, origin, genetic resources, cytogenetics, and varietal improvement through conventional and modern methods, and their use in pharmaceutical, cosmeceutical, nutrition, and food industries Explains how to protect plants with medicinal properties from deforestation, urbanization, overgrazing, pollution, overharvesting, and biopiracy Brings together information on germplasm resources of medicinal plants, their history, taxonomy and biogeography, ecology and biodiversity, genetics and breeding, exploitation, and utilization in the medicine and food industries Written by leading international experts and an innovative panel of scientists, Medicinal Plants offers the most comprehensive and up-to-date information on medicinal plant genetic resources and their increasing importance in pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries, medicine, and nutrition around the world. Includes eight-page color insert more than 25 full color figures.
This brand new Dictionary of Agriculture and Land Management addresses the increasing overlap between agricultural sectors and the demands of the management of rural land and property. It covers the main areas of agricultural management, husbandry, environment, estate management, rural recreation, woodland and forestry, as well as general terms such as organizations, policies, and legislation. In over 2,000 clear and concise A to Z entries, it offers authoritative and up-to-date information, and the content is enhanced by entry-level web links that are listed on a dedicated companion website. Useful tables and line drawings complement the entries, and make this volume an excellent point of reference for anyone who needs a guide to agricultural terminology. The most up-to-date dictionary of its kind, it is a must-have for students of agriculture and land management, as well as for professionals in the agricultural and land-management sectors.
In this volume, world leaders in potato research review historical and contemporary discoveries resulting in a range of advances. Topics include nutritional quality, yield, disease and insect resistance, processing, plant growth and development, and other aspects. The book also examines research yielding significant molecular resources that facilitate breeding, linkage and gene mapping, cytology, functional and structural genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Future research developments that are likely to significantly advance efforts to understand and improve the potato are also explored.
Since the advent of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago, human activity has created a unique set of ecosystems. However, the recent development of world markets, rapid technological advances, and other changes to farming practices have led to hugely increased pressures on farm habitats and organisms. Global human populations are rising and diets are becoming ever more complicated, leading to unrelenting requirements for increased levels of food production. Natural biotopes are becoming increasingly fragmented as agricultural activities expand around them. "Agroecosystems" now occur from the tropics to subarctic environments and comprise systems as varied as annual crops, perennial grasslands, orchards, and agroforestry systems. They presently cover almost 40% of the terrestrial land surface and significantly shape landscapes at a global scale. This key addition to the OUP Biology of Habitats Series provides a novel perspective on agroecosystems, summarising our current understanding of the basic and applied aspects of these important and complex habitats, whilst focusing on environmental concerns in the context of global change. The Biology of Agroecosystemsis is for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in agroecology, farmland ecology, conservation, and agriculture as well as the many professional ecologists, conservation biologists, and land managers requiring a concise overview of agroecology.
Rivers are important agents of change that shape the Earth's surface and evolve through time in response to fluctuations in climate and other environmental conditions. They are fundamental in landscape development, and essential for water supply, irrigation, and transportation. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the geomorphological processes that shape rivers and that produce change in the form of rivers. It explores how the dynamics of rivers are being affected by anthropogenic change, including climate change, dam construction, and modification of rivers for flood control and land drainage. It discusses how concern about environmental degradation of rivers has led to the emergence of management strategies to restore and naturalize these systems, and how river management techniques work best when coordinated with the natural dynamics of rivers. This textbook provides an excellent resource for students, researchers, and professionals in fluvial geomorphology, hydrology, river science, and environmental policy.
The performance of irrigation schemes that carry sediment laden water is often poor. Modern irrigation schemes are increasingly demand based, which means that the water flow in the canals is determined by the crop water requirements. Accordingly the flow in the canal network is not constant as the crop water requirement changes with the climate and the growing stages. Also the inflow of the sediment is not constant throughout the irrigation season. Such schemes, particularly having unlined canals in alluvial soils, are difficult to design and to manage without compromising the flexibility or maintenance cost. This research has made an in-depth assessment on the role of sediment in the design and management of an irrigation scheme by using the data of Sunsari Morang Irrigation Scheme, Nepal. An analysis of the velocity and shear stress distribution across a non-wide trapezoidal canal has been made to derive the correction factor for the sediment transport predictors. An improved approach based on a rational concept of the design of canals for sediment transport is proposed. By using the sediment transport model SETRIC, a water delivery plan has been designed and tested for changing water and sediment inflow conditions that can be implemented with the existing canal infrastructure. The research also shows that flexibility of operation and efficient sediment management are difficult to achieve at the same time. A compromise has to be made and this needs to be reflected in the design. All methods to transport, exclude or extract the sediment are temporary measures and just transfer the problem from one place to the other. A better understanding of sediment movement helps to identify the problems beforehand and to find the best possible solutions.
Farmland wildlife has been decimated by intensive crop growing using pesticides, grubbing up hedges, ploughing heathland and draining marshes, etc. With too many sheep grazing our moors, hills and mountains, a range of upland plants, invertebrates and birds has been diminished and the land converted to closely-grazed turf, perfect for heavy rain to cause catastrophic downstream floods. Once common farmland birds have declined by 54% since 1970 with farmland invertebrates declining by 40% in a few decades. Since the 1930s a staggering 97% of our once flower-rich meadows has been lost. Ploughing a New Furrow examines these stark figures and in the context of Brexit considers the unprecedented opportunity for wildlife once again to be nurtured by Britain's farmers alongside food production, reversing the enormous plant and animal losses our farmland has suffered. With its financial largesse, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has encouraged farmers to destroy huge areas of wildlife habitat in Britain's lowlands and seriously damage large tracts of our uplands, depleting Britain's farmed land of much of its wildlife. With responsibility for farm policy to be transferred back to the UK, these enormous losses could be reversed and Britain's farms made wildlife-rich once more. This book is based to a significant extent on conversations with farmers and on the achievements and experiences of some farmers who have made good use of agri-environment payments to reinstate lost habitats and manage their remaining wildlife more sensitively. The author sets out the case for removing or capping subsidies, supporting organic and other more sustainable forms of agriculture and the conservation of soils and the rich life forms they hold. He proposes a set of policy changes and other measures that should be adopted by the Government post-Brexit to make the 70% of our land that farming occupies rich in wildlife again. Literally food for thought!
This is the personal journal of a young American woman, living for six months amongst the Dodoth cattle-herdsmen in Northern Uganda. It is also an adventure story, for during this period the Dodoth were caught up in an escalating cycle of violence with their age-old rivals, the Turkana tribe. The animating tension of this feud was the tradition of cattle raiding, but it escalated to unprecedented levels of violence when the new nation states of Uganda and Kenya were drawn in to police these ancient clan frontiers. Elizabeth Marshall Thomas s total immersion in the life of this tribe in 1961 takes us with her, as with clarity and a lyrical eye for detail she brings their whole culture alive. For though she was not an academic herself, she had spent much time in the field with her mother, who was the world s leading authority on the Bushman of the Kalahari. So it was natural for Elizabeth Marshall Thomas to take her own young children on this adventure, where she proves herself such a brave, humane and unshockable witness to the life of the warrior herdsmen.
This book reviews the latest developments in our understanding of microbial endophytes and their potential applications in enhancing productivity and disease protection. It covers all the latest discoveries regarding endophytes, their interactions with plants and application in agricultural productivity and protection. Our understanding of endophytes has increased exponentially in recent decades. These microbes, such as fungi, bacteria, and actinobacteria, establish a symbiotic or parasitic association with plants. A better understanding of endophytic microorganisms may help to elucidate their functions and potential role in developing sustainable systems of crop production and improved protection against biotic stresses. Endophytes play a vital role in plant growth and health promotion. Endophytic bacteria are of agrobiological interest because they create host-endophyte relationships, which can open exciting prospects for newer biotechnological applications. Endophytes have also proven to be a beneficial and sustainable alternative to agrochemicals due to their role in the biocontrol of pests and diseases. Further, endophytes are essential to the production of several secondary metabolites in grasses, in the process of gummosis in trees, and the production of useful metabolites such as alkaloids, pestaloside, cryptocandin, enfumafungin, subglutinols, etc. for the host plant. They are also involved in the production of enzymes, biosurfactants, biocontrol agents and plant growth promoters. As such, it is imperative that we explore these products' industrial applications in the fields of biotechnology, pharmacy and agriculture. This volume will offers a valuable guidance for botanists, microbiologists, biotechnologists, molecular biologists, environmentalists, policymakers, conservationists, and those working for the protection of plant species of agricultural and medicinal importance.
Stressing the key role vectors play spread of virus diseases, this volume represents the priorities in practical plant virus research and ways in which their control or management should be sought through an understanding of the practical and environmental aspects of the interactions of viruses with their vectors and their environment. It provides an in-depth understanding of the vectors, their biology, dispersal, movement and migration, contemporary canvases of epidemiology, and the management of virus diseases keeping in view the globalization of agriculture as also the viruses and their quarantine requirements.
Emphasizing the need for more integrated pest management programmes, this work presents the development and state-of-the-art technology of genetically-engineered microbes, viruses, bacterial toxins and plants. Throughout, both environmental and regulatory concerns are addressed.
Exam Board: Pearson BTEC Academic Level: BTEC National Subject: Animal Management First teaching: September 2016 First Exams: Summer 2017 The Revision Guide is accompanied by an ActiveBook (eBook) so that learners have the choice and flexibility to access materials anytime or anywhere. The visually engaging format breaks the content down into easily-digestible sections for students and provides hassle-free instant-access revision for learners. Clear specification fit, with revision activities and annotated sample responses for each unit to show students how to tackle the assessed tasks. Written with students in mind - in an informal voice that talks directly to them. Designed to be used alongside the Workbook with clear unit-by-unit correspondence to make it easy to use the books together.
"Handbook of Agricultural Entomology" by Helmut van Emden is a landmark publication for students and practitioners of entomology applied to agriculture and horticulture. It can be used as a reference and as a general textbook.
The book opens with a general introduction to entomology and includes coverage of the major insects (and mites) that cause harm to crops, livestock and humans. The important beneficial species are also included. Organisms are described in a classification of insect Orders and Families. The emphasis is on morphological characters of major taxonomic divisions, "spot characters" for the recognition of Families, and the life histories, damage symptoms and economic importance of the various pest species.
The book is beautifully illustrated in full colour with more than 400 figures showing both the organisms and the damage caused to plants with diagnostic characters indicated by arrows. Coverage is world-wide and includes much material stemming from the vast personal experience of the author.A companion website with additional resources is available at www.wiley.com/go/vanemden/agriculturalentomology
This book is a compilation of case studies from different countries and covers contemporary with future prospective for sustainable development of agriculture. The book highlights the real-world as well as future generation situations facing the challenges for the twenty first century will be production of sufficient food and highlights the strengths, weaknesses and opportunities, to meet the needs of fast growing population it is imperative to increase agricultural productivity in an environmentally sustainable manner. Due to imbalanced use of chemical fertilizers and agrochemicals has a considerable negative impact on economy and environmental sustainability of nation, for the sustainable alternative means to solve these problems, the efficient utilization of biological agents have been extensively studied. Naturally existing plant-microbe-environment interactions are utilized in many ways for enhancing plant productivity. A greater understanding of how plants and microbes live together and benefit each other can therefore provide new strategies to improve plant productivity, in most sustainable way. To achieve the objective of sustainable agricultural practices there is a need for understanding both basic and applied aspects of agriculturally important microorganisms. Focus needs to be on transforming agricultural systems from nutrient deficient to nutrient rich soil-plant system. This book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidated various mechanisms of nutrients solubilisation and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Unit-1 in this book explains the importance of soil microbes in sustainable crop production. It contains chapters detailing the role and mechanism of action of soil microbes which enhances the productivity via various bio-chemical and molecular channe ls. In unit-2 the role of microbes in plant protection is elaborated. With the help of case studies of food crops, multiple ways in which soil microbes help in fighting and preventing plant diseases is explained. With the given content and layout book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
During the last nine millennia or so, man has improved the rice
plant, increased its productivity and has found various uses of its
parts. The story of rice differs from region to region and has been
different in different periods of time. There was a time when tax
was collected in the form of rice in Japan, the Southeast Asian
kingdoms created hydraulic feats for its cultivation and Ottoman
armies advanced with rice as their ration. In recent years, there
have been riots due to scarcity of rice and also international
efforts to produce enough rice to avoid hunger. The book provides
an interesting reading of all such events in the course of its 9000
years long history.
The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is a unique agricultural policy worldwide. For many years, its status as the only common European Community (EC) policy governed by EC institutions put it at the heart of European integration. Today the CAP is not the only common European Union (EU) policy. Even while it remains the sole instance of a regionally integrated agricultural policy, the CAP no longer embodies the same degree of cross-national harmonization of agricultural policy among EC/EU member states that it once did.
The CAP has undergone policy reforms in the past two decades and these reforms have spawned a host of questions. What has caused the CAP to reform? How path-breaking are CAP reforms? Are they consistent with founding CAP goals or do they encompass new ideas about agriculture's place in the economy and society? And what are the consequences of agricultural policy reforms: for European farmers, consumers and taxpayers; for European ?public goods? such as environmental sustainability and preservation of rural communities and landscapes; and for third parties outside the EU, including the WTO?
This book was published as a special issue of the Journal of European Integration.
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