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The aim of this open access book is to review and analyse the goods and services of bivalve shellfish. How they are defined, what determines the ecological functions that are the basis for the goods and services, what controversies in the use of goods and services exist, and what is needed for sustainable exploitation of bivalves from the perspective of the various stakeholders. The book is focused on the goods and services, and not on impacts of shellfish aquaculture on the benthic environment, or on threats like biotoxins; neither is it a shellfish culture handbook although it can be used in evaluating shellfish culture. The reviews and analysis are based on case studies that exemplify the concept, and show the strengths and weaknesses of the current applications. The multi-authored reviews cover ecological, economic and social aspects of bivalve goods and services. The book provides new insights for scientists, students, shellfish producers, policy advisors, nature conservationists and decision makers. This book is open access under the CC BY license.
The startling message of this book is that the so-called virgin forests of the world owe much to their symbiotic relationship with the indigenous peoples who live in and on the margins of the forests. Human activities have for millenia "managed" (consciously or unconsciously) the world's forests, resulting in a greatly enriched biodiversity.The contributors to the book come from many different scientific disciplines, national and cultural backgrounds. Examples of forests are taken from Asia, Africa and South America, thus reflecting the global nature of the phenomenon. The book's conclusions will have far-reaching implications for all who are concerned with the conservation of forests and their indigenous human population.
This text covers the biology, ecology, genetics and aquaculture of the Asian Seabass or barramundi (Lates calcarifer), a commercially and recreationally valuable species. It brings together in the one place reviews written by world experts in Asian seabass taxonomy, genetics, nutrition, ecology, aquaculture, reproductive and developmental biology, climate change impacts, harvest quality and health management.
This comprehensive book discusses the ecophysiological features of trees affected by the two most prominent factors of climate change: atmospheric CO2 concentration and temperature. It starts with the introduction of experimental methods at the leaf, branch, the whole-tree, and tree group scales, and in the following chapters elaborates on specific topics including photosynthesis of leaves, respiration of plant organs, water use efficiency, the production of and/or distribution patterns of carbohydrates, secondary metabolites, and nutrients, anatomy of cells and tissues, height and stem-diameter growth, biomass accumulation, leaf phenology and longevity, and model ecosystems (soil-litter-plant enclosures). The current knowledge is neatly summarized, and the author presents valuable data derived from his 30 years of experimental research, some of which is published here for the first time. Using numerous examples the book answers the fundamental questions such as: What are the interactions of elevated CO2 concentration and temperature on tree growth and matter partitioning? How do different tree groups react? Are there any effects on organisms living together with trees? What kinds of models can be used to interpret the results from experiments on trees? This volume is highly recommended for researchers, postdocs, and graduate students in the relevant fields. It is also a valuable resource for undergraduate students, decision-makers in the fields of forest management and environmental protection, and any other scientists who are interested in the effect of global change on ecosystems.
Sustainable Horticulture, Volume 2: Food, Health, and Nutrition addresses some of the most important topics facing horticulture around the world today. This volume, part of the two-volume compendium, focuses on research trends in sustainable horticulture that include postharvest management and processed food production from horticulture crops, crop protection and plant health management, and horticulture for human health and nutrition. Global food demand is expected to be double by 2050, while at the same time the production environment and natural resources are continually shrinking and deteriorating due to many complex factors. Horticulture, a major sector of agriculture, is vital to enhancing crop production and productivity in parity with agricultural crops to meet the emerging food demand. Implementing sustainable models of crop production is really an enormous endeavor. Promising technologies and management options are needed to increase productivity to meet the growing food demand despite deteriorating production environments.
Under threat from natural and human disturbance, tropical dry forests are the most endangered ecosystem in the tropics, yet they rarely receive the scientific or conservation attention they deserve. In a comprehensive overview, Tropical Dry Forests in the Americas: Ecology, Conservation, and Management examines new approaches for data sampling and analysis using remote sensing technology, discusses new ecological and econometric methods, and critically evaluates the socio-economic pressures that these forest are facing at the continental and national levels. The book includes studies from Mexico, Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil that provide in-depth knowledge about the function, status, and conservation efforts of these endangered forests. It presents key elements of synthesis from standardized work conducted across all sites. This unique contribution provides new light in terms of these forests compared to each other not only from an ecological perspective but also in terms of the pressures that they are facing, and their respective responses. Written by experts from a diversity of fields, this reference brings together the many facets of function, use, heritage, and future potential of these forests. It presents an important and exciting synthesis of many years of work across countries, disciplines, and cultures. By standardizing approaches for data sampling and analysis, the book gives readers comparison information that cannot be found anywhere else given the high level of disparity that exists in the current literature.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. The book examines the methodological challenges in analyzing the effectiveness of development policies. It presents a selection of tools and methodologies that can help tackle the complexities of which policies work best and why, and how they can be implemented effectively given the political and economic framework conditions of a country. The contributions in this book offer a continuation of the ongoing evidence-based debate on the role of agriculture and participatory policy processes in reducing poverty. They develop and apply quantitative political economy approaches by integrating quantitative models of political decision-making into existing economic modeling tools, allowing a more comprehensive growth-poverty analysis. The book addresses not only scholars who use quantitative policy modeling and evaluation techniques in their empirical or theoretical research, but also technical experts, including policy makers and analysts from stakeholder organizations, involved in formulating and implementing policies to reduce poverty and to increase economic and social well-being in African countries.
This book focuses on irrigation sources together with water management for agricultural development in Uttar Pradesh state of India. Being the most populous state of the country, it bears a burden of feeding about 199 million people of which major section relies on agriculture for their subsistence. This study makes comparison in the growth trends in the irrigated area, crop land use patterns and crop productivity at the district level in different periods of time. The book emphasizes on irrigation water management to optimize crop yields in order to increase Water Productivity of crops in low productivity regions of the state applying suitable technology. This book appeals to researchers and students in geography and planning working on the topics of agriculture as well as irrigation and water management aspects.
The tightening of health and environmental regulations by banning chemical pesticides has generated the need for alternative technologies to solve grain storage problems. Aeration is such an option that can be applied to stored grain and a wide range of agricultural commodities to control insects and maintain quality. The Mechanics and Physics of Modern Grain Aeration Management demonstrates the most advanced theoretical solutions and practical approaches to aeration of stored grain. It will help those involved in the handling and processing of grain to maximize the end-use quality of food commodities and eliminate the occurrence of toxins, insects, pesticides, and chemical residues during storage.
The Bec Hellouin model for growing food, sequestering carbon, creating jobs, and increasing biodiversity without using fossil fuels When Charles and Perrine Herve-Gruyer set out to create their farm in an historic Normandy village, they had no idea just how much their lives would change. Neither one had ever farmed before. Charles had been circumnavigating the globe by sail, operating a floating school that taught students about ecology and indigenous cultures. Perrine had been an international lawyer in Japan. Each had returned to France to start a new life. Eventually, Perrine joined Charles in Normandy, and Le Ferme du Bec Hellouin was born. Bec Hellouin has since become a celebrated model of innovative, ecological agriculture in Europe, connected to national and international organizations addressing food security, heralded by celebrity chefs as well as the Slow Food movement, and featured in the inspiring Cesar and COLCOA award-winning documentary film, Demain ("Tomorrow"). Miraculous Abundance is the eloquent tale of the couple's evolution from creating a farm to sustain their family to delving into an experiment in how to grow the most food possible, in the most ecological way possible, and create a farm model that can carry us into a post-carbon future-when oil is no longer moving goods and services, energy is scarcer, and localization is a must. Today, the farm produces a variety of vegetables using a mix of permaculture, bio-intensive, four-season, and natural farming techniques--as well as techniques gleaned from native cultures around the world. It has some animals for eggs and milk, horses for farming, a welcome center, a farm store, a permaculture school, a bread oven for artisan breads, greenhouses, a cidery, and a forge. It has also become the site of research focusing on how small organic farms like theirs might confront Europe's (and the world's) projected food crisis. But in this honest and engaging account of the trials and joys of their uncompromising effort, readers meet two people who are farming the future as much as they are farming their land. They envision farms like theirs someday being the hub for a host of other businesses that can drive rural communities-from bread makers and grain millers to animal care givers and other tradespeople. Market farmers and home gardeners alike will find much in these pages, but so will those who've never picked up a hoe. The couple's account of their quest to design an almost Edenlike farm, hone their practices, and find new ways to feed the world is an inspiring tale. It is also a love letter to a future in which people increasingly live in rural communities that rely on traditional skills, locally created and purveyed goods and services, renewable energy, and greater local governance, but are also connected to the larger world.
Sustainable horticulture is gaining increasing attention in the field of agriculture as demand for the food production rises to the world community. Sustainable horticultural systems are based on ecological principles to farm, optimizes pest and disease management approaches through environmentally friendly and renewable strategies in production agriculture. It is a discipline that addresses current issues such as food security, water pollution, soil health, pest control, and biodiversity depletion. Novel, environmentally-friendly solutions are proposed based on integrated knowledge from sciences as diverse as agronomy, soil science, entomology, ecology, chemistry and food sciences. Sustainable horticulture interprets methods and processes in the farming system to the global level. For that, horticulturists use the system approach that involves studying components and interactions of a whole system to address scientific, economic and social issues. In that respect, sustainable horticulture is not a classical, narrow science. Instead of solving problems using the classical painkiller approach that treats only negative impacts, sustainable horticulture treats problem sources.
Thoroughly revised and updated to reflect current and emerging practices, this book explores modern methods of disease control in field and glasshouse crops. It outlines the major crop diseases, with a particular emphasis on those features of symptomology and life cycle that are most relevant to the development of control measures. Modern diagnostic techniques are considered, focusing on developments in nucleic acid and immunological based procedures and their use in plant quarantine and certification schemes. The potential impact of these advances in molecular technology on plant breeding and disease resistance is also covered. Fungicides are a central part of disease control in the EU and, as such, a comprehensive account of their use forms an important part of the text, along with strategies to minimise the incidence of fungicide resistance in pathogen populations. Looking to the future, the book also addresses legislative, environmental and food safety concerns.
We are just beginning to discover the importance of vitamin C in the health of natural and man-made ecosystems. Synthesis of ascorbic acid is well understood, but algae as the only source of ascorbate in the aquatic food pyramid has not been explored. There is an expanding field of the culture of aquatic organisms that demand formulated feeds to best meet their requirements for health, growth, and reproduction. With over 100 species now cultured for human consumption, the question arises as to whether we have reliable information for the dietary needs for vitamin C for even a small percentage of these organisms. A comprehensive approach to the role of vitamin C at the cellular level as well as in the aquatic food chains, this book discusses growth and reproduction, disease resistance, and toxicology of aquatic organisms. Ascorbic Acid in Aquatic Organisms was written as the offshoot of a special session on aquatic organisms and practical aquaculture at the 1998 World Aquaculture Society (WAS) meeting. This book reviews the research already available and identifies new directions for research. It is a unique combination of good nutrition research, ecology, and practical aquaculture (for instance brine shrimp enrichment). This interdisciplinary volume will appeal to marine fish culturists, aquatic biologists, comparative and evolutionary cellular physiologists, and environmental toxicologists.
Plants form mutualistic association with various microorganisms, particularly in the rhizosphere region. The association benefits both the partners in a number of ways. A single plant can support the growth of diverse microbes and in reciprocation these microbes help the plant in several ways. A great deal of knowledge is now available on the mechanisms of action of plant growth promoting microbes in forming association with their partner plant and benefitting it. With ever increasing population and to achieve food security it has become utmost necessary to utilize these friendly microbes to enhance the crop yield and quality in an ecofriendly and sustainable manner. We already know about the huge negative impact of chemicals used in agriculture on the humans and the ecosystems as whole. 'Plant Microbes Symbiosis - Applied Facets' provides a comprehensive knowledge on practical, functional and purposeful utility of plant-microbe interactions. The book reviews the utilization of beneficial microbes for crop yield enhancement and protection against diseases caused by phytopathogens and nutrient deficiencies. The tome also reviews the utility of plant growth promoting microbes in helping the plants to deal with abiotic stresses imposed by climate change and anthropogenic activities. The book showcases how plant-microbe interactions are or can be utilized for reclamation of stressed soils and degradation of pollutants in a most effective and environment friendly manner. It also ascertains the reasons for the below par performance of the microbial based inoculants. The utilization of biotechnological tools for development of next generation bioformulations to combat the new challenges and overcome past hurdles has been discussed. This wonderful association between plants and microbes if used properly will not only enhance the crop yields and reclaim barren lands but also make our planet a better place to live on for all of its habitants.
A complete overview of the technologies and products for microbial-based pest control. It documents the use of genetically altered Bt and transgenic crops, microbial formulations, and synergistic interactions of microbials with synthetic chemicals, as well as the management of Bt foliar applications and Bt genes in transgenic crops. The book includes case studies and pathogen, products and manufacturers indices.
The tools you need to raise and care for beef cattle
Beef cattle farming is a business that continues to grow in the United States and around the world, and it will only grow larger as the demand for beef continues to increase. "Raising Beef Cattle For Dummies" provides you with an introduction to all aspects of raising beef cattle. Packed with expert tips from experienced farmers, it gives any level of cattle-raiser the tools needed to increase the quantity and quality of your farm's output and maintain a healthy herd.
"Raising Beef Cattle For Dummies" is the go-to resource for aspiring cattle farmers. With important information on health, handling, and breeding, and detailed coverage of equipment and supplies, it is teeming with useful information that anyone interested in raising cattle should have.Advice on which beef cattle breeds to rearThe prevention and treatment of common diseasesCaring for pregnant heifers and calving proceduresDietary specifications dependent on breedGuidance on humane managementCreating an open and safe pasture habitat
If you're an aspiring cattle farmer looking to begin raising cattle or an established raiser interested in expanding your herd, "Raising Beef Cattle For Dummies" has you covered."
This book describes the contributions of rhizotrophs - microbes associated with the parts of plants below ground - in sustainable agriculture. It covers a broad range of aspects, from plant growth promotion to bioremediation. It highlights the role of bacteria, actinomycetes, mycorrhizal fungi, and most interestingly protists, in the sustainability of agriculture. Further, it addresses in detail the involvement of quorum sensing signals, and the role of hydrolytic enzymes and bacteriocin in combating the phytopathogen. The book sheds light on the interaction of rhizotrophs in rhizosphere and how these microbes support plants growing under adverse stress conditions such as saline, drought or heavy-metals contamination. Challenges faced in the field application of these microbes, strategies for modifying the rhizosphere to improve crop yield, and the latest advances in rhizobial bioformulations are also discussed. Overall, the book provides comprehensive information on how various microbes can be used to improve the sustainability of agriculture without disturbing the environment.
As featured on BBC Breakfast. A warm, engaging and witty memoir from the star of Channel 5's The Yorkshire Vet. This is the life story of vet Peter Wright, charting his working relationship with the famous 'James Herriot', from work experience with him as a lad, to taking over his practice in the beautiful Yorkshire Dales. Packed full of laugh-out loud moments, heartbreaking stories and transporting tales of his love for the animals and people of this breathtaking part of the country. Covering his bucolic childhood growing up on a farm right through to the heady days of his successful Channel 5 TV series, Peter's warm nature and professional attitude shine through every page. 'Honest and refreshing' On: Yorkshire Magazine Includes a Foreword by Jim Wight, author of The Real James Herriot. What readers are saying: 'Fascinating and absolutely engrossing' 'One of the best books I've read this year' 'Peter has been a noble successor to James Herriot' Real reader reviews from GoodReads.com
Food security has always been a major global concern and is getting more attention in recent years. In fact, the global economy and stability has been severely challenged by the precarious state of food security, which was exacerbated by a combination of sharp price volatility and disastrous weather conditions related to climate change. The book aims to improve the analysis and projection of agricultural production and marketing, facilitates information exchange to better food supply and demand and ultimately contributes to enhance world food security and sustainable global agricultural development.
This Technical Report presents the outcome of a Working Group that was established to determine broadly applicable sound exposure guidelines for fishes and sea turtles. After consideration of the diversity of fish and sea turtles, guidelines were developed for broad groups of animals, defined by the way they detect sound. Different sound sources were considered in terms of their acoustic characteristics and appropriate metrics defined for measurement of the received levels. The resultant sound exposure guidelines are presented in a set of tables. In some cases numerical guidelines are provided, expressed in appropriate metrics. When there were insufficient data to support numerical values, the "relative "likelihood of effects occurring was evaluated, although the "actual" likelihood of effects depends on the received level. These sound exposure guidelines, which are based on the best scientific information at the time of writing, should be treated as interim. The expectation is that with more research the guidelines can be refined and more cells in the tables completed. Recommendations are put forward defining the research requirements of highest priority for extending these interim exposure guidelines.
This book explains how cultural heritage can be a tool for enhancing urban agriculture and improving landscape and life quality. It cuts across the existing literature and fills the gaps between urban agriculture, considered as a food, social and environmental opportunity and cultural heritage, considered as resource. It focuses the role of the countryside for urban areas, in the history of the city and today. Its attention is on the quality for all areas, both outstanding, ordinary and degraded, as well as large, little or fragmented (European landscape convention 2000). It considers agricultural landscape as a system of tangible and intangible heritage components and relationships, to be retained, enhanced and transmit, in a process of inevitable but appropriate dynamic conservation and management over time (ICOMOS-IFLA Principles 2017). This book can benefit the collaboration among local players - such as farmers, citizens, associations, public institutions, stakeholders - in conserving and enhancing agrarian heritage and reinforcing the identity of places and people. It can strengthen collective action and generate positive effects on good large and local -scale management. The first part has a methodological character in order to enlighten the integrated approach between cultural heritage and urban agriculture. The second part exemplifies cases where the heritage has been recognised but not yet translated into concrete action. The third Part discloses ongoing process of co-construction, where policies have recognized the cultural, environmental and social meaning of urban agriculture as heritage. This book aims to reach scholars, local administrations, professionals, farmers and citizens. It involves many authors, many of whom are directly engaged with action-research in safeguarding and implementing the mutual interaction between urban agriculture activities and agrarian heritage.
8 lectures, Koberwitz, June 7-20, 1924 (CW 327) The audio book, complete and unabridged (10 CD set), is read by respected actor and speech teacher Peter Bridgmont, author of Liberation of the Actor When Rudolf Steiner gave these lectures eighty years ago, industrial farming was on the rise and organic methods were being replaced in the name of science, efficiency, and technology. With the widespread alarm over food quality in recent years, and with the growth of the organic movement and its mainstream acceptance, perceptions are changing. The qualitative aspect of food is on the agenda again, and in this context Steiner's only course of lectures on agriculture is critical to the current debate. With these talks, Steiner created and launched "biodynamic" farming--a form of agriculture that has come to be regarded as the best organically produced food. However, the agriculture Steiner speaks of here is much more than organic--it involves working with the cosmos, with the earth, and with spiritual beings. To facilitate this, Steiner prescribes specific "preparations" for the soil, as well as other distinct methods born from his profound understanding of the material and spiritual worlds. He presents a comprehensive picture of the complex dynamic relationships at work in nature and gives basic indications of the practical measures needed to bring them into full play. These lectures are reprinted here in the "classic" translation made by Rudolf Steiner's English interpreter, George Adams. This edition also features a preface by Steiner's colleague the medical doctor Ehrenfried Pfeiffer, as well as eight color plates. This is the course that began the biodynamic movement. Rudolf Steiner's Agriculture Course is the essential work for anyone wanting to understand and use Steiner's methods of food production. This book is a translation from German of Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft. Landwirtschaftlicher Kursus (GA 327).
With interest growing in areas of forestry, conservation and other natural sciences, the need to organize and tabulate large amounts of forestry and natural science information has become a necessary skill. Previous attempts of applying statistical methods to these areas tend to be over-specialized and of limited use; an elementary text using methods, examples and exercises that are relevant to forestry and the natural sciences is long overdue. This book utilizes basic descriptive statistics and probability, as well as commonly used statistical inferential tools to introduce topics that are commonplace in a forestry context such as hypothesis texting, design of experiments, sampling methods, nonparametric tests and statistical quality control. It also contains examples and exercises drawn from the fields of forestry, wood science, and conservation.
Lameness is one of the major ailments of dairy cows. The distress it causes to the afflicted animals is reflected in decreased milk yields and an increase in infertility. Over the past twenty years, there has been a continuous programme of research in Britain and overseas into all aspects of the disease. In particular, our understanding of the changes in hoof growth around the time of calving has greatly increased. This enlarged and completely revised new edition takes into account all the recent research findings and presents the results in a readable manner. The highly illustrated text is fully referenced for students who wish to enquire further, but above all it is a straightforward manual for the practical use of those dealing with dairy cows.
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