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This volume highlights recent advances using iPS cells in disease modeling and medical applications along with new technologies that enhance the power of iPS cells. While the discovery of iPS cells has provided excellent opportunities for developing models of human diseases, platforms for drug discovery and cell therapies, iPS cell technology still faces many challenges. Presenting the latest advances in this rapidly evolving research area, this book is intended to widen the community of researchers and clinicians interested in the exciting field of iPS cells.
This timely and most comprehensive reference available on the topic
covers all the different aspects vital in the fight against the
global obesity epidemic.
This book addresses a long-standing problem in environmental toxicology and drug development, which new research advances are beginning to address. It will advance the scientific knowledge of toxicologists in a several different application areas, including environmental health sciences, pharmaceutical drug development, and medicine. It is relevant for Academics, Postgraduates, Undergraduates and Industrialists working in the areas of Toxicology, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tissue Cell Biology and Stem Cell Biology. Competing books include the 2014 Handbook of Nanotoxicology, Nanomedicine, and Stem Cell Use in Toxicology. Cross-promote with Stem Cells: Regenerative Pharmacology, Drug Discovery & Development, edited by Timothy Allsopp and Chris Mason and planned for publication in the Drug Discovery Series in 2016.
This book addresses the role of tandem repeat polymorphisms (TRPs) in genetic plasticity, evolution, development, biological processes, neural diversity, brain function, dysfunction and disease. There are hundreds of thousands of unique tandem repeats in the human genome and their polymorphic distributions have the potential to greatly influence functional diversity and disease susceptibility. Recent discoveries in this expanding field are critically reviewed and discussed in a range of subsequent chapters, with a focus on the role of TRPs and their various gene products in evolution, development, diverse molecular and cellular processes, brain function and disease.
By integrating technology, supporting infrastructure and efficient application, the all-in-one guide presents molecular diagnostics as an essential component of modern, personalized clinical practice. It considers all important aspects, from the hardware and software needed, to recent improvements in blood- and non-blood-based biomarker tests. Chapters on ethical challenges and a look at current trends and the latest innovations are also included. Bridging the gap between industry and academia, this is a highly useful resource for practitioners as well as for developers of modern, DNA- and RNA-based molecular diagnostics.
The goal of this volume is to comprehensively cover a highly readable overview on our present knowledge of the role of Notch signalling for embryology and cancer, with a focus on new findings in molecular biology. Topics that are discussed in-depth by leading researchers and clinicians range from the newest findings in cellular and molecular pathology to new concepts for prophylaxis and treatment of cancer. Experts in the field as well as scientists and health care professionals not intimately involved in these specialized areas are provided with the most significant and timely information related to these topics. It is the aim of this book to summarize essential up-to-date information for every clinician or scientist interested in the role of Notch signalling in embryology and cancer. We hope that this volume will be adopted as the standard text in this area of science and will stimulate new interest in the role of Notch signalling for embryology and cancer. We further hope that this compendium will serve as both a source for current researchers and a guide to stimulate and assist those in related disciplines to enter this exciting field of research.
"Human Molecular Biology Laboratory Manual" offers a hands-on,
state-of-the-art introduction to modern molecular biology
techniques as applied to human genome analysis. In eight unique
experiments, simple step-by-step instructions guide students
through the basic principles of molecular biology and the latest
laboratory techniques. This laboratory manual's distinctive focus
on human molecular biology provides students with the opportunity
to analyze and study their own genes while gaining real laboratory
A tiny scrap of genetic information determines our sex; it also consigns many of us to a life of disease, directs or disrupts the everyday working of our bodies, and forces women to live as genetic chimeras. The culprit--so necessary and yet the source of such upheaval--is the X chromosome, and this is its story. An enlightening and entertaining tour of the cultural and natural history of this intriguing member of the genome, "The X in Sex" traces the journey toward our current understanding of the nature of X. From its chance discovery in the nineteenth century to the promise and implications of ongoing research, David Bainbridge shows how the X evolved and where it and its counterpart Y are going, how it helps assign developing human babies their sex--and maybe even their sexuality--and how it affects our lives in infinitely complex and subtle ways. X offers cures for disease, challenges our cultural, ethical, and scientific assumptions about maleness and femaleness, and has even reshaped our views of human evolution and human nature.
This book covers core and emerging in vitro and in vivo protocols used to study how various components of the tumor microenvironment are established and subsequently interact with tumor cells to facilitate carcinogenesis. In addition, the book examines research topics including cellular and molecular biology approaches, in vivo genetic approaches, various "omics"-based strategies, therapeutic strategies to target the microenvironment, and, finally, advanced techniques in the fields of tissue engineering and nanotechnology. Written and validated in the laboratories of a number of trusted collaborating authors for the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, chapters contain introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Practical and authoritative, The Tumor Microenvironment: Methods and Protocols constitutes a compendium of techniques now available to a broad audience, including basic and clinician scientists, systems biologists, and biological engineers.
Medicinal Foods as Potential Therapies for Type-2 Diabetes: The Chemical and Pharmacological Basis of their Action is the first book to focus on active pharmacological principles that modulate diabetes, associated risk factors, and complications and the mechanism of action of widely used anti-diabetic herbal plants, rather than the nutritional composition of the foods. It provides up-to-date information on the scientific basis of some acclaimed antidiabetic super fruits, species, and other food ingredients. The global incidence of diabetes and its major risk factor, obesity, is growing with epidemic proportion, and so there is growing interest in finding new drugs from natural and synthetic sources to help halt this epidemic. The book is divided into six sections: the first part addresses fact and figures of diabetes and obesity at global level. In the second part, the physiological control of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as some common therapeutic targets is presented. In Section 3, the pathophysiology of type-2 diabetes and therapeutic options are presented. A dedicated section on super fruits includes the therapeutic potential of bilberry and blueberries, bitter melon, okra, prickly pear cactus, and other fruits that gain importance as antidiabetic agents in recent years. In Section 5, the chemistry and pharmacology of spices including cinnamon, cloves, fenugreek, garlic, ginger, and turmeric is presented to outline their antidiabetic potential. The last section includes beverages such as tea, coffee, and yerba mate as well as a dedicated chapter on food supplements and other food products with emerging antidiabetic potential. Medicinal Foods as Potential Therapies for Type-2 Diabetes is invaluable for research scientists and students in medical and pharmaceutical sciences, medicinal chemistry, herbal medicine, drug discovery/development, nutrition science as well as herbal practitioners, industries from the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas, and organizations dealing with diabetes and obesity managements.
This text and the terminology developed by the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology (P.S.C.) represents an important advance in the field of pancreaticobiliary cytopathology. This textbook/atlas is designed to present a comprehensive and state of the art approach to the cytologic diagnosis and reporting of pancreaticobiliary lesions. Chapters address each of the diagnostic categories defined by the P.S.C. The definition of each category along with the clinical pathologic entities contained within the category are discussed along with specific cytologic criteria for inclusion of a cytologic specimen within the category. Each chapter is lavishly illustrated demonstrating diagnostic criteria and examples of lesions contained within the category. Additionally, appropriate ancillary testing is discussed and where appropriate illustrated. Each chapter concludes with a discussion of appropriate management as well as estimates of malignancy risk for the category. The Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology System for Reporting Pancreaticobiliary Cytology: Definitions, Criteria, Ancillary Testing and Management will provide the reader with a unified approach to diagnosing and reporting interpretations of cytologic specimens obtained from the pancreaticobiliary tract. This text/atlas will serve as a reference guide for pathologists, surgeons, endoscopists and radiologists.
Breast cytopathology is a field characterized by practicality and diagnostic efficacy. This book focuses mainly on morphology, with helpful hints for recognizing benign lesions and the main features of malignancy. It reviews specific features of various lesions and the consequences of the diagnosis for the management of the patient. Each chapter contains high-quality cytology images accompanying the descriptions, including comparison images to distinguish the most important morphological features and to help in the differential diagnosis. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) sampling and preparation technique, fixation, staining, and principles of its interpretation are covered. Immunocytochemistry and ancillary techniques are outlined, as well as the main clinical and radiological features of breast lesions, and the cytological diagnostics of axillary lymph nodes. This publication will be of great use to medical practitioners in their first approach to breast cytopathology, as well as to pathologists and cytotechnicians with little to moderate experience in the field.
Sphingolipids are lipid components of the plasma membrane in eukaryotic cells. They have an important function in signaling mechanisms in the cell. This book on sphingolipids provides insights into the basics of sphingolipid biology and drug development, with a particular emphasis on the sphingolipid derivative ceramide. In the first part basic functions of sphingolipids are described, as well as the genetics of important enzymes, sphingolipid metabolism and synthesis. The second part of this first volume focuses on drug development and pharmacology. The book is intended for scientists in pharmacology, biochemistry and cell biology with a focus on biomedical research as well as for clinicians working in pharmacology, oncology, cardiology, neurology and infectious disease. Together with Volume 216 by the same editors, the collection represents a unique, comprehensive work on sphingolipids, providing information on both sphingolipids basic biology (including synthesis, metabolism and cell biology) and their important function in a (patho-)physiological context."
Among the many GPCRs discovered, the calcitonin family of receptors comprise of members that regulate a number of physiological processes and are involved in many pathological conditions. Therefore, understanding how these receptors function is a critical question in the field. When Foord and his colleagues discovered that a single transmembrane protein called Receptor Activity Modifying Proteins (RAMPs) could modulate the surface expression of GPCRs of the calcitonin family, it widely opened the field of receptor life cycle. Hundreds of studies have confirmed the importance of RAMPs in the life cycle of this receptor family. Receptor biology is a rapidly expanding field and with the advances in cell and molecular biology and in vivo techniques, it is very likely that the field of RAMPs will explode further and many unanswered questions will be answered with in the next few years.
Each volume in this richly illustrated series - Cytohistology of Small Tissue Samples, sponsored by the Papanicolaou Society of Cytopathology - provides an organ-based approach to the cytological and histological diagnosis of small tissue samples including fine-needle aspiration biopsy, cell block samples and core, pinch and forceps biopsies. Benign, pre- malignant and malignant entities are presented in a well- organized and standardized format supported with high- resolution color photomicrographs, tables, tabulated specific morphologic criteria and appropriate ancillary testing algorithms. Example vignettes allow the reader to assimilate the diagnostic principles in a case-based format. This unique series strengthens the bridge between surgical pathology and cytopathology, providing the pathologist with the ability to diagnose small tissue samples with confidence. Bridges cytologic and surgical diagnoses in lesions of the head and neck Richly illustrated with over 250 high-quality color images and a DVD-ROM containing all images in a downloadable format Includes numerous clinical vignettes, offering a valuable case-based approach to diagnosis
Stem cells could be the key that unlocks cures to scores of diseases and illnesses. Their story is at once compelling, controversial, and remarkable. Part detective story, part medical history, The Proteus Effect recounts the events leading up to the discovery of stem cells and their incredible potential for the future of medicine. What exactly are these biological wonders a " these things called stem cells? They may be tiny, but their impact is earth shaking, generating excitement among medical researchers a " and outright turmoil in political circles. They are reported to be nothing short of miraculous. But they have also incited fear and mistrust in many. Indeed, recent research on stem cells raises important questions as rapidly as it generates new discoveries. The power of stem cells rests in their unspecialized but marvelously flexible nature. They are the clay of life waiting for the cellular signal that will coax them into taking on the shape of the beating cells of the heart muscle or the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas. With a wave of our medical magic wand, ita (TM)s possible that stem cells could be used to effectively treat (even cure) diseases such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, heart disease, autoimmune disorders, and even baldness. But should scientists be allowed to pick apart four-day-old embryos in order to retrieve stem cells? And when stem cells whisper to us of immortality a " they can divide and perpetuate new cells indefinitely a " how do we respond? Stem cells are forcing us to not only reexamine how we define the beginning of life but how we come to terms with the end of life as well. Meticulously researched, artfully balanced, and engagingly told, Ann Parson chronicles a scientific discovery in progress, exploring the ethical debates, describing the current research, and hinting of a spectacular new era in medicine. The Proteus Effect is as timely as it is riveting.
Liquid-based cytology preparations are currently the standard of care for gynecological cytology, and are being increasingly used for non-gynecological cytology. Diagnostic Liquid-Based Cytology serves as a handy guide to diagnostic cytopathology on liquid-based preparations. The authors, renowned experts in the field, provide clear, concise, and practical diagnostic guidance. This handbook equips you to achieve accurate diagnosis of most commonly and uncommonly encountered diseases in exfoliative and aspirated tissue samples from various sites. The key cytopathological features of various diseases are described. The book is lavishly illustrated with dozens of color images that depict the full range of common and rare conditions. Diagnostic Liquid-Based Cytology offers highly practical guidance and information needed to solve common diagnostic challenges in liquid-based cytology preparations. Appropriate histopathological correlations and a consideration of the possible differential diagnosis accompany the cytological findings. The book is an excellent resource not only for practicing pathologists as well as for pathologists-in-training, and will be the perfect practical resource for daily reference in the cytopathology laboratory.
Caveolae are 50-100 nm flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that are primarily composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids. Using modern electron microscopy techniques, caveolae can be observed as omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane, fully-invaginated caveolae, grape-like clusters of interconnected caveolae (caveosome), or as transcellular channels as a consequence of the fusion of individual caveolae. The caveolin gene family consists of three distinct members, namely Cav-1, Cav-2 and Cav-3. Cav-1 and Cav-2 proteins are usually co-expressed and particularly abundant in epithelial, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells as well as adipocytes and fibroblasts. On the other hand, the Cav-3 protein appears to be muscle-specific and is therefore only expressed in smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscles. Caveolin proteins form high molecular weight homo- and/or hetero-oligomers and assume an unusual topology with both their N- and C-terminal domains facing the cytoplasm.
This collection of articles deals with the benefits of different types of stem cells sources, use, manipulation, and aspects for the treatment of chronic diseases. Topics include the role of calcium channel pathway/s in the regulation of neural stem cell differentiation; the evolutionary roles of the totipotent, pluripotent, or even multipotent stem cells; the derivations of multipotent MSCs; and potential canine-derived stem cell therapies for dogs. The scope of the book also provokes further studies into other topics, such as MSC differentiation into hepatocytes and the involvement of these cells with microRNA-133 in type 1 diabetes; the role of Vitronectin in the differentiation into endoderm; the extent to which the stemness of dental pulp stem cells might be useful; PBMCs as a source for pluripotent stem cells; yoga in possible synergy with the finding that bone marrow stromal cells provide relief from a laboratory reagent used as drug-mediated pain in spinal cord injury.
This monograph is a comprehensive study of arboranan frogs (families Hylidae, Phyllomedusidae, and Pelodryadidae). It presents results achieved over a 38-year period. As arboranan frogs are practically cosmopolitan, absent only from sub-Saharan Africa and southeastern Asia, this publication is an international venture with collaborators from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Ecuador, Germany, Thailand, and the USA. Introductory chapters cover phylogeny, classification, biogeography, life history, and population declines of Arboranae, but the focus of the book is on oogenesis, spermatogenesis, early embryogenesis, and, especially, the structure and evolution of chromosomes. Like its predecessors on terraranan and hemiphractid frogs (2010 and 2012, respectively), this volume represents an immense initiative to assemble all available information on the cytogenetics of a very large monophyletic group of frogs. It also shows the substantial effort being made to provide new data with everything properly placed in a phylogenetic, evolutionary, and biogeographic framework.
In the rapidly expanding research and clinical field of disorders of sex development (DSD), this publication is dedicated to the methodological assessment of DSD based on extensive review of the development of laboratory investigations. Starting with reports on the role of copy number variants, testicular protein hormones and the traditional hCG test in the assessment of DSD, the publication goes on to cover the 'hot' topic which is the reference values for gonadal and adrenal hormones from birth to adulthood. The imaging techniques, endoscopy, laparoscopy as well as the pathology of the germ cell cancer, including the 'genvironment' hypothesis, are elaborated. Considering the increasing importance of the holistic care of individuals with DSD, the publication provides guidance for psychological evaluation in the field, and gives a thorough overview of the opportunities offered by the recent European Reference Network for Rare Endocrine Disorders (Endo-ERN) to ensure equal access to high quality care for all those affected by DSD. The publication concludes with a discussion on the transposition of advanced research knowledge in daily practice on the basis of the EuroDSD network. This publication will be essential reading for all clinicians who are involved in delivering health care to patients with a DSD as well as for scientists involved in biomedical research related to DSD.
Chapter One is addressed to a comprehensive revision of the bibliography regarding the emergence of liposomes and the first steps in their design, the type of systems (components and structures), their classification and properties. Chapter Two discusses the possibility of creating living synthetic cells. Chapter Three provides an overview of the development and application of liposomes in biomedical sciences, with special emphasis on recent advances in the investigation of multifunctional liposomes that target cells and cellular organelles with a single delivery system. In Chapter Four, the authors review the mechanisms of drug transport through the BBB using liposomes, and the design strategies for optimum liposomal properties. In Chapter Five, the development rationales and structural types of pH-sensitive liposomes is discussed Chapter Six presents the characteristic, classification and preparation methods of liposomes. To develop liposomal drug delivery system, functional liposomes including antibody-conjugating liposomes known as immunoliposomes and stimuli-triggered liposomes such as pH- and thermo-sensitive liposomes have been investigated in Chapter Seven. Chapter Eight covers the use of thermosensitive liposomes for drug delivery and cancer therapy, because the side-effects of anticancer drugs are restrained and drug release can be controlled in combination with local hyperthermia. In Chapter Nine, the authors summarise the potential of OMLs as a novel adjuvant and antigen delivery vehicle for induction of encased antigen-specific strong T cell immunity. Chapter Ten presents the recent advances of liposomes in drug and vaccine delivery and shed light to the application of DSC to thermodynamic characterisation of liposomal delivery platforms. Chapter Eleven focuses on various liposomal delivery systems that are currently being explored to overcome the anatomical and physiological obstacles to improve the delivery efficiency of BNCT to brain glioma cells.
Biomedical scientists are the foundation of modern healthcare, from cancer screening to diagnosing HIV, from blood transfusion for surgery to food poisoning and infection control. Without biomedical scientists, the diagnosis of disease, the evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment, and research into the causes and cures of disease would not be possible. The Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series is written to reflect the challenges of practicing biomedical science today. It draws together essential basic science with insights into laboratory practice to show how an understanding of the biology of disease is coupled to the analytical approaches that lead to diagnosis. Assuming only a minimum of prior knowledge, the series reviews the full range of disciplines to which a Biomedical Scientist may be exposed - from microbiology to cytopathology to transfusion science. Alongside volumes exploring specific biomedical themes and related laboratory diagnosis, an overarching Biomedical Science Practice volume gives a grounding in the professional and experimental skills with which any Biomedical Scientist must be equipped. The series: * Understands the complex roles of Biomedical Scientists in the modern practice of medicine * Understands the development needs of employers and the Profession * Addresses the need for understanding of a range of fundamental sciences in the context of Biomedicine * Places the theoretical aspects of Biomedical Science in their practical context The series is developed in partnership with and endorsed by the Institute of Biomedical Science. Visit www.ibms.org for more information. Cell Structure and Function describes the structural and functional features of the various types of cell from which the human body is formed. Focusing on normal cellular structure and function, it gives students and trainees a firm grounding in the appearance and behaviour of healthy cells and tissues on which can be built a robust understanding of cellular pathology. With cell structure and function correlated with clinical contexts throughout, Cell Structure and Function is the ideal introduction to cellular biology for any student of biomedical science. Online Resource Centre The Online Resource Centre to accompany the Fundamentals of Biomedical Science series features: For registered adopters of the book: * Figures from each book, available to download For students: * An interactive Virtual Microscope, encouraging the exploration of tissue samples * Video podcasts including interviews with practicing biomedical scientists, and 'in the lab' footage showing biomedical science in practice
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