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During the past decade there has been an explosion in computation and information technology. With it have come vast amounts of data in a variety of fields such as medicine, biology, finance, and marketing. The challenge of understanding these data has led to the development of new tools in the field of statistics, and spawned new areas such as data mining, machine learning, and bioinformatics. Many of these tools have common underpinnings but are often expressed with different terminology. This book describes the important ideas in these areas in a common conceptual framework. While the approach is statistical, the emphasis is on concepts rather than mathematics. Many examples are given, with a liberal use of color graphics. It is a valuable resource for statisticians and anyone interested in data mining in science or industry. The book's coverage is broad, from supervised learning (prediction) to unsupervised learning. The many topics include neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and boosting---the first comprehensive treatment of this topic in any book.
This major new edition features many topics not covered in the original, including graphical models, random forests, ensemble methods, least angle regression & path algorithms for the lasso, non-negative matrix factorization, and spectral clustering. There is also a chapter on methods for wide'' data (p bigger than n), including multiple testing and false discovery rates.
Trevor Hastie, Robert Tibshirani, and Jerome Friedman are professors of statistics at Stanford University. They are prominent researchers in this area: Hastie and Tibshirani developed generalized additive models and wrote a popular book of that title. Hastie co-developed much of the statistical modeling software and environment in R/S-PLUS and invented principal curves and surfaces. Tibshirani proposed the lasso and is co-author of the very successful An Introduction to the Bootstrap. Friedman is the co-inventor of many data-mining tools including CART, MARS, projection pursuit and gradient boosting.
A guide to understanding the formation of life in the Universe The revised and updated second edition of Astrobiology offers an introductory text that explores the structure of living things, the formation of the elements required for life in the Universe, the biological and geological history of the Earth, and the habitability of other planets. Written by a noted expert on the topic, the book examines many of the major conceptual foundations in astrobiology, which cover a diversity of traditional fields including chemistry, biology, geosciences, physics, and astronomy. The book explores many profound questions such as: How did life originate on Earth? How has life persisted on Earth for over three billion years? Is there life elsewhere in the Universe? What is the future of life on Earth? Astrobiology is centered on investigating the past and future of life on Earth by looking beyond Earth to get the answers. Astrobiology links the diverse scientific fields needed to understand life on our own planet and, potentially, life beyond. This new second edition: Expands on information about the nature of astrobiology and why it is useful Contains a new chapter "What is Life?" that explores the history of attempts to understand life Contains 20% more material on the astrobiology of Mars, icy moons, the structure of life, and the habitability of planets New 'Discussion Boxes' to stimulate debate and thought about key questions in astrobiology New review and reflection questions for each chapter to aid learning New boxes describing the careers of astrobiologists and how they got into the subject Offers revised and updated information throughout to reflect the latest advances in the field Written for students of life sciences, physics, astronomy and related disciplines, the updated edition of Astrobiology is an essential introductory text that includes recent advances to this dynamic field.
A thorough explanation of the tenets of biomechanics
At once a basic and applied science, biomechanics focuses on the mechanical cause-effect relationships that determine the motions of living organisms. "Biomechanics for Dummies" examines the relationship between biological and mechanical worlds. It clarifies a vital topic for students of biomechanics who work in a variety of fields, including biological sciences, exercise and sports science, health sciences, ergonomics and human factors, and engineering and applied science. Following the path of a traditional introductory course, "Biomechanics for Dummies" covers the terminology and fundamentals of biomechanics, bone, joint, and muscle composition and function, motion analysis and control, kinematics and kinetics, fluid mechanics, stress and strain, applications of biomechanics, and black and white medical illustrations.Offers insights and expertise in biomechanics to provide an easy-to-follow, jargon-free guide to the subjectProvides students who major in kinesiology, neuroscience, biomedical engineering, mechanical engineering, occupational therapy, physical therapy, physical education, nutritional science, and many other subjects with a basic knowledge of biomechanics
Students and self-motivated learners interested in biological, applied, exercise, sports, and health sciences should not be without this accessible guide to the fundamentals.
Biostatistics with R provides a straightforward introduction on how to analyse data from the wide field of biological research, including nature protection and global change monitoring. The book is centred around traditional statistical approaches, focusing on those prevailing in research publications. The authors cover t-tests, ANOVA and regression models, but also the advanced methods of generalised linear models and classification and regression trees. Chapters usually start with several useful case examples, describing the structure of typical datasets and proposing research-related questions. All chapters are supplemented by example datasets, step-by-step R code demonstrating analytical procedures and interpretation of results. The authors also provide examples of how to appropriately describe statistical procedures and results of analyses in research papers. This accessible textbook will serve a broad audience, from students, researchers or professionals looking to improve their everyday statistical practice, to lecturers of introductory undergraduate courses. Additional resources are provided on www.cambridge.org/biostatistics.
This volume provides an overview of (1) the physical and chemical foundations of dating methods and (2) the applications of dating methods in the geological sciences, biology, and archaeology, in almost 200 articles from over 200 international authors. It will serve as the most comprehensive treatise on widely accepted dating methods in the earth sciences and related fields. No other volume has a similar scope, in terms of methods and applications and particularly time range. Dating methods are used to determine the timing and rate of various processes, such as sedimentation (terrestrial and marine), tectonics, volcanism, geomorphological change, cooling rates, crystallization, fluid flow, glaciation, climate change and evolution. The volume includes applications in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings, the burgeoning field of molecular-clock dating and topics in the intersection of earth sciences with forensics. The content covers a broad range of techniques and applications. All major accepted dating techniques are included, as well as all major datable materials.
Machine learning and big data is hot. It is, however, virtually unused in clinical trials. This is so, because randomization is applied to even out multiple variables Modern medical computer files often involve hundreds of variables like genes and other laboratory values, and computationally intensive methods are required This is the first publication of clinical trials that have been systematically analyzed with machine learning. In addition, all of the machine learning analyses were tested against traditional analyses. Step by step statistics for self-assessments are included The authors conclude, that machine learning is often more informative, and provides better sensitivities of testing than traditional analytic methods do
Sir Joseph Banks was one of the great figures of Georgian England, best known for participating as naturalist in Cook's Endeavour voyage (1768-71), as a patron of science and as the longest-serving President of the Royal Society (1778-1820). This volume brings together all Banks's papers concerning Iceland and the North Atlantic, scattered in repositories in Britain, the United States, Australia and Denmark, and most published here for the first time. A detailed introduction places them in historical context.
Scientific advances have transformed the world. However, science can sometimes get things wrong, and at times, disastrously so. Understanding the basis for scientific claims and judging how much confidence we should place in them is essential for individual choice, societal debates, and development of public policy and laws. We must ask: what is the basis of scientific claims? How much confidence should we put in them? What is defined as science and what is not? This book synthesizes a working definition of science and its properties, as explained through the eyes of a practicing scientist, by integrating advances from philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, and anthropology into a holistic view. Crucial in our political climate, the book fights the myths of science often portrayed to the public. Written for a general audience, it also enables students to better grasp methodologies and helps professional scientists to articulate what they do and why.
This book focuses on innovative experimental and computational approaches for charting interaction networks in bacterial species. The first part of the volume consists of nine chapters, focusing on biochemical and genetics and genomics approaches including yeast two hybrid, metagenomics, affinity purification in combination with mass spectrometry, chromatin-immunoprecipitation coupled with sequencing, large-scale synthetic genetic screens, and quantitative-based mass spectrometry strategies for mapping the bacterial physical, functional, substrate, and regulatory interaction networks needed for interpreting biological networks, inferring gene function, enzyme discovery, and identifying new drug targets. The second part comprises five chapters, covering the network of participants for protein folding and complex enzyme maturation. It also covers the structural approaches required to understand bacterial intramembrane proteolysis and the structure and function of bacterial proteins involved in surface polysaccharides, outer membrane, and envelope assembly. This volume concludes with a focus on computational and comparative genomics approaches, especially network-based methods for predicting physical or functional interactions, and integrative analytical approaches for generating more reliable information on bacterial gene function. This book provides foundational knowledge in the understanding of prokaryotic systems biology by illuminating how bacterial genes f unction within the framework of global cellular processes. The book will enable the microbiology community to create substantive resources for addressing many pending unanswered questions, and facilitate the development of new technologies that can be applied to other bacterial species lacking experimental data.
This textbook discusses the new relationship between artificial, synthetic material and living matter, and presents defined examples of approaches aiming for the creation of artificial cells. It also offers insights into the world of synthetic biology from its origins to the present day, showing what is currently possible in this discipline. Furthermore, it examines the ethical concerns and potential threats posed by this new field. The textbook is based on a lecture of the same title, held for master's students at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, and is primarily intended for students of synthetic biology, biotechnology and bioengineering. It is also of interest to research scientists from other disciplines wishing to learn more about the state of the art of synthetic biology and its future.
A fascinating exploration of the skin in its multifaceted physical, psychological, and social aspects Providing a cover for our delicate and intricate bodies, the skin is our largest and fastest-growing organ. We see it, touch it, and live in it every day. It is a habitat for a mesmerizingly complex world of micro-organisms and physical functions that are vital to our health and our survival. It is also a waste removal plant, a warning system for underlying disease and a dynamic immune barrier to infection. One of the first things people see about us, skin is crucial to our sense of identity, providing us with social significance and psychological meaning. And yet our skin and the fascinating way it functions is largely unknown to us. In prose as lucid as his research underlying it is rigorous, blending in memorable stories from the past and from his own medical experience, Monty Lyman has written a revelatory book exploring our outer surface that will surprise and enlighten in equal measure. Through the lenses of science, sociology, and history--on topics as diverse as the mechanics and magic of touch (how much goes on in the simple act of taking keys out of a pocket and unlocking a door is astounding), the close connection between the skin and the gut, what happens instantly when one gets a paper cut, and how a midnight snack can lead to sunburn--Lyman leads us on a journey across our most underrated and unexplored organ and reveals how our skin is far stranger, more wondrous, and more complex than we have ever imagined.
We have long been encouraged to think of old age as synonymous with deterioration. Yet, recent studies show that our decision-making skills improve as we age and our happiness levels peak in our eighties. What really happens to our brains as we get older?
More of us are living into our eighties than ever before. In The Changing Mind, neuroscientist, psychologist and internationally-bestselling author Daniel Levitin invites us to dramatically shift our understanding of growing older, demonstrating its many cognitive benefits. He draws on cutting-edge research to challenge common and flawed beliefs, including assumptions around memory loss and the focus on lifespan instead of 'healthspan'.
Levitin reveals the evolving power of the human brain from infancy to late adulthood. Distilling the findings from over 4000 papers, he explains the importance of personality traits, lifestyle, memory and community on ageing, offering actionable tips that we can all start now, at any age.
Featuring compelling insights from individuals who have thrived far beyond the conventional age of retirement, this book offers realistic guidelines and practical cognition-enhancing tricks for everyone to follow during every decade of their life. This is a radical exploration of what we all can learn from those who age joyously.
Writing clear, impactful reports is a crucial skill for science students, but few books focus on this area for the undergraduate. Particularly useful for biology students, this text adopts a hands-on approach, using example reports and published papers as models to put guidance into practice. An introductory chapter familiarizes undergraduates with the principles of writing science. Two model reports are then developed, walking students through experimental and observational teaching-lab reports. The structure and content of the Introduction, Methods and Materials, Results, and Discussion are explained, together with tips for the title, abstract, and references. Students are then guided on how to polish their first draft. The last section of the book analyzes two published papers, helping the reader transition to reporting original research. Clearly and concisely written, this text offers a much-needed lifeline for science students facing science report-writing for the first time, and for those looking to hone their writing skills.
Conservation behavior assists the investigation of species endangerment associated with managing animals impacted by anthropogenic activities. It employs a theoretical framework that examines the mechanisms, development, function, and phylogeny of behavior variation in order to develop practical tools for preventing biodiversity loss and extinction. Developed from a symposium held at the International Congress on Conservation Biology in 2011, this is the first book to offer an in-depth, logical framework that identifies three vital areas for understanding conservation behavior: anthropogenic threats to wildlife, conservation and management protocols, and indicators of anthropogenic threats. Bridging the gap between behavioral ecology and conservation biology, this volume ascertains key links between the fields, explores the theoretical foundations of these linkages, and connects them to practical wildlife management tools and concise applicable advice. Adopting a clear and structured approach throughout, this book is a vital resource for graduate students, academic researchers, and wildlife managers.
There is a major demand for people with scientific training in a wide range of professions based on and maintaining relations with science. However, there is a lack of good first-hand information about alternative career paths to research. From entrepreneurship, industry and the media to government, public relations, activism and teaching, this is a readable guide to science based skills, lifestyles and career paths. The ever-narrowing pyramid of opportunities within an academic career structure, or the prospect of a life in the laboratory losing its attraction, mean that many who trained in science and engineering now look for alternative careers. Thirty role models who began by studying many different disciplines give personal guidance for graduates, postgraduates and early-career scientists in the life sciences, physical sciences and engineering. This book is an entertaining resource for ideas about, and directions into, the many fields which they may not be aware of or may not have considered.
For introductory undergraduate or graduate courses in statistics aimed at life science majors. Bringing Statistics to Life The Fifth Edition of Statistics for the Life Sciences uses authentic examples and exercises from a wide variety of life science domains to give statistical concepts personal relevance, enabling students to connect concepts with situations they will encounter outside the classroom. The emphasis on understanding ideas rather than memorizing formulas makes the text ideal for students studying a variety of scientific fields: animal science, agronomy, biology, forestry, health, medicine, nutrition, pharmacy, physical education, zoology and more. In the fifth edition, randomization tests have been moved to the fore to motivate the inference procedures introduced in the text. There are no prerequisites for the text except elementary algebra.
Most conventional gardening books concentrate on how and when to carry out horticultural tasks such as pruning, seed sowing and taking cuttings. Science and the Garden, Third Edition is unique in explaining in straightforward terms some of the science that underlies these practices. It is principally a book of 'Why' Why are plants green? Why do some plants only flower in the autumn? Why do lateral buds begin to grow when the terminal bud is removed by pruning? Why are some plants successful as weeds? Why does climate variability and change mean change for gardeners? But it also goes on to deal with the 'How', providing rationale behind the practical advice. The coverage is wide-ranging and comprehensive and includes: the diversity, structure, functioning and reproduction of garden plants; nomenclature and classification; genetics and plant breeding; soil properties and soil management; environmental factors affecting growth and development; methods of propagation; size and form; colour, scent and sound; climate; environmental change; protected cultivation; pest, disease and weed diversity and control; post-harvest management and storage; garden ecology and conservation; sustainable horticulture; gardens and human health and wellbeing; and gardens for science. This expanded and fully updated Third Edition of Science and the Garden includes two completely new chapters on important topics: * Climate and Other Environmental Changes * Health, Wellbeing and Socio-cultural Benefits Many of the other chapters have been completely re-written or extensively revised and expanded, often with new authors and/or illustrators, and the remainder have all been carefully updated and re-edited. Published in collaboration with the Royal Horticultural Society, reproduced in full colour throughout, carefully edited and beautifully produced, this new edition remains a key text for students of horticulture and will also appeal to amateur and professional gardeners wishing to know more about the fascinating science behind the plants and practices that are the everyday currency of gardening.
This innovative book provides a completely fresh exploration of bioinformatics, investigating its complex interrelationship with biology and computer science. It approaches bioinformatics from a unique perspective, highlighting interdisciplinary gaps that often trap the unwary. The book considers how the need for biological databases drove the evolution of bioinformatics; it reviews bioinformatics basics (including database formats, data-types and current analysis methods), and examines key topics in computer science (including data-structures, identifiers and algorithms), reflecting on their use and abuse in bioinformatics. Bringing these disciplines together, this book is an essential read for those who wish to better understand the challenges for bioinformatics at the interface of biology and computer science, and how to bridge the gaps. It will be an invaluable resource for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, and for lecturers, researchers and professionals with an interest in this fascinating, fast-moving discipline and the knotty problems that surround it.
This book develops a new approach called parameter advising for finding a parameter setting for a sequence aligner that yields a quality alignment of a given set of input sequences. In this framework, a parameter advisor is a procedure that automatically chooses a parameter setting for the input, and has two main ingredients: (a) the set of parameter choices considered by the advisor, and (b) an estimator of alignment accuracy used to rank alignments produced by the aligner. On coupling a parameter advisor with an aligner, once the advisor is trained in a learning phase, the user simply inputs sequences to align, and receives an output alignment from the aligner, where the advisor has automatically selected the parameter setting. The chapters first lay out the foundations of parameter advising, and then cover applications and extensions of advising. The content * examines formulations of parameter advising and their computational complexity, * develops methods for learning good accuracy estimators, * presents approximation algorithms for finding good sets of parameter choices, and * assesses software implementations of advising that perform well on real biological data. Also explored are applications of parameter advising to * adaptive local realignment, where advising is performed on local regions of the sequences to automatically adapt to varying mutation rates, and * ensemble alignment, where advising is applied to an ensemble of aligners to effectively yield a new aligner of higher quality than the individual aligners in the ensemble. The book concludes by offering future directions in advising research.
This book reviews the emerging studies of synthetic immunology, including the development and regeneration of immune cells, immune organ development and artificial regeneration, and the synthetic approach towards understanding human immune system. Immunology has developed rapidly over the last 50 years through the incorporation of new methods and concepts in cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. This progress is the result of works by many excellent researchers all over the world. Currently, immunological research has accumulated detailed knowledge on basic mechanisms of immunity and is in the process to change medical practices. Yet, due to the enormous complexity of the immune system, many aspects on the regulation and function of this system remain unknown. Synthetic biology uses gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function approaches. The goals of synthetic biology can be described in a simple phrase "rebuild, alter, and understand," namely, to rebuild minimal functional systems using well-defined parts from nature and then to perturb the system to understand its working principles. Given the richness of accumulated knowledge in molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system, we now begin adapting the concepts of synthetic biology to immunology. An immune response is a spatiotemporal phenomenon occurring at a given time and at a specialized place in the body. One goal of synthetic immunology is to reconstruct artificial microenvironments for better understanding of an immune response. We hope this yet-to-be-experimental approach of synthetic immunology and the compilation of this book will aid our further understanding of the immune system and future devising the tools to manipulate the immune system for therapy and prevention of the diseases.
Chemicals often have a negative Image among the general public. But there is no material world or indeed human beings without chemicals. The material world is operated by chemicals. The title 'Chemicals for Life and Living' implies that the material world is staged and played by chemicals. The book consists of five parts and an appendix. Part 1 - Essentials for life; Part 2 - Enhancing health; Part 3 - For the fun of life; Part 4 - Chemistry of the universe and earth, and Part 5 - Some negative effects of chemicals. The appendix gives a brief summary of what chemistry is all about, including a short chapter of chemical principles. No quantitative calculations are included in this book so that it is appealing for everyone - not just chemists.
We live in an age of ubiquitous genomics. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, both widely adopted and advancing at pace, has transformed the data landscape, opening up an enormous source of heritable characters to the comparative biologist. Its impact on systematics, like many other fields of biology, has been felt throughout its breadth: from defining species boundaries to estimating their evolutionary histories. This volume examines the broad range of ways in which NGS data are being used in systematics and in the fields that it underpins, from biodiversity prospecting to evo-devo. Experts in their fields draw on contemporary case studies to demonstrate state-of-the-art applications of NGS data. These, along with novel analyses, comprehensive reviews and lively perspectives, are combined to produce an authoritative account of contemporary issues in systematics that have been impacted by the adoption of NGS.
Knowledge of the origin and spread of farming has been revolutionised in recent years by the application of new scientific techniques, especially the analysis of ancient DNA from human genomes. In this book, Stephen Shennan presents the latest research on the spread of farming by archaeologists, geneticists and other archaeological scientists. He shows that it resulted from a population expansion from present-day Turkey. Using ideas from the disciplines of human behavioural ecology and cultural evolution, he explains how this process took place. The expansion was not the result of 'population pressure' but of the opportunities for increased fertility by colonising new regions that farming offered. The knowledge and resources for the farming 'niche' were passed on from parents to their children. However, Shennan demonstrates that the demographic patterns associated with the spread of farming resulted in population booms and busts, not continuous expansion.
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