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Abject Relations presents an alternative approach to anorexia nervosa, long considered the epitome of a Western obsession with individualism, beauty, self-control, and autonomy. Through detailed ethnographic investigations, Megan Warin looks at the heart of what it means to live with anorexia on a daily basis. Participants describe difficulties with social relatedness, not being at home in their body, and feeling disgusting and worthless. For them, anorexia becomes a seductive and empowering practice that cleanses bodies of shame and guilt, becomes a friend and support, and allows them to forge new social relations. Unraveling anorexia's complex relationships and contradictions, Warin constructs a new theoretical perspective rooted in a socio-cultural context of bodies and gender. Abject Relations departs from conventional psychotherapy approaches and offers a different "logic," one that involves the shifting forces of power, disgust, and desire. It provides new ways of thinking that may have implications for future treatment regimes. Megan Warin is a social anthropologist in the Discipline of Gender, Work, and Social Inquiry at the University of Adelaide. She has previously worked across anthropology, psychiatry, and public health at various institutions, including Durham University, the University of Adelaide, and Flinders University of South Australia. Praise for Abject Relations: "Warin has taken the topic of anorexia, which many of us feel that we know something about, and brilliantly cast a whole new light on it. Through vivid ethnography and evocative prose, she ensures that you won't think about anorexia or those affected by it in quite the same way ever again."-C. H. Browner, UCLA School of Medicine "Anthropologist Megan Warin combines rich multisited ethnographic research on anorexic women's lived experiences with a sophisticated theoretical approach based on concepts of abjection and relatedness to offer fascinating and original insights into anorexia nervosa."-Carole M. Counihan, author of The Anthropology of Food and Body: Gender, Meaning, and Power
"With finely crafted ethnography, Tsipy Ivry engages her readers in the most intimate of experiences-pregnancy. Research in Japan and Israel reveals how medical knowledge and technologies are made use of differentially in these two locations by both physicians and women to accomplish a remarkably dissimilar embodiment of future motherhood. Ivry's position is that concern about the ramifications of technologically assisted reproduction should not usurp representations of the cultures of pregnancy." -Margaret Lock, author of Twice Dead: Organ Transplants and the Reinvention of Death "A fascinating double-ethnography of pregnancy in two cultures. This outstanding book reveals stunning cultural differences in the interpretation of the embodied experience of pregnancy. In spite of their mutual technological sophistication, Japanese and Israeli views on pregnancy could hardly be more different, nor could the biomedical advice that women in each culture receive. Ivry's work takes Brigitte Jordan's analysis of birth in four cultures to a new level, focusing specifically on the cultural influences that profoundly affect both women's and obstetricians' perceptions and management of pregnancy, and deeply demonstrating the influence of culture on biomedical 'science.'" -Robbie Davis-Floyd, author of Birth as an American Rite of Passage With all of the burgeoning social interest in new reproductive technologies and in childbirth, why has pregnancy been forgotten? Isn't pregnancy just as culturally variant as other aspects of reproduction? Embodying Culture looks at pregnancy as much more than just "expecting." Tsipy Ivry juxtaposes pregnancy in two non-western postindustrial democracies, one preoccupied with military conflicts and existential threats (Israel), the other horrified by the graying of society and shrinking birth rates (Japan). Through ethnographic exploration of pregnancy experiences of Japanese and Israeli women and comparative study of ob-gyns and the bioemedical cultures that medicalize pregnancy in divergent ways, Ivry illuminates pregnancy as a meaningful cultural category for social analysis: a first step toward an anthropology of pregnancy. Tsipy Ivry is a lecturer in anthropology at the department of sociology and anthropology at the University of Haifa, Israel. A volume in the Studies in Medical Anthropology series, edited by Mac Marshall
Working with human remains raises a whole host of ethical issues, from how the remains are used to how and where they are stored. Over recent years, attitudes towards repatriation and reburial have changed considerably and there are now laws in many countries to facilitate or compel the return of remains to claimant communities. Such changes have also brought about new ways of working with and caring for human remains, while enabling their ongoing use in research projects. This has often meant a reevaluation of working practices for both the curation of remains and in providing access to them. This volume will look at the issues and difficulties inherent in holding human remains with global origins, and how diverse institutions and countries have tackled these issues. Essential reading for advanced students in biological anthropology, museum studies, archaeology and anthropology, as well as museum curators, researchers and other professionals.
"Whitening Race" comes to fruition at a time in world history and global politics when questions about race require critical investigation and engagement. Since the 1990s, international scholars have developed a powerful cultural critique by making whiteness an analytical object of research. Whiteness has become the invisible norm against which other races are judged in the construction of identity, representation, subjectivity, nationalism and the law.With its focus on Australia, the book engages with relations between migration, Indigenous dispossession and whiteness. It creates a new intellectual space that investigates the nature of racialised conditions and their role in reproducing colonising relations in Australia. Aileen Moreton-Robinson has brought together scholars from a range of disciplines: philosophy, cultural and gender studies, education, social work, sociology and literary studies. All engage critically with the location of the social and discursive construction of whiteness.
In the seventeenth century, a map of the plague suggested a radical idea-that the disease was carried and spread by humans. In the nineteenth century, maps of cholera cases were used to prove its waterborne nature. More recently, maps charting the swine flu pandemic caused worldwide panic and sent shockwaves through the medical community. In "Disease Maps", Tom Koch contends that to understand epidemics and their history we need to think about maps of varying scale, from the individual body to shared symptoms evidenced across cities, nations, and the world. "Disease Maps" begins with a brief review of epidemic mapping today and a detailed example of its power. Koch then traces the early history of medical cartography, including pandemics such as European plague and yellow fever, and the advancements in anatomy, printing, and world atlases that paved the way for their mapping. Moving on to the scourge of the nineteenth century-cholera-Koch considers the many choleras argued into existence by the maps of the day, including a new perspective on John Snow's science and legacy. Finally, Koch addresses contemporary outbreaks such as AIDS, cancer, and H1N1, and reaches into the future, toward the coming epidemics. Ultimately, "Disease Maps" redefines conventional medical history with new surgical precision, revealing that only in maps do patterns emerge that allow disease theories to be proposed, hypotheses tested, and treatments advanced.
Of recent, the structure of the complement system has received considerable attention, including the publication of several three-dimensional structures of complement proteins. This has led to the need for an authoritative resource to provide a complete overview of the basics, as well as an explanation of the cutting-edge work being accomplished in this emerging science. Structural Biology of the Complement System is devoted to the full exploration of structural aspects of the complement system, with special consideration of the links between molecular structure and function. Containing the work of leading authorities across the disciplines of immunology and structural biology, the book serves both as an introductory volume for newcomers to the field and as a comprehensive reference for established researchers, in particular those whose goal is the discovery of anticomplement drugs. Written in a didactic style, this volume is an appropriate resource for students in the fields of immunology and structural biology. Structural Biology of the Complement System comes with a CD containing color figures, a molecular structure visualization program, and files with three-dimensional coordinates of the structures described in the book. These tools allow readers to perform tailored structural manipulation and analysis, while also serving as a starting point for further research.
We often hear that humans spend one third of their lives sleeping--and most of us would up that fraction if we could. Whether we're curling up for a brief lunchtime catnap, catching a doze on a sunny afternoon, or clocking our solid eight hours at night, sleeping is normally a reliable way to rest our heads and recharge our minds. And our bodies demand it: without sufficient sleep, we experience changes in mood, memory loss, and difficulty concentrating. Symptoms of sleep deprivation can be severe, and we know that sleep is essential for restoring and rejuvenating muscles, tissue, and energy. And yet, although science is making remarkable inroads into the workings and functions of sleep, many aspects still remain a mystery. In The Science of Sleep, sleep expert Wallace B. Mendelson explains the elements of human sleep states and explores the variety of sleep disorders afflicting thousands of people worldwide. Mendelson lays out the various treatments that are available today and provides a helpful guide for one of life's most important activities. By offering the first scientific yet accessible account of sleep science, Mendelson allows readers to assess their personal relationships with sleep and craft their own individual approaches to a comfortable and effective night's rest. Addressing one of the major public health issues of the day with cutting-edge research and empathetic understanding, The Science of Sleep is the definitive illustrated reference guide to sleep science.
Since its start in 1967 Ethnologia Europaea has acquired a central position in the international cooperation between ethnologists in the different European countries. It is, however, a journal of topical interest not only for ethnologists but also for anthropologists, social historians and others studying the social and cultural forms of everyday life in recent and historical European societies. This journal appears twice a year, sometimes as a thematic issue.
"Xiaojian Zhao's Remaking Chinese America is an important addition to Chinese American history, focusing on family formation and reconstitution in an as yet little-studied era." --Roger Daniels, Charles Phelps Taft Professor of History, University of Cincinnati "Using records from the Immigration and Naturalization Service as well as Chinatown newspapers, records from and about Chinese American organizations, and oral interviews, Zhao has presented a previously unknown perspective of Chinese America in a skillfully constructed mosaic." --Sue Fawn Chung, University of Nevada, Las Vegas In Remaking Chinese America, Xiaojian Zhao explores the myriad forces that changed and unified Chinese Americans during a key period in American history. Prior to 1940, this immigrant community was predominantly male, but between 1940 and 1965 it was transformed into a family-centered American ethnic community. Zhao pays special attention to forces both inside and outside the country in order to explain these changing demographics. Careful attention is paid to evolving gender roles, since women constituted the majority of newcomers, significantly changing the sex ratio of the Chinese American population. In defining the political circumstances that brought the Chinese together as a cohesive political body, Zhao delves into the complexities they faced when questioning their personal national allegiances during World War II and the Communist takeover of mainland China. Remaking Chinese America uses a wealth of primary sources, including oral histories, newspapers, genealogical documents, and immigration files to illuminate what it was like to be Chinese living in the United States during a period that--until now--has been little studied. Xiaojian Zhao is an associate professor of Asian American studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara
Ethnomusicologist Moshe Beregovski offers insights into Soviet and Jewish history and general musicology and presents the notes and lyrics of nearly three hundred folk songs.
Here, translated into English for the first time, is a cultural record the folk music of Eastern Europe. This volume consists of some of Moshe Beregovski's responses to Jewish folk music in its living context during the 1930s, including essays on Ukrainian musical influences, klezmer music, and characteristic scale patterns. Also included are Beregovski's anthologies of hundreds of folk songs with full Yiddish and English song texts. Each song is carefully notated exactly as it was sung and is accompanied by Beregovski's notes on origins and variants.
The term "Caucasian" is a curious invention of the modern age. Originating in 1795, the word identifies both the peoples of the Caucasus Mountains region as well as those thought to be "Caucasian." Bruce Baum explores the history of the term and the category of the "Caucasian race" more broadly in the light of the changing politics of racial theory and notions of racial identity. With a comprehensive sweep that encompasses the understanding of "race" even before the use of the term "Caucasian," Baum traces the major trends in scientific and intellectual understandings of "race" from the Middle Ages to the present day.
Baum's conclusions make an unprecedented attempt to separate modern science and politics from a long history of racial classification. He offers significant insights into our understanding of race and how the "Caucasian race" has been authoritatively invented, embraced, displaced, and recovered throughout our history.
Though indeterminacy in legal texts is pervasive, there is a widespread misunderstanding about what indeterminacy is, particularly as it pertains to law. Legal texts present unique challenges insofar as they address a heterogeneous audience, are applied in a variety of unforeseeable circumstances and must, at the same time, lay down clear and unambiguous standards. Sometimes they fail to do so, however, either by accident or by intention. While many have claimed that indeterminacy facilitates flexibility and can be strategically used, few have recognized that there are more forms of indeterminacy than vagueness and ambiguity. A comprehensive account of legal indeterminacy is thus called for. David Lanius here answers that call and in so doing, addresses three central questions about the role of indeterminacy in the law. First, what are the sources of indeterminacy in law? Second, what effects do the different forms of indeterminacy have? Third, how can and should these forms be intentionally used? Based on a thorough examination of the advantages and disadvantages of the different forms of indeterminacy in the wording of laws, contracts, and verdicts, Lanius argues for the claim that semantic vagueness is less relevant than commonly supposed in the debate, while other forms of indeterminacy (in particular, polysemy and standard-relativity) are mistakenly underrated or even ignored. This misconception is due to a systematic confusion between semantic vagueness and these other forms of indeterminacy. Once it is resolved, the value and functions of linguistic indeterminacy in the law can be clearly shown.
This collection of essays is the outcome of an international symposium, jointly organised by the International Research Center for Japanese Studies, Kyoto, and the Section of Japanese Studies of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in October 1998. It was the second in a series of three international symposia that the International Resaerch Center for Japanese Studies organised in Europe in conjunction with a European partner.The Leuven Symposium, which went under the general title of Translations of Culture, Culture of Translation, actually consisted of two parallel sessions. The first one was a workshop on Gender and Modernity in Japan. The second one was devoted to a reflection on Translation and Adaptation in the Formulation of Modern Episteme: A Reappraisal of Dodoens. The essays in the present volume are the reworked and elaborated versions of the presentations made at the latter symposium.It was clear that many of the issues one had to tackle had to do with translation, and that translation was not a phenomenon limited to Japan, but equally prominent in European cultural history, nor limited to texts as such, but involving broader cultural contexts as well. The result was an investigation of Dodoens's (Dodonaeus) importance in Europe as well as in Japan through the prism of translation, transposition adaptation etc., defined as a moving force in cultural and social development and an indispensable lubricant in the process of functional differentiation. The main concern was evidently Japan, but the organisers deliberately opted for a perspective that kept a certain distance from boundaries. Therefore experts in the field of Western herbals and botany were confronted with historians of early modern Japan.
Metabolism, behaviour, sleep, mood swings, the immune system, fighting, fleeing, puberty and sex: these are just a few of the things our bodies control with hormones. Armed with a healthy dose of wit and curiosity, medical journalist Randi Hutter Epstein takes us on a journey through the unusual history of these potent chemicals from a basement filled with jarred nineteenth-century brains to a twenty-first-century hormone clinic in Los Angeles. Brimming with fascinating anecdotes, illuminating new medical research and humorous details, Aroused introduces the leading scientists who made life-changing discoveries about the hormone imbalances that ail us, as well as the charlatans who used those discoveries to peddle false remedies.
Why do we die? Do all living creatures share this fate? Is the body's slow degradation with the passage of time unavoidable, or can the secrets of longevity be unlocked? Over the past two decades, scientists studying the workings of genes and cells have uncovered some of the clues necessary to solve these mysteries. In this fascinating and accessible book, two neurobiologists share the often-surprising findings from that research, including the possibility that aging and natural death may not be forever a certainty for most living beings. Andre Klarsfeld and Frederic Revah discuss in detail the latest scientific findings and views on death and longevity. They challenge many popular assumptions, such as the idea that the death of individual organisms serves to rejuvenate species or that death and sexual reproduction are necessarily linked. Finally, they describe current experimental approaches to postpone natural death in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Are all organisms that survive until late in life condemned to a "natural" death, as a consequence of aging, even if they live in a well-protected, supportive environment? The variability of the adult life span from a few hours for some insects to more than a millennium for the sequoia and thirteen times that for certain wild berry bushes challenges the notion that death is unavoidable. Evolutionary theory helps explain why and how some species have achieved biological mechanisms that seemingly allow them to resist time. Death cannot be understood without looking into cells the essential building blocks of life. Intriguingly, at the level of cells, death is not always an accident; it is often programmed as an indispensable aspect of life, which benefits the organism as a whole."
Open-access edition: DOI 10.6069/9780295743004 Only fifty years ago, Tibetan medicine, now seen in China as a vibrant aspect of Tibetan culture, was considered a feudal vestige to be eliminated through government-led social transformation. Medicine and Memory in Tibet examines medical revivalism on the geographic and sociopolitical margins both of China and of Tibet's medical establishment in Lhasa, exploring the work of medical practitioners, or amchi, and of Medical Houses in the west-central region of Tsang. Due to difficult research access and the power of state institutions in the writing of history, the perspectives of more marginal amchi have been absent from most accounts of Tibetan medicine. Theresia Hofer breaks new ground both theoretically and ethnographically, in ways that would be impossible in today's more restrictive political climate that severely limits access for researchers. She illuminates how medical practitioners safeguarded their professional heritage through great adversity and personal hardship.
Since the inception of the New Archaeology in the 1960s anthropological archaeologists have been attempting to develop models that will let them better understand the evolution of human social organization. The vast majority of this research has focused specifically upon the development of so-called 'complex' societies, which frequently are characterized by institutionalized social inequality, craft specialization, and developed social hierarchy. Conversely, a good deal of research also has focused upon the variability exhibited by highly mobile hunting and gathering societies. Somewhere in our search for understanding how chiefdoms and states evolve, and how different those societies are from egalitarian 'bands', we have neglected to develop models that will help us understand the wide range of variability that exists between them. This volume attempts to fill this gap by exploring social organization in tribal - or 'autonomous village' - societies from several different ethnographic, ethnohistoric, and archaeological contexts - from the Pre-Pottery Neolithic Period in the Near East to the contemporary Jivaro of Amazonia. The chapters cover diverse geographic (Old and New World) and temporal (early Holocene to the present) contexts and address a number of issues regarding economic, ideological, and political processes within tribal societies from the short-term to the longue duree.
Discerning Palates of the Past analyzes the agricultural and pastoral infrastructure of the Mature (ca. 2500-2000 B.C.) and Late Harappan (ca. 2000-1700 B.C.) cultures of Gujarat, Northwest India, the southernmost extension of the South Asian Harappan Civilization. The economic role of drought-resistant millet crops was reconstructed at Harappan sites using a three-pronged behavioral ecological approach which integrated ethnographic studies of crop processing, paleobotany, and carbon isotope analysis. The results reveal that simply recovering crop seeds from archaeological contexts does not prove local crop cultivation. Instead, this study establishes the interpretive strength of developing ethnographic models that distinguish signatures of local cultivation versus the consumption of grain from crops grown elsewhere. The implications of these results are further explored with respect to how agricultural production of millets for human food and for animal fodder may have been economically interwoven during the Harappan Civilization. The interpretive strength of developing ethnographic models to distinguish local cultivation from the consumption of grain grown elsewhere is demonstrated in this study, and new directions are provided for discerning archaeologically how pastoralism and agriculture may be integrated in complex economic systems.
This innovative portrait of student life in an urban high school
focuses on the academic success of African-American students,
exploring the symbolic role of academic achievement within the
Black community and investigating the price students pay for
attaining it. Signithia Fordham's richly detailed ethnography
reveals a deeply rooted cultural system that favors egalitarianism
and group cohesion over the individualistic, competitive demands of
academic success and sheds new light on the sources of academic
performance. She also details the ways in which the achievements of
sucessful African-Americans are "blacked out" of the public
imagination and negative images are reflected onto black
adolescents. A self-proclaimed "native" anthropologist, she
chronicles the struggle of African-American students to construct
an identity suitable to themselves, their peers, and their families
within an arena of colliding ideals. This long-overdue contribution
is of crucial importance to educators, policymakers, and
This is the new, fully updated edition of this now-classic study of working-class racism. Combining classical Marxism, psychoanalysis and the new labor history pioneered by E. P. Thompson and Herbert Gutman, David Roediger's widely acclaimed book provides an original study of the formative years of working-class racism in the United States. This, he argues, cannot be explained simply with reference to economic advantage; rather, white working-class racism is underpinned by a complex series of psychological and ideological mechanisms that reinforce racial stereotypes, and thus help to forge the identities of white workers in opposition to blacks. In a lengthy new introduction, Roediger surveys recent scholarship on whiteness, and discusses the changing face of labor in the twenty-first century.
How and to what extent have Islamic legal scholars and Middle Eastern lawmakers, as well as Middle Eastern Muslim physicians and patients, grappled with the complex bioethical, legal, and social issues that are raised in the process of attempting to conceive life in the face of infertility? This path-breaking volume explores the influence of Islamic attitudes on Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) and reveals the variations in both the Islamic jurisprudence and the cultural responses to ARTs.
Andean South America offers significant anthropological insights into highland and arid zone adaptations, including pastoralist economy and ecology, settlement patterns, site formation processes, tool manufacture, and the cultural meanings of landscapes. The 16 papers in this volume present detailed studies of economics and production, caravanning and trade, ceramic manufacture and use life, patterns of settlement and mobility among highland and lowland pastoralists and horticulturalists, taphonomy, and sacred landscapes. The epistomological foundations of ethnoarchaeology, archaeological uses of ethnoarchaeology, and the relationship between environment and culture are important theoretical themes. Beyond those interested in Andean South America, this volume will be of use to anyone who studies human adaptations to highland or arid environments, and to those interested in pastoral societies.
The last decade has witnessed a sophistication and proliferation in the number of studies focused on the evolution of human cognition, reflecting a renewed interest in the evolution of the human mind in anthropology and in many other disciplines such as cognitive ethnology and evolutionary psychology. The complexity and enormity of this topic is such that it requires the coordinated efforts of many researchers. This volume brings together the disciplines of palaeontology, psychology, anatomy, and primatology. Together they address a number of issues, including the evolution of sex differences in spatial cognition, the role of archaeology in the cognitive sciences, the relationships between brain size, cranial reorganization and hominid cognition, and the role of language and information processing in human evolution. Contributors include: A Martin Byers, Philip Chase, Iain Davidson, Francesco d'Errico, Deborah Forster, Gordon G Gallup Jr, Sean C Hoga, Trenton W Holliday, Harry Jerison, Philip Lieberman, William Noble, April Nowell, Richard Potts, Christopher B Ruff, Katerina Semendeferi, Shirley C Strum, Phillip Tobias, Erik Trinkaus, Anne H Weaver, and Thomas Wynn.
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