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Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, as Americans increasingly came into contact with the Islamic world, U.S. diplomatic, cultural, political, and religious beliefs about Islam began to shape their responses to world events. In Sacred Interests, Karine V. Walther excavates the deep history of American Islamophobia, showing how negative perceptions of Islam and Muslims shaped U.S. foreign relations from the Early Republic to the end of World War I. Beginning with the Greek War of Independence in 1821, Walther illuminates reactions to and involvement in the breakup of the Ottoman Empire, the efforts to protect Jews from Muslim authorities in Morocco, American colonial policies in the Philippines, and American attempts to aid Christians during the Armenian Genocide. Walther examines the American role in the peace negotiations after World War I, support for the Balfour Declaration, and the establishment of the mandate system in the Middle East. The result is a vital exploration of the crucial role the United States played in the Islamic world during the long nineteenth century--an interaction that shaped a historical legacy that remains with us today.
Kinzua Dam has cast a long shadow on Seneca life since World War II. The project, formally dedicated in 1966, broke the Treaty of Canandaigua of 1794, flooded approximately 10,000 acres of Seneca lands in New York and Pennsylvania, and forced the relocation of hundreds of tribal members. Hauptman presents both a policy study, namely how and why Washington, Harrisburg, and Albany came up with the idea to build the dam, as well as a community study of the Seneca Nation of Indians in the postwar era. Sold to the Senecas as a flood control project, the author persuasively argues that major reasons for the dam were the push for private hydroelectric development in Pennsylvania and state transportation and park development in New York. This important study, based on Hauptman's forty years of archival research as well as numerous interviews with Senecas, shows that these historically resilient Native peoples adapted in spite of this disaster. Unlike previous studies, he stresses the federated nature of Seneca Nation government, one held together in spite of the great diversity of opinion and intense politics. Indeed, in the Kinzua crisis and its aftermath, the Senecas truly had heroes and heroines who faced problems head on and devoted their energies to rebuilding their nation for tribal survival. Without adequate financial resources or college diplomas, they left legacies in many areas, including two community centers, a modern health delivery system, two libraries, and a museum. Money allocated in a ""compensation bill"" passed by Congress in August 1964 produced a generation of college-educated Senecas, some of whom now work in tribal government making major contributions to the nation's present and future. Facing impossible odds and forces hidden from view, they motivated a cadre of volunteers to help rebuild their devastated nation. Although their strategies did not stop the dam's construction, they laid the groundwork for a tribal governing structure and for other areas that followed from the 1980s to the present, including land claims litigation and casinos.
An autobiographical account of tribal and family life on New York State's Tuscarora Reservation by the son of a medicine man, now a crane operator and artist.
"A fine book...In the twenty-two chapters that comprise the background and the campaign narrative, the author is at his best when he moves away from the Washington scene to detail the field operations. But it is the second part of the book--seven chapters labeled "Facets"--that moves Centennial Campaign into the realm of the exceptional. Here Dr. Gray combines impressive research, careful analysis, and sound deduction to reconstruct Indian movements, locations, and concentrations."--Western Historical Quarterly
In this unique book, William Richardson analyzes the descriptions given of Mexico by an assortment of Russian visitors, from the employees of the Russian-American Company who made their first contacts in the early nineteenth century to the artists, diplomats, and exiles of the twentieth century. He explores the biases they brought with them and the interpretations they relayed back to readers at home. Richardson finds that Russians had a particular empathy for the Mexicans, sharing a perceived similarity in their histories: conquest by a foreign power; a long period of centralized, authoritarian rule; an attempt at liberal reform followed by revolution.
Three-quarters of Americans believe that a group of unelected government and military officials secretly manipulate or direct national policy in the United States. President Trump blames the "deep state" for his impeachment. But what is the American "deep state" and does it really exist? To conservatives, the "deep state" is an ever-growing government bureaucracy, an "administrative state" that relentlessly encroaches on the individual rights of Americans. Liberals fear the "military-industrial complex"-a cabal of generals and defence contractors who they believe routinely push the country into endless wars. Every modern American president-from Carter to Trump-has engaged in power struggles with Congress, the CIA and the FBI. Every CIA and FBI director has suspected White House aides of members of Congress of leaking secrets for political gain. Frustrated Americans increasingly distrust the politicians, unelected officials and journalists who they believe unilaterally set the country's political agenda. American democracy faces its biggest crisis of legitimacy in a half century. This sweeping exploration examines the CIA and FBI scandals of the past fifty years-from the Church Committee's exposure of Cold War abuses, to Abscam, to false intelligence about Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, to NSA mass surveillance revealed by Edward Snowden. It then investigates the claims and counterclaims of the Trump era, and the relentless spread of conspiracy theories online and on-air. While Trump says he is the victim of the "deep state", Democrats accuse the president and his allies of running a de facto "deep state" of their own that operates outside official government channels and smears rivals, both real and perceived. The feverish debate over the "deep state" raises core questions about the future of American democracy. Is it possible for career government officials to be politically neutral? Was Congress's impeachment of Donald Trump conducted properly? How vast should the power of a president be? Based on dozens of interviews with career CIA operatives and FBI agents, In Deep answers whether the FBI, CIA or politicians are protecting or abusing the public's trust.
The Unsubstantial Air is a chronicle of war that is more than a military history; it traces the lives and deaths of the young Americans who fought in the skies over Europe in World War I. Using letters, journals, and memoirs, it speaks in their voices and answers primal questions: What was it like to be there? What was it like to fly those planes, to fight, to kill? The volunteer fliers were often privileged young men. The sort of college athletes and Ivy League students who might appear in an F. Scott Fitzgerald novel, and sometimes did. For them, a war in the air would be like a college reunion. Others were roughnecks from farms and ranches, for whom it would all be strange. Together they would make one Air Service and fight one bitter, costly war. A wartime pilot himself, the memoirist and critic Samuel Hynes tells these young men's saga as the story of a generation. He shows how they dreamed of adventure and glory, and how they learned the realities of a pilot's life, the hardships and the danger, and how they came to know both the beauty of flight and the constant presence of death. They gasp in wonder at the world seen from a plane, struggle to keep their hands from freezing in open-air cockpits, party with actresses and aristocrats, and search for their friends' bodies on the battlefield. Their romantic war becomes more than that, it becomes a harsh but often thrilling new reality.
It was 1905 when the man destined to become Waco's photographer first opened his shop.Fred Gildersleeve documented the city he loved, establishing his legacy through iconic images that have become Waco's visual memory. The 186 Gildersleeve images within capture the spirit of early Waco. Born in 1880 in Boulder, Colorado, Gildersleeve spent most of his childhood in Kirksville, Missouri. Throughout his early years, Gildersleeve sold his pictures for 25 cents apiece to pay for his education, working his way through photography school in Effingham, Illinois before launching his career in Waco. An adventurer, Gildersleeve was known for speeding through town on an Excelsior motorbikeaand later in a Model T Fordawith his assistant in the sidecar. He avidly took pictures of everyday life in Waco, becoming the official photographer for Baylor and the State Fair of Texas. From special occasions to sporting events, from construction projects to key figures, Gildersleeve documented Waco's growth as a thriving industrial city during the early days of the twentieth century. Gildersleeve's photos are not just history; they are art. He pioneered panoramas and aerial shots using Waco as his subject. Gildersleeve's photos are now known for their clarity and detail that resemble and surpass modern-day digital photography. The photos in this book take viewers back in time to their favorite Waco landmarks and do so with timeless creativity.
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