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The third edition of this successful title presents current research and commercial uses of controlled atmosphere storage and modified atmosphere packaging of fresh fruit and vegetables to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview. New and developed technologies for the transportation and storage of horticultural products are essential to ensure that produce reaches consumers in the best possible condition, and have the potential to reduce the postharvest use of chemicals, reduce losses and maintain nutritional quality and organoleptic characteristics. Covering the increasingly used science and technology of preserving the freshness of fruit and vegetables in all aspects of their postharvest life, this book puts the subject in the context of its history and current practices, in addition to future prospects. The new edition: - Explores the large volume of research that is continuously being published on the topic. - Reviews and evaluates the adaptation and improvement of commercial technologies. - Considers the effects of techniques and technologies on flavour, quality and physiology, in addition to the damage inflicted by pests, diseases and disorders. - Contains 5 new chapters covering genetics and CA storage, dynamic CA storage, hyperbaric storage, hypobaric storage and fruit ripening. Fully revised and presented in full colour throughout, this book is a readily accessible resource for researchers, scientists, growers, students and industry personnel.
New Zealand depends on what our farmers, foresters and horticulturalists grow. When agriculture catches a cold, the entire economy sneezes. Right now things are looking a bit gloomy. Whats the crisis telling us we should be doing better? This first issue addresses the dairy industrys current woes and asks: Given the huge risks NZ Inc. faces, is agriculture headed in the right direction, does it need to be reshaped, and how can we make it attack- and disaster-proof?
Reissue of this immortal, hilarious, and heartwarming classic about working a chicken farm in the Northwest.
Since the advent of agriculture approximately 12,000 years ago, human activity has created a unique set of ecosystems. However, the recent development of world markets, rapid technological advances, and other changes to farming practices have led to hugely increased pressures on farm habitats and organisms. Global human populations are rising and diets are becoming ever more complicated, leading to unrelenting requirements for increased levels of food production. Natural biotopes are becoming increasingly fragmented as agricultural activities expand around them. "Agroecosystems" now occur from the tropics to subarctic environments and comprise systems as varied as annual crops, perennial grasslands, orchards, and agroforestry systems. They presently cover almost 40% of the terrestrial land surface and significantly shape landscapes at a global scale. This key addition to the OUP Biology of Habitats Series provides a novel perspective on agroecosystems, summarising our current understanding of the basic and applied aspects of these important and complex habitats, whilst focusing on environmental concerns in the context of global change. The Biology of Agroecosystemsis is for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in agroecology, farmland ecology, conservation, and agriculture as well as the many professional ecologists, conservation biologists, and land managers requiring a concise overview of agroecology.
This book tackles an increasingly crucial question: What can we do about the seemingly intractable challenges confronting all of humanity today, including climate change, global hunger, water scarcity, environmental stress, and economic instability? The quick answers are: Build topsoil. Fix creeks. Eat meat from pasture-raised animals. Scientists maintain that a mere 2 percent increase in the carbon content of the planet's soils could offset 100 percent of all greenhouse gas emissions going into the atmosphere. But how could this be accomplished? What would it cost? Is it even possible? Yes, says author Courtney White, it is not only possible, but essential for the long-term health and sustainability of our environment and our economy. Right now, the only possibility of large-scale removal of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere is through plant photosynthesis and related land-based carbon sequestration activities. These include a range of already existing, low-tech, and proven practices: composting, no-till farming, climate-friendly livestock practices, conserving natural habitat, restoring degraded watersheds and rangelands, increasing biodiversity, and producing local food. In Grass, Soil, Hope, the author shows how all these practical strategies can be bundled together into an economic and ecological whole, with the aim of reducing atmospheric CO2 while producing substantial co-benefits for all living things. Soil is a huge natural sink for carbon dioxide. If we can draw increasing amounts carbon out of the atmosphere and store it safely in the soil then we can significantly address all the multiple challenges that now appear so intractable.
This fourth edition of Plant Systematics is completely revised and updated. It incorporates the updated International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Shenzhen Code, 2018), the new version of PhyloCode (Beta version of Phylocode 5, 2014), APweb version 14 (September, 2018), revised Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification (APG IV, 2016), new Pteridophyte Phylogeny Group Classification (PPG I, 2016), besides the updates since the publication of third edition. The book is a blend of classical fundamental aspects and recent developments, especially in the field of molecular systematics, cladistics and computer identification. Special attention has been given to information on botanical nomenclature, identification, molecular systematics and phylogeny of angiosperms. The complicated concepts of phylogeny, taxometrics and cladistics have been explained with a view to providing a comparison between these diverse but interactive fields of study. An attempt has been made to build upon a common example when exploring different methods, especially in procedures of identification, taxometrics and cladistics. The major systems of classification are evaluated critically. Discussion on major families of Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, especially those of major phylogenetic interest, form a major portion of this edition. The ebook includes nearly 500 color photographs set out in 36 pages covering plants from different parts of the world. In addition, 305 black & white illustrations have been included to provide a better understanding of the plants covered in the book.
An integrated approach to understanding and mitigating the problem of excess nitrogen Human activities generate large amounts of excess nitrogen, which has dramatically altered the nitrogen cycle. Reactive forms of nitrogen, especially nitrate and ammonia, are particularly detrimental. Given the magnitude of the problem, there is an urgent need for information on reactive nitrogen and its effective management. Nitrogen Overload: Environmental Degradation, Ramifications, and Economic Costs presents an integrated, multidisciplinary review of alterations to the nitrogen cycle over the past century and the wide-ranging consequences of nitrogen-based pollution, especially to aquatic ecosystems and human health. Volume highlights include: Comprehensive background information on the nitrogen cycle Detailed description of anthropogenic nitrogen sources Review of the environmental, economic, and health impacts of nitrogen pollution Recommendations and strategies for reducing humanity's nitrogen footprint Discussion of national nitrogen footprints and worldwide examples of mitigation policies The American Geophysical Union promotes discovery in Earth and space science for the benefit of humanity. Its publications disseminate scientific knowledge and provide resources for researchers, students, and professionals.
This book presents a comprehensive review of the most recent studies on the impact of contaminants on the marine environment. Conventional and new information, as well as the latest techniques, are presented, which can be applied to several types of marine organisms from bacteria and fungi to animals and algae. Specific topics discussed include the impact of different contaminants on different organisms as well as different approaches and their outcomes in terms of impact assessment. The integration of these techniques is also discussed in order to attain sentinel species and biomarkers to be applied for assessing ecological quality and impact assessment programs and studies.
The Small-Scale Dairy includes everything you need to know in order to successfully produce nourishing, healthy, farm-fresh milk. Whether for home use, direct sale to the consumer, or sale to an artisanal cheesemaker, high-quality raw milk is a delicate, desirable product. Successful and sustainable production requires the producer to consider and tackle many details, ranging from animal care to microbiology to good hygienic practices-and, for those with commercial aspirations, business plans, market savvy, and knowledge of the regulations. Applicable to keepers of cows, goats, or sheep, The Small-Scale Dairy offers a holistic approach that explores the relationships between careful, conscientious management and the production of safe, healthy, and delicious milk. A historical overview offers readers a balanced perspective on the current regulatory environment in which raw milk lovers find themselves. Included are options for designing a well-functioning small dairy, choosing equipment, and understanding myriad processes-such as the use of low-temperature pasteurization where raw milk sales are prohibited. Whether you have a one-cow home dairy, a fifty-goat operation, or are simply a curious consumer, The Small-Scale Dairy is an accessible and invaluable resource for achieving your goals.
Monoculture farming is nowadays a widespread practice throughout the world. In order to meet the food demand of rapidly increasing populations, the diverse agroecosystems have been converted mostly into single cropping sectors. Even though food productivity with high input has been boosted to some extent, it is at the cost of local biodiversity loss. This book, drawing examples from several tropical and sub-tropical countries, documents some of the most prevailing monoculture practices and their socio-economic and environmental influences. It describes widespread commercial monoculture of rubber and oil palm, as well as the invasion of exotic mono-plantations in the forestry sector. Both rubber and oil palm are highly lucrative businesses, and these industries have brought positive impacts on rural development, regional economies, including lifting small farmers out of poverty. The rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber in the last few decades has resulted in widespread deforestation, biodiversity loss, and carbon emissions in the tropics, and has also negatively affected the livelihoods of many local communities. Similar effects have also been observed in the case of the conversion of heterogenous forests into monocuture plantations. An integrated land use planning approach is suggested in order to minimize the negative impacts and maximize the positive benefits of monoculture farming. Further, enhancing plant-soil microbial interactions through innoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi for soil fertility management is also suggested. With up-to-date information on this subject matter, this book will benefit researchers, academics, students, policymakers and practitioners.
Completely updated with new content and full-colour figures throughout, the second edition of this successful book continues to provide a comprehensive coverage of pineapple breeding, production and yield. Pineapple is an increasingly important crop and demand for fresh pineapple is steadily growing; stakeholders in the value chain are worldwide. The Pineapple: Botany, Production and Uses provides essential coverage from botany through to postharvest handling and provides the technical information required by all those working with the crop. The second edition: - Contains new chapters on organic production and production for other uses (fibre and ornamentals). - Includes major updates to content on taxonomy, biotechnology, cultural systems, nutrition, varieties and genetic improvement. - Explores physiological changes associated with the year-round growing of pineapple in addition to the associated cultural practices and mineral nutrition. - Considers the impacts of climate change and environmental issues on pineapple crops, and relevant mitigation strategies. - Looks at the effects of new cultivars and technologies on cultural practices and plant nutrition. Written by an international team of experts, this book is an essential resource for researchers, growers and all those involved in the pineapple industry.
This book paints a wide canvas of the immense global economic potential of ten most important cash generating crops spread over Asia, Africa and Latin America, namely, Arecanut, Cashew Nut, Coconut, Cinchona, Cocoa, Coffee, Tea, Oil Palm, Rubber and Wattle. It provides a cross-sectoral, multi-scale assessment of the status of these crops, from seed to dining table, an invaluable treatise on the subject. Structured to be an invaluable tool for the inquisitive researcher, an ardent student, and, an insightful policy maker.
Practical, easy to understand, and up-to-date, INTRODUCTION TO FORESTRY SCIENCE, Third Edition provides readers with a comprehensive overview of the principles and practices of forest management that are commonly practiced in the United States. Appropriate for anyone interested in forestry or natural resources, this book is filled with visual aids and tools as well as career profiles which give readers an overview of what it might be like to work in the forest industry and demonstrate how concepts are applied in the real world. In addition to covering the basics of the biological processes necessary for the creation of forests, topics such as the economic impact of forests on the U.S. economy, government historical events and policies, regional differences in forests and forest management, and laws and regulations that govern the use of forests are presented.
The predicted depletion of fossil fuels has mobilised society and the scientific community towards the use of alternative and sustainable sources of energy. A promising alternative could be the valorisation of oil bearing crops via transesterification reactions towards the production of biodiesel. As such, the first chapter assesses the most significant contributions in the homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysed transesterification under acidic or alkaline conditions considering the parameters affecting the processes as well as biodiesel yields. The following chapter highlights the synthesis of copper soaps derived from edible oils, the synthesis of complexes with 2-amino-6-methyl Benzothiazole derived from already synthesised copper soaps for comparative studies, spectral studies, thermogravimetric analysis of copper soaps derived from groundnut, sesame, neem and karanja, and more. The authors go on to highlight biocidal studies performed to assess the comparative toxicity on two easily available fungi, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus niger. The synthesis of copper soaps with increasing carbon atom p-substituted benzothiazoles is also examined. In the concluding chapter, the authors summarise the results of the microencapsulation technology of butylated hydroxyanisole carried out in their laboratory in recent years. Both free and microencapsulated butylated hydroxyanisole were in situ evaluated for controlling the mycoflora present in peanut stored in different systems intended for confectionery, seed and industry.
For thousands of years, Ethiopia has depended on its smallholding farmers to provide the bulk of its food needs. But now, such farmers find themselves under threat from environmental degradation, climate change and declining productivity. As a result, smallholder agriculture has increasingly become subsistence-oriented, with many of these farmers trapped in a cycle of poverty. Smallholders have long been marginalised by mainstream development policies, and only more recently has their crucial importance been recognised for addressing rural poverty through agricultural reform. This collection, written by leading Ethiopian scholars, explores the scope and impact of Ethiopia's policy reforms over the past two decades on the smallholder sector. Focusing on the Lake Tana basin in northwestern Ethiopia, an area with untapped potential for growth, the contributors argue that any effective policy will need to go beyond agriculture to consider the role of health, nutrition and local food customs, as well as including increased safeguards for smallholder's land rights. They in turn show that smallholders represent a vitally overlooked component of development strategy, not only in Ethiopia but across the global South.
Italy's peculiar cultural variability is the result of population movements and invasions from the Mediterranean Sea, which took place in both historical and prehistoric times. Due to many interesting places such as the city of Rome, Central Italy was endured by migrants, who have contributed to Italy's culture, linguistics and also genetics. Chapter One reconstructs human demic movements in central Italy using both archeology and genetics. Chapter Two addresses issues in the conceptual context of land take, which is a change in agriculture, forestry, and other lands due to urbanisation and artificial land development, in Sardinian urban areas of Italy. Moreover, global warming has had a negative impact on water balance, natural systems, and agriculture activities. Chapter Three provides a seasonal analysis of crop evapotranspiration based on the Penman-Monteith equation in the Po River Delta in Italy.
Today, 20 percent of the global food supply relies on urban agriculture: social-ecological systems shaped by both human and non-human interactions. This book shows how urban agroecologists measure flora and fauna that underpin the ecological dynamics of these systems, and how people manage and benefit from these systems. It explains how the sociopolitical landscape in which these systems are embedded can in turn shape the social, ecological, political, and economic dynamics within them. Synthesizing interdisciplinary approaches in urban agroecology in the natural and social sciences, the book explores methodologies and new directions in research that can be adopted by scholars and practitioners alike. With contributions from researchers utilizing both social and natural science approaches, Urban Agroecology describes the current social-environmental understandings of the science, the movement and the practices in urban agroecology. By investigating the role of agroecology in cities, the book calls for the creation of spaces for food to be sustainably grown in urban spaces: an Urban Agriculture (UA) movement. Essential reading for graduate students, practitioners, policy makers and researchers, this book charts the course for accelerating this movement.
Beekeeping's popularity as a hobby continues to skyrocket. Beekeeper's Lab gives you 52 bee-inspired labs to do all year long, and are accessible enough to share with the family. Fill the year ahead with weekly activities from around and about the hive, including art projects, recipes, experiments, garden activities, and more! Bees are important to local ecosystems, now more than ever. Whether you're already a beekeeper, or are still considering getting your first hive, Beekeeper'sLab has projects perfect for you. This extensive guide book features 52 beekeeping and hive-inspired projects to keep you involved with your bees and hive all year long. The tutorials are brief, accomplishable, rewarding, and best of all, they are presented in a friendly lab-style format. Try a new technique each week with how-tos and sidebars with tips that are perfect for including the whole family. Beekeeping is a fun hobby for the whole family to enjoy, plus, who doesn't want their own supply of honey?
Modern aquaculture is faced with a number of challenges, including public concern about environmental impacts and the welfare of farmed fish. A fundamental understanding of fish biology is central to finding ways to meet these challenges and is also essential for maintaining the industry's sustainability.
Furthermore, the behaviour of fish under culture situations has long been ignored despite heavy commercial losses that can result from fish stressed and hence disease-prone, due to bad husbandry techniques.
This important book summarises the current understanding of the behavioural biology of farmed species and illustrates how this can be applied to improve aquaculture practice.
Informative and engaging, "Aquaculture & Behavior" brings the reader up-to-date with major issues pertaining to aquaculture. Everyone from fish farmers to upper level students will find this book a valuable and practical resource. Libraries in universities and research establishments where animal behavior, aquaculture, veterinary and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this work on their shelves.
Agriculture is one of the defining elements of a nation. This series consists of analyses on a variety of agricultural issues including (but not limited to) the developments, policies, programs, trade, trends and economics of agriculture. Topics will be seen from a U.S. perspective, but not to the exclusion of other countries particularly when the discussion has an international scope. Topics discussed in this issue include farm safety net programs; specialty crop provision in the 2014 Farm Bill; background and issues in agricultural research; the effects of recent energy price reductions on U.S. agriculture; and the effect of transportation costs on fresh fruit and vegetable prices.
This expanded and fully updated Second Edition of the most comprehensive and successful book on lobsters, comprises contributions from many of the world s experts, each providing core information for all those working in lobster biology, fisheries research and management and lobster aquaculture. Under the editorship of Bruce Phillips, the Second Edition of Lobsters: Biology, Management, Fisheries and Aquaculture delivers exhaustive coverage of these fascinating creatures, stretching from growth and development to management and conservation. A number of chapters from the First Edition covering Growth, Reproduction, Diseases, Behaviour, Nutrition, Larval and Post-Larval Ecology and Juvenile and Adult Ecology have been replaced by new chapters including Lobsters in Ecosystems, Genetics, Translocation, Climate Change, Ecolabelling of Lobsters, Casitas and Other Artificial Shelters, Systems to maximise Economic Benefits. These new chapters reflect changes that are occurring in lobster management and new research developments brought on by social, climatic and economic changes. As well as information from new research output, information in each chapter is also included on individual commercial Genera, including aspects of Species and distribution, Predators and diseases, Ecology and behaviour, Aquaculture and enhancement, Harvest of wild populations and their regulations, Management and conservation. The chapter on slipper lobsters has also been expanded to include Thenus and Ibacus species which are now subject to commercial fisheries. The changes that have occurred in some lobster fisheries, the new management arrangements in place, the status of stocks and the current economic and social situation of each fishery have also been covered and discussed in great detail. Fisheries scientists, fisheries managers aquaculture personnel, aquatic and invertebrate biologists, physiologists, ecologists, marine biologists and environmental biologists will all find Lobsters Second Edition to be a vital source of reference. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and life sciences and fisheries and aquaculture are studied and taught will find it an extremely valuable addition to their shelves.
Oil palm is the world's most important oil crop and crossing is used extensively in the production of commercial seed, breeding and genetic studies. This book illustrates crossing techniques to maximise success and safeguard purity, enabling the production of high quality seeds to grow-on as planting material and in breeding superior cultivars. Presenting sound practices based on scientific innovation in plant breeding, this guide provides techniques integrated with expertise and application of sustainable aspects of agronomy and crop protection, alongside information and imaging technology. Promoting green, eco-friendly agriculture, this book covers: biology and genetics, germplasm, target traits and commercial crossing; health and safety considerations in the field and laboratory; pollen collection and storage, pollen viability testing, and pollination; isolation of the female inflorescence; and commercial tenera production. Based on experience and protocols, this is an invaluable manual for students and researchers in agriculture, plant breeders, growers and end users interested in the practicalities of oil palm crossing for breeding and commercial seed production
Having established the central concepts of farmers' research, this book examines farmers' innovation through 17 wide-ranging case studies from around the world. It concludes by revisiting the major themes in relation to the lessons learned, and sets out the future issues and challenges for governmental and non-governmental organizations involved in agricultural development. Published in the ILEIA Readings in Sustainable Agriculture series.
Large farms now dominate crop production in the United States. Although most cropland was operated by farms with less than 600 crop acres in the early 1980s, today most cropland is on farms with at least 1,100 acres, and many farms are 5 and 10 times that size. This ongoing shift in farm structure raises a host of questions. How extensive is this structural change? What forces have accompanied and contributed to the shift to larger farms? What implications do these structural shifts have for family farms? The shift of acreage to larger farms is part of a complex set of structural changes in crop agriculture. The number of mid-size crop farms has declined, while farm numbers at the extremes (large and small) are growing. Because of these changes, average farm size has changed little in the last three decades, even while cropland and crop production have shifted to much larger farms. This book documents the complex nature of modern farm structure and introduces statistics aimed at better tracking consolidation of land and production. Furthermore, this book looks at small acreage farms having gross sales of $10,000 or more in a given year to better understand the product choices and strategies used by small acreage farms that appear to be operating profitably.
The aim of this new book series (Diatoms: Biology and Applications) is to provide a comprehensive and reliable source of information on diatom biology and applications. The first book of the series, Diatoms Fundamentals & Applications, is wide ranging, starting with the contributions of amateurs and the beauty of diatoms, to details of how their shells are made, how they bend light to their advantage and ours, and major aspects of their biochemistry (photosynthesis and iron metabolism). The book then delves into the ecology of diatoms living in a wide range of habitats, and look at those few that can kill or harm us. The book concludes with a wide range of applications of diatoms, in forensics, manufacturing, medicine, biofuel and agriculture. The contributors are leading international experts on diatoms. This book is for a wide audience researchers, academics, students, and teachers of biology and related disciplines, written to both act as an introduction to diatoms and to present some of the most advanced research on them.
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