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Maize is the world's most productive food and industrial crop, grown in more than 160 countries and on every continent except Antarctica. If by some catastrophe maize were to disappear from our food supply chain, vast numbers of people would starve and global economies would rapidly collapse. How did we come to be so dependent on this one plant? Maize for the Gods brings together new research by archaeologists, archaeobotanists, plant geneticists, and a host of other specialists to explore the complex ways that this single plant and the peoples who domesticated it came to be inextricably entangled with one another over the past nine millennia. Tracing maize from its first appearance and domestication in ancient campsites and settlements in Mexico to its intercontinental journey through most of North and South America, this history also tells the story of the artistic creativity, technological prowess, and social, political, and economic resilience of America's first peoples.
This book opens with an investigation on the effects of natural fermentation and drying methods on physicochemical properties of proso millet flour. Fermented proso millet flour is either oven dried or dried at room temperature, and its chemical content and characterization are ascertained using standard methods. Following this, the authors evaluate the forage production and chemical composition of two pearl millet cultivars fertilized with four doses of nitrogen with three cutting heights. Results are presented which indicate that ammonium sulfonitrate treated with nitrification inhibitor revealed possible toxic effects at lower doses and is recommended only when high nitrogen doses are used. One chapter is dedicated to Count Samuel TELEKI de Szek (1845-1916), a Hungarian explorer who was the first European to see and name Telekis Volcano (1888), Lake Rudolf (1888) (syn.: Lake Turkana; renamed in 1975) in Kenya; and Lake Stefanie (1888; named after Princess Stephanie of Belgium; now called Lake Chew Bahir) in Ethiopia. S. Teleki was among the first in the World to attempt to climb the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. In closing, the authors concluded that the use of pearl millet as forage is increasing in the Brazilian Cerrado due to its adaptability to harsh conditions and high protein and digestibility levels. There are very few studies evaluating the animal performance in Brazil, especially related to silage use. Thus, there is a necessity for more research involving animal performance in order to recommend or discourage its use, especially as silage for dairy cows.
Welcome to your tour of the wine-growing world. Wine has rolled its barrel from the shores of the Black Sea to the mountains of the Andes, following humans and their dreams. But just how did a Pyrenean grape variety end up in Uruguay? And by what means were grapevines able to reach Japan?
This book goes back through time to retrace the grape s conquest of the world, stopping in each wine-making country, from the oldest (Georgia) to the most recent (Poland), to discover wines past and present, while looking to future producers in places such as Tahiti and Sweden.
The atlas works on a spread-by-spread basis. For each region there is a large-scale, specially drawn map, an overview of the area's history of wine production and a list of its main grape varieties, along with details of its world ranking in production volume, annual production, proportion of black and white grapes produced, month of the grape harvest, date of first viticulture (and which culture brought it) and suggestions of appelations to taste. The end section contains further statistics and information on grape varieties, characteristics and terroirs.
This large-scale publication, encompassing 56 countries, 100 maps and 8,000 years of wine history, is a tour de force in wine publishing.
Grain Storage was first published in 1969. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.The deterioration or spoilage of stored grain is a problem of serious dimension, both from the standpoint of the financial balance sheet of those engaged in commercial grain enterprises and as a formidable factor in the worldwide fight against hunger. In this useful book the authors present practical information, in non-technical language, about the causes and methods of preventing the deterioration of stored grains and seeds.The emphasis is on the role of fungi but material also is included on problems with insects, mites, and rodents in connection with grain storage. The fungi are of prime importance since not until recently have they been recognized as a major cause of loss of quality in grains and seeds. Even today many of those who deal with grains, from warehouses to management personnel, fail to realize that fungi may play a decisive role in their operations.The book will be of special interest and value to grain merchants and processors, grain elevator managers and operators, grain inspectors, agronomists and agricultural economists concerned with crop production, and many others in agricultural or food processing fields.
Management Strategies for Water Use Efficiency and Micro Irrigated Crops presents new research and technologies for making better use of water resources for agricultural purposes. The chapters focus on better management to improve allocation and irrigation water efficiency and look at performance factors as well. Chapters look at irrigation technology, environmental conditions, and scheduling of water application. One section of the book focuses on water management in the cultivation of sugarcane, a very important industrial crop used in many fields. Other sections are devoted to principles and challenging technologies, water use efficiency for drip-irrigated crops, performance of fertigated rice under micro irrigation, and evaluation of performance of drip-irrigated crops. This valuable book is a must for those struggling to find ways to address the need to maintain efficient crop production in the midst of water shortages. With chapters from hands-on experts in the field, the book will be an invaluable reference and guide to effective micro irrigation methods.
ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas Address: P.O. Box 5466, Aleppo, Syria Telex: 331206 ICARDA SY, 331208 ICARDA SY Fax: 963-21-213490 Established in 1977, ICARDA is governed by an independent Board of Trustees. Based at Aleppo, Syria, it is one of 18 centres supported by the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR), which is an international group of representatives of donor agencies, eminent agricultural scientists, and institutional administrators from developed and developing countries who guide and support its work. The CGIAR seeks to enhance and sustain food production and, at the same time, improve the socioeconomic conditions of people through strengthening national research systems in developing countries. ICARDA focuses its research efforts on areas with a dry summer, where precipitation in winter ranges from 200 mm to 600 mm. The Center has a global responsibility for the improvement of barley, lentil and faba bean, and a regional responsibility -- in West Asia and North Africa -- for the improvement of wheat, chickpea and pasture and forage crops and the associated farming systems. Much of ICARDA's research is carried out on a 948-hectare farm at its headquarters at Tel Hadya, about 35 km south-west of Aleppo. ICARDA also manages other sites where it tests material under a variety of agroecological conditions in Syria and Lebanon. However, the full scope of ICARDA's activities can be appreciated only when account is taken of the cooperative research carried out with many countries in West Asia and North Africa. The results of research are transferred through ICARDA's cooperation with national and regional research institutions, universities and ministries of agriculture, and through the technical assistance and training that the Center provides. A range of training programmes is offered, extending from residential courses for groups to advanced research opportunities for individuals. These efforts are supported by seminars and publications and by specialised information services.
Inland fisheries are vital for the livelihoods and food resources of humans worldwide but their importance is underestimated, probably because large numbers of small, local operators are involved. Freshwater Fisheries Ecology defines what we have globally, what we are going to lose and mitigate for, and what, given the right tools, we can save. To estimate potential production, the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems (rivers, lakes and estuaries) need to be understood. These dynamics are diverse, as are the earth's freshwater fisheries resources (from boreal to tropical regions), and these influence how fisheries are both utilized and abused. Three main types of fisheries are illustrated within the book: artisanal, commercial and recreational, and the tools which have evolved for fisheries governance and management, including assessment methods, are described. The book also covers in detail fisheries development, providing information on improving fisheries through environmental and habitat evaluation, enhancement and rehabilitation, aquaculture, genetically modified fishes and sustainability. The book thoroughly reviews the negative impacts on fisheries including excessive harvesting, climate change, toxicology, impoundments, barriers and abstractions, non-native species and eutrophication. Finally, key areas of future research are outlined. Freshwater Fisheries Ecology is truly a landmark publication, containing contributions from over 100 leading experts and supported by the Fisheries Society of the British Isles. The global approach makes this book essential reading for fish biologists, fisheries scientists and ecologists and upper level students in these disciplines. Libraries in all universities and research establishments where biological and fisheries sciences are studied and taught should have multiple copies of this hugely valuable resource. About the Editor John Craig is Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Fish Biology and has an enormous range of expertise and a wealth of knowledge of freshwater fishes and their ecology, having studied them around the globe, including in Asia, North America, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. His particular interests have been in population dynamics and life history strategies. He is a Fellow of the Linnean Society of London and the Royal Society of Biology.
Biofilms are predominant mode of life for microbes under natural conditions. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides enhanced protection from physical, chemical and biological stress conditions to associated microbial communities. These complex and highly structured microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining the health of plants, soils and waters. Biofilm associated with plants may be pathogenic or beneficial based on the nature of their interactions. Pathogenic or undesirable biofilm requires control in many situations, including soil, plants, food and water. Written by leading experts from around the world, Biofilms in Plant and Soil Health provides an up-to-date review on various aspects of microbial biofilms, and suggests future and emerging trends in biofilms in plant and soil health. Issues are addressed in four sub areas: I) The fundamentals and significance of biofilm in plant and soil health, and the concept of mono and mixed biofilms by PGPR and fungal biofilms. II) Biochemical and molecular mechanisms in biofilm studies in plant associated bacteria, and techniques in studying biofilms and their characterization, gene expression and enhanced antimicrobial resistance in biofilms, as well as biotic and biotic factors affecting biofilm in vitro. III) The ecological significance of soil associated biofilms and stress management and bioremediation of contaminated soils and degraded ecosystems. IV) Pathogenic biofilm associated with plant and food and its control measures. This book is recommended for students and researchers working in agricultural and environmental microbiology, biotechnology, soil sciences, soil and plant health and plant protection. Researchers working in the area of quorum sensing, biofilm applications, and understanding microbiome of soil and plants will also find it useful.
Balsam Fir was first published in 1965. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.Professors Bakuzis and Hansen, with the assistance of a number of co-authors of individual chapters, present an exhaustive survey of the literature on the balsam fir, providing a coherent picture of the species and its place in nature and forestry practice. The balsam fir is used extensively in the pulp and paper industry, and it is known to millions as a traditional Christmas tree. In North America it is a major tree species in Canada, in the northeastern United States, and in the Great Lakes region. In the search of the literature, over 2000 sources were consulted and considerably more than half of them are cited in the book. The references, organized in an ecological framework, cover the period from the seventeenth century to the present. The authors have reviewed and integrated these data in a unified, but multipurposed, book. In the integration of the source material the authors also made contributions of their own. The book contains the following chapters: Botanical Foundations, Geography and Synecology, Ecological Factors, Microbiology, Entomology, Reproduction, Stand Development, Growth and Yield, and Utilization. Appendixes list fungi and myxomycetes and insects associated with balsam fir. There are 30 illustrations, including a frontispiece drawing by the noted nature artist Francis Lee Jaques. The book will appeal to a wide range of readers specifically concerned with forestry, including research workers, educators, entomologists, pathologists, and managing foresters, as well as conservationists and wildlife biologist in general.
If you've never thought of goats as supermodels, the glamorous caprines on these pages will soon change your mind. Each professionally-photographed portrait in this book features alongside a full description of the breed, its origins, current uses, and geographical spread. A succinct introduction looks at the history of the goat as a provider of skinsmeat, and dairy-and at its increasing modern role as pet and companion, too-while a section of reportage at the back of the book shows the behind-the-scenes story of the goats who modelled for this book. From the svelte lines and sophisticated, marbled coat of the Anglo Nubian and the neat stripes of the rare Bagot to the sweet 'n' furry little pygmy goats, Beautiful Goats is the perfect gift for goat-lovers that will have you yearning to start your own real-life collection.
Barley is one of the earliest crops to be domesticated and its cultivation since the beginning of the 21st century, provides new utilities for the nutrition and sustainable development. It is one of the largest source crops used in the production of fodder, alcoholic beverages, biofuels and healthful foods. This book focuses on several topics that include the organic breeding and cultivation of barley; the biological characteristics of spring barley varieties in the far east of Russia; the contribution of barley in the bovine methane production in feedlots; the barley husk; the grain and endosperm biophysical characteristics of barley malting; the vacuolar H+ -PPhase genes in barley; the application of barley in cereal technology; the abiotic stress response in barley and the emergent roles of microRNAs; the dynamics of oxidative processes and activation of antioxidant systems in barley leaves under drought condition of soil; and the isolation of high-yielding paraquat-resistant lines of hordeum vulgare CV fibre snow.
This book has been written for existing and future entrepreneurs who wish to produce dry foods commercially at small and medium scale. Great effort has been made to use simple language but at the same time to examine all relevant technical aspects.It starts with examining the basic principles of drying, together with the basic food technology involved.This is followed by aspects related to markets including advice on carrying out a market survey, and marketing or selling the product both locally, nationally and internationally. On the assumption that a market exists, the publication then examines operational aspects related to the drying of common food groups and advice on establishing production, planning quality assurance and costing the product. The section ends with advice on preparing a business plan.The final chapter considers the design of a dryer for a given application. This chapter, which involves highly technical calculations, has been simplified so that those who can add, subtract, multiply and divide and calculate percentages will be able to design a dryer for any application. It is mainly aimed at engineers who need to be able to know how to design a dryer.Case studies are included together with an example of a business plan.
This full-color introduction to agronomy and crop science offers both traditional agricultural students and students with nonagricultural backgrounds a timely look at the principles of crop science, sustainable agriculture, and a host of related societal issues. A must-read text for anyone interested in what are arguably the most profoundly important issues of our time, INTRODUCTION TO AGRONOMY, second edition addresses the basics of safe and sustainable food and fiber production as well as big picture topics such as energy, ecology, and environmental quality. Throughout the text, readers will find information and illustrations on the latest agricultural methods, regulations, and practices--and how each is impacting our society and each individual within it.
The first 50 years of ASEAN integration has brought peace and prosperity to the Southeast Asian region, while the next 50 will undoubtedly be fraught with unprecedented challenges. Today ASEAN not only has to contend with its own internal challenges arising from the highly diverse political, economic and socio-cultural systems of its member countries, it also has to deal with external factors which include shifts in geostrategic balance, fraying global consensus on free trade, populism and xenophobia, climate change, digital revolutions and cybercrimes. Set against the above background, this edited collection considers some of the contemporary issues and challenges faced by ASEAN in its journey towards more cohesive and dynamic regional integration. Among the topics explored are ASEAN's evolving partnerships with its key strategic partners including China and the United States on economic policies and strategies, educational systems and frameworks, migration and environmental threats.
Plant molecular biology came to the fore in the early 1980s and there has been tremendous growth in the subject since then. The study of plant genes and genomes and the development of techniques for the incorporation of novel or modified genes into plants eventually led to the commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) crops in the mid-1990s. This was seen as the start of a biotechnological revolution in plant breeding. However, plant biotechnology has become one of the hottest debates of the age and, in Europe at least, one of the greatest challenges that plant scientists have ever faced.This book covers the history and development of the science and techniques that underpin plant biotechnology. It describes the GM crops that are or have been grown commercially around the world, including failures as well as successes, and the new varieties that are being developed. The safety record of GM crops is reviewed together with the legislation that has been adopted to cover their use. The book also deals with the concerns of consumers, the GM crop debate and the prospects for the technology. In the second edition, sections on current GM crops and future developments in plant biotechnology have been greatly expanded, while those on techniques, legislation and the GM crop debate have also been updated.The book is a concise, comprehensive and readable study that is accessible to a general readership with a scientific background but also provides useful information for the specialist.
Indonesia's commitment to reducing land-based greenhouse gas emissions significantly includes the expansion of conservation areas, but these developments are not free of conflicts. This book provides a comprehensive analysis of agrarian conflicts in the context of the implementation of REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and forest carbon offsetting in Indonesia, a country where deforestation is a major issue. The author analyzes new kinds of transnational agrarian conflicts which have strong implications for global environmental justice in the REDD+ pilot province of Jambi on the island of Sumatra. The chapters cover: the rescaling of the governance of forests; privatization of conservation; and the transnational dimensions of agrarian conflicts and peasants' resistance in the context of REDD+. The book builds on an innovative conceptual approach linking political ecology, politics of scale and theories of power. It fills an important knowledge and research gap by focusing on the socially differentiated impacts of REDD+ and new forest carbon offsetting initiatives in Southeast Asia, providing a multi-scalar perspective. It is aimed at scholars in the areas of political ecology, human geography, climate change mitigation, forest and natural resource management, as well as environmental justice and agrarian studies. The Open Access version of this book, available at http://www.tandfebooks.com/doi/view/10.4324/9781351066020, has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 4.0 license.
Agribusiness: Fundamentals and Applications, second edition, discusses the broad spectrum of the agribusiness world. Several chapters focus on the agricultural input sector, which are the supplies and services needed by ranchers, farmers, and or other production agriculturists. Some examples include the feed, seed, fertilizer, chemical, and farm machinery agribusinesses. Once basic production economics and farm management are discussed, several more chapters cover the agribusiness output sectors that include agribusinesses, which move food and fiber from the farms and ranches to the consumer. The fundamentals and applications of agribusiness are detailed showing how products go from their source to the consumer highlighting the many steps in this process. Basic principles of commodity marketing, international agriculture marketing and food and fiber processing channels are some of the topics explored in detail. Basic agricultural economic principles are discussed to assist the user to better manage an agribusiness. This book not only discusses employment opportunities, but also explains how to start-up, run and manage your own agribusiness.
This is the ideal guide for anyone wanting to start beekeeping and a revered reference book for experienced beekeepers. It includes information on all you need to know, including how to avoid swarms, plan requeening, or provide the colony with winter stores. It features key information on Varroa. It is copiously illustrated throughout. Fully revised and updated, this new edition of "Guide to Bees and Honey" also presents expert advice for readers who plan to maintain a few hives for personal recreational use, as well as those who want to expand an existing colony into a commercial venture.
Based on research undertaken as part of the UK's ODA's North Western Fisheries Project, this is a study of social, economic and technical aspects of aquaculture in Bangladesh.;The book covers three main themes. First, instead of trying to understand rural society via the different sets of actors involved in agricultural production, the authors analyze rural society through the trading activities necessary in aquaculture.;Second, these insights have practical implicatoins and this work shows how it is possible to build on existing relationships and technologies, and facilitate innovative poverty-focused strategies. One such initiative, the "fry trader extension strategy" is documented.;Finally, the study of the fish trading network demonstrates that a preoccupation with high technology "quick fix" solutions in development may overlook the indigenous problem-solving strategies of local people.
When city-dwelling journalist Kiera Butler visits a county fair for the first time, she is captivated by the white-uniformed members of the 4-H club and their perfectly groomed animals. She sets off on a search for a real" 4-H'er, a hypothetical wholesome youth whom she imagines wearing cowboy boots and living on a ranch. Along the way, she meets five teenage 4-H'ers from diverse backgrounds and gets to know them as they prepare to compete at the fair. Butler's on-the-ground account of the teens' concerns with their goats, pigs, sheep, proms, and SAT scores is interwoven with a fascinating history of the century-old 4-H club as it solicits corporate donations from top agribusiness firms such as DuPont, Monsanto, and Cargill. Her quest takes her from California's cities and suburbs all the way to Ghana, where she investigates 4-H's unprecedented push to expand its programs in the developing world and the corporate partnership that is supporting this expansion. Raise masterfully combines vivid accounts from a little-known subculture with a broader analysis of agriculture education today, using 4-H as a lens through which to view the changing landscape of farming in America and the rest of the world. Lively, deeply informed, and perceptive in its analysis, Raise provides answers to complex questions about our collective concern over the future of food. Photographs by Rafael Roy.
Agricultural Cooperation was first published in 1957. Minnesota Archive Editions uses digital technology to make long-unavailable books once again accessible, and are published unaltered from the original University of Minnesota Press editions.Much has been written and published on the general subject of agricultural cooperation, but the material has been scattered and hard to find until now. The volume makes available in convenient form a selection of the most significant articles and excerpts from books, magazines, pamphlets, and other publications. It provides a comprehensive view of the development of farmers' cooperatives in the United States and an evaluation of their relation to the present economy. The 54 articles are by 49 different contributors from various branches of cooperative activity. Among them are professors of agricultural economies, government research experts in agricultural cooperation, officers and members of cooperative organizations, as well as government officials including former Secretary of Agriculture Clinton P. Anderson and Senators Paul H. Douglas and George D. Aiken. J. K. Stern, president of the American Institute of Cooperation, contributes a foreword. The articles deal significantly with such broad subjects as the economic and social forces that have shaped the development of cooperatives, the place of cooperative organizations in helping to meet the present-day needs of agriculture, and the role of these farmer-owned businesses in the nation's economy.
Within the tropical fruits, the papaya, Carica papaya L. (family Caricaceae Dumort.), is presented as the main representative being cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical areas mostly in developing countries. Papaya's nutritional value, beneficial to health, as well as various industrial applications of their products, led to be economically important for both developing and developed countries. Within this broad field of knowledge, this book aims to contribute to better understanding of the topic. The organization of the chapters and sections is also straightforward; Chapter One presents what papaya is (Carica papaya L.), its taxonomy, distribution, origin and morphology. Closing the first part, Chapters Three and Four show the nutritional and medical values, discussing vitamins, minerals and dietary fibers, the industrial applications of using papaya and various parts of the plant, as a source of proteolytic enzymes and some active compounds reported to antimicrobial, anticancer, amongst other properties, illustrating the fatty acid composition, triacylglycerol profile and papaya seed oil of malaysian papaya fruits. In the second part of the book, the readers should find the relevant aspects of papaya microbiology related to fresh fruits quality and safety and the beneficial effects of microorganisms isolated from papaya, such as some Latic Acid Bacteria strains that have been proposed to be potentially probiotics, as shown in Chapters Five and Six. Finally the book addresses the importance of Integrated Management of the Papaya Ringspot Virus, which is transmitted by several aphid species and could commit 100% of the crop as described in Chapter Seven and the biotechnological strategies for control of papaya virus diseases as show in Chapter Eight.
Viewing the subsistence farm as primarily a 'demographic enterprise' to create and support a family, this book offers an integrated view of the demography and ecology of preindustrial farming. Taking an interdisciplinary perspective, it examines how traditional farming practices interact with demographic processes such as childbearing, death, and family formation. It includes topics such as household nutrition, physiological work capacity, health and resistance to infectious diseases, as well as reproductive performance and mortality. The book argues that the farming household is the most informative scale at which to study the biodemography and physiological ecology of preindustrial, non-commercial agriculture. It offers a balanced appraisal of the farming system, considering its strengths and limitations, as well as the implications of viewing it as a 'demographic enterprise' rather than an economic one. A valuable resource for graduate students and researchers in biological and physical anthropology, cultural anthropology, natural resource management, agriculture and ecology.
This book discusses various aspects of bioactive natural products employed in the agrochemical and agriculture sectors. It covers the use of plants, microorganisms, and microbial metabolites as eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable alternatives to chemicals in the field of agriculture. Written by active researchers and academics, the book highlights state-of-art products in the field, as well as the gaps, challenges, and obstacles associated with the use of plants, microbes and their products. Given its scope, it is a valuable resource for the scientific community and professionals in enterprises wanting insights into the latest developments and advances in the context of biological products, including their applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and strategies to harness their full potential.
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