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Africa's leading producer of electricity, Eskom Holdings SOC Ltd, is also a vertically integrated monopoly, owned by the South African state. This national champion was shaken in 2008, when it was obliged to introduce 'load shedding', or rolling blackouts, and again in late 2014. Trying to understand how and why one of the iconic pillars of South African state capitalism is now in distress, the authors of this book argue that the so-called electricity crisis is in fact a public monopoly crisis.
Moving beyond technical aspects, they explore the relationship between state power and Eskom before, during and after apartheid. From this perspective, they suggest that the current technical and financial troubles of this public utility are illustrative of the weakening of its technopolitical regime, of how national institutions have governed Eskom's technological development, and of the pursuit of political goals in the production of electrical power. Without a clear industrial strategy during the 2000s, Eskom became a powerful tool of Broad-Black Economic Empowerment as well as a neopatrimonial system which generates profits captured by the ruling party. As a result, crisis in Eskom shakes the whole political edifice. Inefficient and its finances increasingly under scrutiny, this state-owned enterprise's existence as a monopolistic public utility is regularly a subject of debate.
The authors discuss the ambivalent role of Eskom in the national energy transition policy and whether solutions point in the direction of de-integrating this public monopoly and allowing its current technopolitical regime to enter a planned or natural decline.
In 1973 the trade union movement was both racially and regionally divided. It virtually excluded African workers, and in many cases unions were led by cautious and paternalistic leaders, long schooled in avoiding confrontation with either the state or employers. Then widespread strikes erupted in Durban where hundreds of thousands of workers downed tools in support of wage demands. It was a militant explosion unprecedented since the apartheid government had crushed and outlawed mass demonstrations against segregation and 'whites-only' rule. And it provided the impetus for the next decade and a half of trade union organisation, which succeeded in uniting workers on a largely non-racial basis, dominated by the slogan 'one industry one union'.
Maverick Insider is an anecdotal, insider's account of the transformation during this period in the textile, clothing and leather worker sectors. It focuses on the outlooks of leadership groups in different parts of that industry and their efforts to influence the nature of the amalgamation of six unions to form the Southern African Clothing and Textile Workers' Union (SACTWU), one of the three largest unions of the Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU). It traces the interaction between union leadership and both political parties and community organisations dedicated to making the country ungovernable, as well as those who were determined to stamp out such calls. It details struggles to unite workers across political divides in the same union organisation and to assert an independent working-class point of view in a period of growing African nationalism. It details the traumatic events on the road to the so-called peaceful miracle that created a rainbow nation but left 22 000 South Africans dead in the process.
And it is the story of a team of people who set out to change the world and formed an unshakeable bond in the process.
This is the definitive story of the men who built the railways the unknown Victorian labourers who blasted, tunnelled, drank and brawled their way across nineteenth-century England.
Preached at and plundered, sworn at and swindled, this anarchic elite endured perils and disasters, and carved out of the English countryside an industrial-age architecture unparalleled in grandeur and audacity since the building of the cathedrals.
In 1919, in the wake of the First World War, a group of extraordinary women came together to create the Women's Engineering Society. They were trailblazers, pioneers and boundary breakers, but many of their stories have been lost to history. To mark the centenary of the society's creation, Magnificent Women and Their Revolutionary Machines brings them back to life. Their leaders were Katharine and Rachel Parsons, wife and daughter of the engineering genius Charles Parsons, and Caroline Haslett, a self-taught electrical engineer who campaigned to free women from domestic drudgery and became the most powerful professional woman of her age. Also featured are Eleanor Shelley-Rolls, sister of car magnate Charles Rolls; Viscountess Rhondda, a director of thirty-three companies who founded and edited the revolutionary Time and Tide magazine; and Laura Willson, a suffragette and labour rights activist from Halifax, who was twice imprisoned for her political activities. This is not just the story of the women themselves, but also the era in which they lived. Beginning at the moment when women in Britain were allowed to vote for the first time, and to stand for Parliament - and when several professions were opened up to them - Magnificent Women charts the changing attitudes towards women in society and in the workplace.
A fascinating journey through the history of railways, packed with first-hand accounts of innovation, triumph, and tragedy. From the earliest steam engine to the high-speed bullet trains of today, A Short History of the Railway reveals the hidden stories of railway history across the world - the inspired engineering; the blood, sweat, and tears that went into the construction of the tracks; the ground-breaking innovations behind the trains that travelled along them; and the triumphs and tragedies of the people who made the railway what it is. Chart the history of the Trans-Siberian railway, the Orient Express, and Maglev trains and the impact of world events on the development of trains and the railway. Explore the pioneering railway lines that crossed continents, the key trains of each era, and the locomotives that changed the world. A riveting narrative packed with photographs, diagrams, and maps to illustrate and illuminate, this is the biography of the machines that carried us into the modern era.
On the prairies of North America, wind and water were pervasive, but whereas wind was tangible, water in quantity was hidden beneath the surface. The vast grasslands fed great herds of animals, which in turn sustained Native Americans, but it was not until water could be brought to the surface that the plains could be cultivated and developed into a great agricultural bread-basket for the growing nation. The self-governing windmill forever changed the culture of this vast region. In Windmill Tales, in nearly one hundred beautiful full-color images, photographer Wyman Meinzer shows American windmills as they appear today. Many of them are still working, and others have fallen or are preserved at the American Wind Power Center in Lubbock, Texas, but all illustrate the way of life that was made possible by the windmill. Brief reminiscences and stories told by visitors to the American Wind Power Center give the reader a sense of the central importance of windmills in the lives of early pioneers in the West. Some of the stories reflect the sense of humour ranch and farm families developed to help them through hard times, whereas others hint at disappointment and tragedy. Together with the photographs they give us a fascinating insight into our history.
Born just as the British Empire was taking its last breaths, Martin Adeney was part of the 'twilight generation' caught between the imperial and postimperial ages, forced to navigate the insecurities - political, economic and cultural - faced by the British as we struggled to understand and adapt to our diminished place in the world order.A compelling blend of memoir and narrative history, Baggage of Empire leads us through the crumbling ruins of great industries and imperial trade cities; from the retreat of the northern newspaper empires to an almost exclusively southern, metropolitan viewpoint; through the tumultuous dominance and decline of the trade unions; to the rise of Thatcherism and big business.From the unique vantage point his career as a journalist has given him, particularly as industrial editor of BBC TV, Adeney notes that many of the issues that preoccupied us in the late '60s and early '70s - including immigration, housing, education, industry and communications - remain the daily currency of our political discourse. Despite all of our material prosperity and cultural self-confidence, we are all burdened, in one way or another, by the baggage of empire.
Follow the routes of 50 long-closed and derelict railways across some of our most beautiful countryside and discover the hidden railways of Britain. Each route is highlighted on historical Bartholomew's mapping, showing which parts can still be followed today. The carefully researched text is accompanied by historical photographs showing each line in operation prior to its closure, as well as specially commissioned images from the present day. Routes include: * Yatton to Witham - Strawberry Line * Crab & Winkle Line - Canterbury to Whitstable * Jersey railway - St Helier to La Corbiere * Mawddach Trail - Barmouth to Dolgellau * South Tyne Trail - Haltwhistle to Alston * Dava Way - Forres to Aviemore
Winner of the 2013 New York Book Show Award in Scholarly/Professional Book Design From Ernest and Julio Gallo to Francis Ford Coppola, Italians have shaped the history of California wine. More than any other group, Italian immigrants and their families have made California viticulture one of America's most distinctive and vibrant achievements, from boutique vineyards in the Sonoma hills to the massive industrial wineries of the Central Valley. But how did a small group of nineteenth-century immigrants plant the roots that flourished into a world-class industry? Was there something particularly "Italian" in their success? In this fresh, fascinating account of the ethnic origins of California wine, Simone Cinotto rewrites a century-old triumphalist story. He demonstrates that these Italian visionaries were not skilled winemakers transplanting an immemorial agricultural tradition, even if California did resemble the rolling Italian countryside of their native Piedmont. Instead, Cinotto argues that it was the wine-makers' access to "social capital," or the ethnic and familial ties that bound them to their rich wine-growing heritage, and not financial leverage or direct enological experience, that enabled them to develop such a successful and influential wine business. Focusing on some of the most important names in wine history-particularly Pietro Carlo Rossi, Secondo Guasti, and the Gallos-he chronicles a story driven by ambition and creativity but realized in a complicated tangle of immigrant entrepreneurship, class struggle, racial inequality, and a new world of consumer culture. Skillfully blending regional, social, and immigration history, Soft Soil, Black Grapes takes us on an original journey into the cultural construction of ethnic economies and markets, the social dynamics of American race, and the fully transnational history of American wine.
The Industrial Revolution changed our world in a way that few other periods have done: it changed the landscape with heavy industry, altered a national workforce, linked towns and cities with transport and communication networks and transformed the medical world. In utilising the plentiful supply of fossil fuels it pushed forward locomotion, light, manufacturing and food production to change human lifestyles forever, as urban life took over from rural. Regular wages brought freedom of information, travel and social mobility to many, and the world of 1800 looked vastly different to that of 1700 as the foundations for the modern age were laid. This book celebrates the major inventions and buildings of the period 1700-1860: a period when science and technology began to establish its role in modern life. Landmark innovations and inventions are put in context and explained in detail, from the first iron foundry in 1709 to the monumental Suez Canal in 1859. In between these dates come inventions large and small, including the flying shuttle, Ironbridge, vaccination, the Davy lamp, the hydraulic crane and the first transatlantic cable. Illustrated throughout and with informative and accessible text from author Simon Forty, this book charts a fascinating period of human history and endeavour, which still affects our lives today.
SHORTLISTED FOR THE DUFF COOPER PRIZE 2018 'This is stupendous. The British nineteenth century, in all its complexity, all its horror, all its energy, all its hopes is laid bare. This is the definitive history, and will remain so for generations' A.N. Wilson To live in nineteenth-century Britain was to experience an astonishing series of changes, of a kind for which there was simply no precedent in the human experience. There were revolutions in transport, communication, work; cities grew vast; scientific ideas made the intellectual landscape unrecognizable. This was an exhilarating time, but also a horrifying one. In his dazzling new book David Cannadine has created a bold, fascinating new interpretation of the British nineteenth century in all its energy and dynamism, darkness and vice. This was a country which saw itself at the summit of the world. And yet it was a society also convulsed by doubt, fear and introspection. Victorious Century reframes a time at once strangely familiar and yet wholly unlike our own.
The delicious true story of the early chocolate pioneers by the award-winning writer, and direct descendant of the famous chocolate dynasty, Deborah Cadbury In 'Chocolate Wars' bestselling historian and award-winning documentary maker Deborah Cadbury takes a journey into her own family history to uncover the rivalries that have driven 250 years of chocolate empire-building. In the early nineteenth century Richard Tapper Cadbury sent his son, John, to London to study a new and exotic commodity: cocoa. Within a generation, John's sons, Richard and George, had created a chocolate company to rival the great English firms of Fry and Rowntree, and their European competitors Lindt and Nestle. The major English firms were all Quaker family enterprises, and their business aims were infused with religious idealism. In America, Milton Hershey and Forrest Mars proved that they had the appetite for business on a huge scale, and successfully resisted the English companies' attempts to master the American market. As chocolate companies raced to compete around the globe, Quaker capitalism met a challenge that would eventually defeat it. At the turn of the millennium Cadbury, the sole independent survivor of England's chocolate dynasties, became the world's largest confectionary company. But before long it too faced a threat to its very survival, and the chocolate wars culminated in a multi-billion pound showdown pitting independence and Quaker tradition against the cut-throat tactics of a corporate leviathan. Featuring a colourful cast of savvy entrepreneurs, brilliant eccentrics and resourceful visionaries, `Chocolate Wars' is the story of a uniquely alluring product and of the evolution, for better and worse, of modern business.
By comparing the United States and Britain, Larry G. Gerber makes clear that in the development of industrial relations policies, ideology was secondary to economic realities - the structure of business, the market system, and the configuration of unions. In Britain, where most business enterprises remained comparatively small, collective bargaining between workers and managers became the norm. In the United States, however, large-scale corporations quickly rose to dominance. Eager to retain control of the production process, corporate elites resisted negotiating with workers and occasionally called upon the state to resolve labor crises.
For centuries, most textile manufacturing relied on people working in their own homes. All that changed in 1761 when Richard Arkwright began construction of the first water-powered cotton mill in Derbyshire. The complex woollen industry was transformed as mills spread cross the north of England and into Scotland, with tasks taken out of the cottage and into the factory. This informative guide tracks the development of the textile manufacturing industry, from industrial power looms meeting with Luddite resistance, to the distinctive silk weaving workrooms. Mill towns sprung up around places of work, including special apprentice houses for children. Conditions were harsh and often dangerous, both in the mills and in woollen towns living under permanent palls of smoke. Packed with photographs and illustrations, this is a classic Pitkin guide to the everyday lives of the workers in this mills and towns, from their work to their time off. There was a time when Britain sent textiles around the world: this is the story of the workforce, mainly women and children, who made this possible - and created the factory age. Includes a list of mills, museums and visitor centres to visit.
Jan Breman takes dispossession as his central theme in this ambitious analysis of labour bondage in India's changing political economy from 1962 to 2017. When, in a remote past, tribal and low-caste communities were attached to landowning households, their lack of freedom was framed as subsistence-oriented dependency. Breman argues that with colonial rule came the intrusion of capitalism into India's agrarian economy, leading to a decline in the idea of patronage in the relationship between bonded labour and landowner. Instead, servitude was reshaped as indebtedness. As labour became transformed into a commodity, peasant workers were increasingly pushed out of agriculture and the village but remained adrift in the wider economy. This footloose workforce is subjected to exploitation when their labour power is required and is left in a state of exclusion when it is surplus to demand. The outcome is progressive inequality that is thoroughly capitalist in nature.
This book is a richly illustrated history of the Wardle family of Leek, Staffordshire, which rose to prominence in fine textile production in the second half of the nineteenth century. At its core is an object-centred exploration revealing how an entrepreneurial family responded to complex international factors. Beautiful dyed, printed and embroidered textiles were created in Leek using traditional craft skills. Followers of the Arts and Crafts Movement and Gothic Revivalism, as well as Art Needlework and Aestheticism, benefited from the family enterprises that flourished despite rapid industrialisation. The Wardle family's rich legacy is played out against the backdrop of the Anglo-Indian silk trade. Thomas Wardle travelled in India and integrated Indian designs into British silk production. His work attracted William Morris, Walter Crane and A. L. Liberty, among others, and their designs, printed by Wardle, were internationally applauded. Elizabeth Wardle, embroiderer, worked with many major architects such as R. N. Shaw, G. G. Scott Jnr and J. D. Sedding. Lavishly illustrated, this book will be of interest to those interested in textile and fashion history and the history of the Arts and Crafts movement, as well as the relationship between the British Empire and the Indian subcontinent. BRENDA M. KING is a textile historian and holds the Chair of the Textile Society. She is also a freelance lecturer in the History of Design and Museum and Heritage Studies and the author of Silk and Empire (2005 and 2009) and Dye, Print, Stitch: Textiles by Thomas and Elizabeth Wardle (2009).
On Christmas Eve 1801, Cornish mining engineer Richard Trevithick tested the first steam locomotive on the road. Though it was short-lived, exploding four days later, this was the beginning of the railway age in Britain. By the end of the 18th century, there was a considerable number of railways across Britain with well established steam engines. This informative guide tells the story of these railways, beginning with the pioneers of locomotive engines and the navvies who built the railways themselves. A must for anyone interested in the history of the railways, industrial Britain and travel, this informative guide explores the lives of those on the railway. Train guards, station staff and passengers are all touched on, as well as underground railways and tragic rail disasters. Colour photographs and illustrations bring the golden age of rail in Britain to life. Includes a list of places to visit which specialize in railways, as well as a glossary of the key terms in the book.
Between 1939 and 1945, Britain produced around 125,000 aircraft – to take one example – and enormous numbers of ships, motor vehicles, armaments and textiles. We developed radar, antibiotics, the jet engine and the computer. Less than seventy years later, the major industries that had made Britain a global power industrially and militarily, and had employed millions, were dead. These industries had collapsed within a mere three decades. Had they really been doomed, and if so, by what? Can our politicians have been so inept? Was it down to the superior competition of wily foreigners? Or were our rulers culturally too hostile to science and industry?
James Hamilton-Paterson, in this evocation of the industrial world we have lost, analyses the factors that turned us so quickly from a nation of active producers to one of passive consumers and financial middlemen.
Over 4,000 years of history lie in the seams of British mines, beginning all the way back in the New Stone Age. Large-scale coal mining in Britain developed during the Industrial Revolution, providing energy for industry and transportation in industrial areas from the 18th century to the 1950s. This classic Pitkin guide provides a history of mining in Britain as well as of the hard lives of those who worked in them. Child labour was a normal part of Victorian life, so women and children were found in the dangerous deep pits until 1842, while male miners relied on safety lamps and canaries to avoid mining disasters. Fascinating photographs accompany this guide's history of these people's lives, including their time outside of the mines, their homes and hobbies. Whole villages grew up around mines, with close comradeship and tightly knit mining communities emerging. Here is the story of what that life was like for so many, up until British mining's decline in the 19th and 20th centuries. Includes a list of mines, museums and heritage centres to visit.
Cloth-making became England's leading industry in the late Middle Ages; clothiers co-ordinated its different stages, in some cases carrying out the processes themselves, and found markets for their finished cloth, selling to merchants, drapers and other traders. While many clothiers were of only modest status or "jacks of all trades", a handful of individuals amassed huge fortunes through the trade, becoming the multi-millionaires of their day. This book offers the first recent survey of this hugely important and significant trade and its practitioners, examining the whole range of clothiers across different areas of England, and exploring their impact within the industry and in their wider communities. Alongside the mechanics of the trade, it considers clothiers as entrepreneurs and early capitalists, employing workers and even establishing early factories; it also looks at their family backgrounds and their roles as patrons of church rebuilding and charitable activities. It is completed with extracts from clothiers' wills and a gazetteer of places to visit, making the book invaluable to academics, students, and local historians alike. John S. Lee is a Research Associate at the Centre for Medieval Studies at the University of York.
Around 1885, Alfred Barnard was secretary of Harper's Weekly Gazette, a journal dedicated to the wine and spirit trade. In order to provide his readers with the history and descriptions of the whisky-making process, Barnard decided to visit all distilleries in Scotland, England and Ireland. Accompanied by friends, he visited over 150 distilleries. The names found in his reports still excite the dedicated whisky connoisseur today, as well as others whose fame has faded since the end of the 19th century. The appeal of Barnard's book lies not only in the technical descriptions of each distillery's processes, but also in the colourful descriptions of his journeys, brimming with historical colour and detail. A superbly illustrated facsimile edition, with over 200 engravings, this book is a complete guide to the origins of Scotland's national drink, as well as a lively picture of life and travel in the Victorian age.
Exploring Britain's Lost Railways gives the historical background to over 50 lost railway lines, along with descriptions of the route today for walking and cycling. Each route is highlighted on historical Ordnance Survey mapping, showing which parts can still be followed today. The carefully researched text is accompanied by historical photographs showing each line in operation prior to its closure, as well as specially commissioned images from the present day. Thousands of miles of Britain's railways were closed during the 20th century, many following the implementation of the `Beeching Report ` in the 1960s and early 1970s. Since then, many have been converted to footpaths and cycleways. Fortunately, both the keen walker and the railway enthusiast can enjoy these well-worn routes and hidden byways in peace and tranquillity. Follow the routes of over 50 long-closed railways across some of our most beautiful countryside and discover the lost railways of Britain. Routes include: * Drake's Trail - Plymouth to Tavistock * Downs Link - Guildford to Shoreham-by-Sea * Midshires Way - Market Harborough to Northampton * Elan Valley Trail - Rhayader to Craig-Goch Dam * Hornsea Rail Trail - Hull to Hornsea * Deeside Way - Aberdeen to Ballater Exploring Britain's Lost Railways is an essential armchair companion for every railway enthusiast and outdoor adventurer.
Discover the fascinating histories and routes of 50 of the world's most scenic railways. Railway expert Julian Holland takes you on a journey around the world. Take a journey around the world by rail, from the American Rockies to the Australian outback, covering 50 routes from 35 countries. Detailed commentary on the geography and history of each line, from leading railways expert Julian Holland, is complemented by prestigious Times mapping and beautiful photography. Railway journeys include; * Le Petit Train Jaune in the Pyrenees featuring France's highest railway station. * Cape Town to Kimberley in South Africa a feat of late Victorian engineering through the Hex River Mountains and across the Karoo Desert. * Qinghai-Tibet Railway in China contains the highest railway, tunnel and station in the world. * Trans-Australian Railway in Australia contains the world's longest stretch of dead straight track. * Cumbres & Toltec Railroad in USA takes passengers on an awe-inspiring scenic 64-mile journey through the Rocky Mountains along the Colorado-New Mexico border. * La Trochita in Argentina where original oil-fired steam locomotives travel along a narrow gauge railway in the shadow of the Andes Mountains.
Located in a region geologically blessed with nutrient-rich, lush, black soil, DeKalb County, Illinois, is known for it's agricultural prosperity. Here, in 1912, an enterprising group of successful farmers, businessmen, and bankers joined together to form an innovative organization dedicated to improving crop production, the DeKalb County Soil Improvement Association. Aided by it's capable farm advisor, William G. Eckhardt, this coalition evolved into the DeKalb County Farm Bureau - a new type of organization that soon proliferated throughout the United States, offering educational and farming services to rural communities. The DeKalb County Farm Bureau is not only one of the oldest agricultural organizations in the United States, but is also one of the most innovative and influential. Originating as a private soil improvement association, it grew to offer a number of services for farmers, rural families, and the community. By the 1960s, the DeKalb County Farm Bureau had become such a strong organization that it's leadership effectively lobbied in the US Congress for legislation supporting agricultural interests. In the 1970s, it entered into the international agricultural commodity marketing business, shipping local grain to Europe and Asia. The history of this influential organization reflects the plight of American agriculture in the twentieth century, from the early years of promise through two world wars and several economic crises. In "Native Soil", historian Eric Mogren explains how one group of progressive farmers attempted to cope with the problems they faced as agriculture turned to mechanization and productive farming required scientific and technological advances. It will interest all who are concerned with America's agricultural past.
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