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The chapters in this volume present the latest developments in medicine and biology. Chapters One describes the oxidative stress in disease and health, as well as the action of classic and new antioxidants. Chapter Two examines an investigation by big data analysis of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect on human health problems. Chapter Three provides a literature review of the associations between sedentary behaviour and health-related outcomes in Japan. Chapter Four assesses non-specific chronic low back pain and reviews management strategies. Chapter Five studies scleroderma and its mythological background. Chapter Six reviews the possible mechanisms of 5-HT and their metabolites as common protectors against oxidative stress produced by animal venoms. Chapter Seven focuses on the effect of broad bean true mosaic virus (BBTMV) and salicylic acid (SA) treatments on the concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, total phenolics content, protein contents and the yield of susceptible and tolerance broad bean cultivars. Chapter Eight reviews the photochemical (photooxidative) activity of xanthone itself and the preventive effect of xanthone derivatives on photosensitised DNA damage.
This book provides readers with the latest developments in neurosciences research. Chapter One reviews the changes that occur in the muscle and neuromuscular junctions following nerve injury and discusses possible strategies to prevent muscle atrophy. Chapter Two focuses on the contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex in pain processing. Chapter Three discusses the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in the arising of awareness deficits in neurocognitive disorder, acquired brain injuries, mood disorders and psychosis. Chapter Four discusses the relationship between neuroplasticity and cognitive empowerment. Chapter Five investigates if cognitive empowerment through Eye Tracker technologies increases both neuropsychological and neurophysiological measures in patients with Rett Syndrome (RS).
This book provides new research insights on rare diseases. Chapter One reviews the use of patients' registries as a key tool in rare disease management. Chapter Two discusses the worldwide experience with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for patients with rare abdominal and pelvic neoplasms with peritoneal metastases that should be evaluated for long-term benefit. Chapter Three explores the contribution of psychology-related research on Congenital Anomalies (CAs) from the analysis of international scientific literature.
The authors have shown recently that for the two types of adult stem cells (hematopoietic stem cells and intestinal epithelium stem cells), the "ischemia/reperfusion" reaction can be developed in vivo. The damaging action of this reaction onto stem cells can be diminished by an injection of a source of NO-radicals into the animal's body during reperfusion, since NO-radicals are capable of decreasing the negative effect of radicals produced after oxygen access into the ischemic tissues. The authors believe that these data may be used in the development of new approaches for the protection of cell systems of organism renewal after the damaging action of various agents.
Aging is a natural phenomenon that is peculiar to all living things. However, accumulating findings indicate that senescence could be postponed or prevented by certain approaches. Substantial evidence has emerged supporting the possibility of radical human health and lifespan extension, in particular through pharmacological modulation of aging. A number of natural dietary ingredients and synthetic drugs have been assumed to have geroprotective potential. In the development of anti-aging therapeutics, several cell, insect, and animal models may provide useful starting points prior to human studies. This book provides an overview of current research aimed to search for life-extending medications and describes pharmacological aspects of anti-aging medicine. Readers are introduced to the fascinating historical background of geroprotection in the first chapter. In-depth information on models for investigating geroprotective drugs precedes a section covering anti-aging properties of pharmaceutical compounds, such as calorie restriction mimetics, autophagy inducers, senolytics and mitochondrial antioxidants. Finally, strategies to translate discoveries from aging research into drugs and healthcare policy perspectives on anti-ageing medicine are provided to give a complete picture of the field. A timely and carefully edited collection of chapters by leading researchers in the field, this book will be a fascinating and useful resource for pharmacologists, gerontologists and any scientifically interested person wishing to know more about the current status of research into anti-aging remedies, challenges and opportunities.
This book presents original results on the leading edge of cancer research. Chapter One presents an overview of the opportunities and challenges that influence the participation of personalised approach of giving the right drug at the right dose to the right patient. Chapter Two examines malignant mesothelioma. Chapter Three reviews the role of heat-shock proteins and chaperonins in the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. Chapter Four discusses the biosynthesis of LeX family glycosphingolipids and its gene regulation. Chapter Five summarises how chromosome segregation is accurately controlled and how spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) monitors this process to maintain segregation fidelity. Chapter Six reviews significant novel findings and the early clinical development of a CD26-targeted therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), and advances that can lead to a more hopeful future for MPM patients. Chapter Seven reviews the pathophysiology and novel treatment strategies in management of peripheral T-Cell lymphoma. Chapter Eight discusses the confirmation behind a role for metformin in cancer therapy and its prospective molecular mechanisms of action. Chapter Nine highlights the role Ganoderma lucidum and its constituents in cancer signaling. Chapter Ten studies the footprint of Ganoderma lucidum in receptor tyrosine kinases.
The chapters in this volume present the latest developments in medicine and biology. Chapters One and Two review the clinical uses, functionality, mechanisms of action and adverse reactions of Andrographis Paniculata. Chapter Three gives an overview of the chemical structure and biosynthesis of triacylglycerols in vegetables, and their health benefits. Chapter Four discusses long-chain fatty acids in triacylglycerol stores and physical performance. Chapter Five presents the different methods for determining skin color. Chapter Six discusses the imaging of chronic pancreatitis. Chapter Seven examines the influence of gingivitis on abdominal aortic aneurysms. Chapter Eight provides a review of the existing research on measurement, rates, correlates, and consequences of sedentary behavior in Multiple Sclerosis. Chapter Nine focuses on injury and recovery of the periodontal ligament.
Being diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be a severe disappointment, and life after diagnosis can be defined as an existence filled with uncertainty as to the short-and long-term impact of the disease. SLE is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease that is persistent and recurrent and has the potential of becoming life threatening. The manifestations and severity of the disease varies between individuals. SLE can potentially influence nearly all of the bodys organ systems. In this book, Chapter One reviews, Raynauds phenomenon (RP), one of the nonspecific skin changes that occur in SLE. Chapter Two presents the debate on the causes of fatigue in SLE and factors that increase fatigue. Chapter Three reviews and illustrates the important findings of musculoskeletal diseases in SLE. Chapter Four examines SLE in young adults and reviews information about the pain, social impact, and interventions to improve functioning of these young adults.
This book presents original results on the leading edge of cancer research. Chapter One reviews the most recent advances in the management, analyses the best possible treatment in each scenario, and discusses the future research direction on brain metastases from non-small cell lung cancer. Chapter Two discusses the positive effects of microscopic complete resection on controlling the local recurrence of a single brain metastasis. Chapter Three encapsulates the trends of the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) development for the estimation of tumor malignancy. Chapter Four examines dendritic cells cross talk with cytomegalovirus pp65-specific cytotoxic T cells, V 9 T cells, and invariant NKT cells in patients with glioblastoma multiforme. Chapter Five addresses CD8+ T cell activation and regulation in the skin, paying special attention to what it is known about CD8+ T cell activity and its link with SCC development. Chapter Six discusses knowledge of the molecular basis of anti-cancer drug resistance and the mechanisms through which triterpenoids modulate ABC transporter-mediated multi drug resistance. Chapter Seven reviews cancer and heparan sulfate alterations. Chapter Eight focuses on Ganoderma lucidum targeting apoptosis. Chapter Nine examines the integrated model of cAMP-dependent DNA expression which reveals an inverse relationship between cancer and neurodegeneration. Chapter Ten studies the prognosis of male breast cancer.
This book provides readers with the latest developments in neuroscience research. Chapter One discusses the development of neurochemical characteristics of sensory neurons. Chapter Two reviews current knowledge regarding Mavridis' area (MA) and its role as a modern stereotactic microanatomic guide for nucleus accumbens (NA) deep brain stimulation (DBS). Chapter Three describes the molecular mechanisms in response to exposure of the central nervous system (CNS) cells to the Ca2+ ionophores to increase the levels of intracellular free Ca2+ and consequently oxidative stress, and it also describes the roles of activation of the Ca2+-dependent proteases and intracellular pathways leading to induction of programmed cell death. Chapter Four reviews clinical features, epidemiology, genetics, physiopathology, management and advanced research on Frontotemporal Dementia and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). Chapter Five explores different terpenes and their role in signaling pathway modulating the progression of Alzheimer Disease. Chapter Six discusses the capability of and limitations in PET imaging research on non-human primates for translation to humans for brain aging research as well as therapeutic drug development for neurodegenerative diseases. Chapter Seven studies the imaging markers and prognostic significance of intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). Chapter Eight reviews clinical practices and surgical intervention for ICH.
The purpose of this book is to introduce the importance of vitamins and its use in the treatment of schizophrenia, mood and movement disorders. This subject has been already known for many years. In the last years this issue has become "hot" again. To date there is new modern data based on controlled studies leading to a new attitude in consumption of these preparations. The present experience is related to higher doses in contrast to those which were used previously in addition to the scientific base data consisting of new knowledge about the mechanism of action and the influence on different dimensions. The chapters will include theoretical and scientific background as well as practical data based conclusions which might be useful for the clinician in everyday practice.
Much has been written about the basic incompatibility of the dominant quantitative research model in psychotherapy and the qualitative preferences of the practitioner community providing psychotherapy. Researchers and clinicians are at odds over the most valuable type of knowledge needed: that emerging from quantitative, experimental research versus that from qualitative, case-based practice, respectively. Recently, a number of emerging research methods have attempted to bridge and integrate these two approaches. Case Studies within Psychotherapy Trials is one such effort and significantly furthers the synergy between them. The volume provides a comprehensive illustration of the "cases-within-trials" (CWT) model of research. Quantitative findings from four randomized clinical trials (RCT) are synthesized with qualitative and quantitative findings from systematic case studies of successful and unsuccessful clients representatively drawn from each RCT. The book opens with the history of dialectic and political controversy in psychotherapy research and recent initiatives to bridge the differing perspectives. The RCT and case study projects follow, each commented on by outside experts. In the final chapter the editors compare and contrast the separate projects and draw insightful, impactful conclusions. By bringing together quantitative, natural scientific perspectives on research and qualitative, interpretative understandings and strategies, the chapter authors demonstrate how practitioners can be meaningfully included in future psychotherapy research. This book will be of great interest to psychotherapy researchers and practitioners and those interested in research methods in the behavioral sciences more generally.
This book integrates the disciplines of cancer pathology and epidemiology to provide a synergistic and complementary approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer. This book provides relevant information on the diagnostic, prognostic and predictive molecular pathology of cancer. Epidemiological studies, including descriptive epidemiology, risk factors and molecular mechanisms of disease inform on the etiology and progression of cancer. The text concentrates on major cancers that are currently prevalent and those for which substantial molecular, pathological and epidemiological data is available. Each section is designed to provide an overview of that cancer type in terms of basic biology, review the current epidemiological data surrounding that cancer type and provide information on common practices and challenges related to the molecular pathology of that cancer type. Several relevant techniques in molecular pathology, which facilitate diagnosis and treatment are also explored. Pathology and Epidemiology of Cancer provides a succinct and comprehensive overview of multiple cancer types to guide clinicians during patient care and to guide scientists for innovations in research. It represents an integral resource for pathologists, epidemiologists, medical students as well as translational, basic and clinical science researchers who are all working to progress the field of cancer in terms of diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
This book is an essential guide for those thinking of undertaking a multi-centre research project. Research across international boundaries presents challenges with the need to consider relevance of research objectives and feasibility of procedures in different settings whilst maintaining scientific integrity in terms of design, instruments and execution.
This book presents original results on the leading edge of cancer research. Chapter One summarizes what is currently known regarding the epigenetic regulation of osteosarcoma pathways and oncogenes, as well as clinical trials of drugs that exert epigenetic regulation. Chapter Two critically discusses the role of ECM-dependent signaling in osteosarcoma progression. Chapter Three illustrates the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation exposure by focusing on photocarcinogenesis. Chapter Four examines the psychology of sunscreen use and outlines the key psychological factors associated with sunscreen use. Chapter Five reviews the cellular and molecular mechanism of Regulatory T cells (Tregs) and Transforming Growth Factor- mediating cervical cancer development. Chapter Six examines the affect of the American cranberry extract on expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in human prostate cancer cells in vitro. Chapter Seven discusses the design of synthetic peptides to specifically interfere the papillomavirus binding factor/14-3-3beta binding to restore papillomavirus binding factor apoptotic functions. Chapter Eight examines brain development using correlations between Diffusion Kurtosis and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) in neonates and young children. Chapter Nine highlights the opportunities that are available to prevent the late effects related to stress and fears, emphasizing the importance of teaching patients resiliency and how to cope.
The second edition maintains the standard of excellence established in the first edition, while adjusting the content to reflect changes in tissue optics and medical applications since 1995. The material concerning light propagation now contains new chapters devoted to electromagnetic theory for coherent light. The material concerning thermal laser-tissue interactions contains a new chapter on pulse ablation of tissue. The medical applications section now includes several new chapters on Optical Coherent Tomography, acoustic imaging, molecular imaging, forensic optics and nerve stimulation. A detailed overview is provided of the optical and thermal response of tissue to laser irradiation along with diagnostic and therapeutic examples including fiber optics. Sufficient theory is included in the book so that it is suitable for a one or two semester graduate or for senior elective courses. Material covered includes (1) light propagation and diagnostic application; (2) the thermal response of tissue and therapeutic application; (3) denaturation; and (4) ablation. The theory and applications provide researchers with sufficient detail that this volume will become the primary reference for laser-tissue interactions and medical applications.
This book is a self-contained introduction to Statistics, presented in the context of clinical trials and pharmaceutical drug development. It focuses on the statistical analyses most commonly used in drug development and is therefore an ideal introduction to pharmaceutical statistics. Instead of introducing a series of statistical techniques, the book's organizational structure follows the order in which numerical information and statistical analyses are used in trials and new drug development.All students taking classes in pharmaceutical sciences and clinical research need a solid knowledge and understanding of the nature, methods, application and importance of Statistics. They need to understand:why, and how data are collected in clinical trials; how these data are summarized and analyzed; what the results mean in the context of the clinical research question; and, how the results are communicated to regulatory agencies and to scientific and medical communities.This title therefore adopts a unique approach and concept in organization of the content. It begins with an introduction to statistical theory, analysis and interpretation. This is followed by a discussion of t-tests and confidence intervals. Readers are then taken through the whole process of new drug development (using one specific example throughout) that is meaningful in the context of their broader studies. Throughout this process, statistical techniques and analyses are introduced in the order in which they are employed during the process.The book's realistic scientific and progressive organization from pre-clinical trials to clinical pharmacology through clinical trials is novel, meaningful and educationally powerful. The book emphasises the importance of descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics, something that is rarely done.Supplementary material is included for this text on the PharmPress website in the form of PowerPoint lecture notes on Statistics (based on content of this book) that can be downloaded by lecturers.
Adaptive Designs for Sequential Treatment Allocation presents a rigorous theoretical treatment of the results and mathematical foundation of adaptive design theory. The book focuses on designing sequential randomized experiments to compare two or more treatments incorporating information accrued along the way. The authors first introduce the terminology and statistical models most commonly used in comparative experiments. They then illustrate biased coin and urn designs that only take into account past treatment allocations as well as designs that use past data, such as sequential maximum likelihood and various types of doubly adaptive designs. The book also covers multipurpose adaptive experiments involving utilitarian choices and ethical issues. It ends with adaptive methods that include covariates in the design. The appendices present basic tools of optimal design theory and address Bayesian adaptive designs. This book helps readers fully understand the theoretical properties behind various adaptive designs. Readers are then equipped to choose the best design for their experiment.
The subject of this book is stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that have the ability to differentiate into different lineages of the body. Stem cells carry tremendous potential for the treatment of a broad range of disease and injuries. Stem cells exist in embryonic, foetal, and adult tissues, including the adult central nervous system. This book aims at, in depth, the recent developments in stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Though this book encompasses all the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine, it emphasises embryonic and adult stem cells.
Genes, which are carried on chromosomes, are the basic physical and functional units of heredity. Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions on how to make proteins. Although genes get a lot of attention, it's the proteins that perform most life functions and even make up the majority of cellular structures. When genes are altered so that the encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is an experimental treatment that involves introducing genetic material into a person's cells to fight disease. Gene therapy is being studied in clinical trials for many different types of cancer and for numerous other diseases. This new book presents the latest research in the field from around the world.
Research in pharmacy practice and medicines use is an important component of many postgraduate and undergraduate pharmacy programmes. It is seen as invaluable in informing professional practice and service development. This clear and concise handbook considers the stages of the research process in logical order, from planning of the project through to dissemination of the findings. Divided into three comprehensive sections, contents include: i) preparation, planning and management; ii) scientific enquiry and research methodology; iii) writing up and dissemination of the findings. This third edition of Conducting Your Pharmacy Practice Research Project has been restructured to aid navigation and comprehensively revised and expanded in recognition of the increased diversity of projects undertaken by students. This systematic guide will be of use to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students and their supervisors. It will also appeal to researchers unfamiliar with health services research methods and to practising pharmacists new to conducting a research project.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly, is characterised pathologically by extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, pathophysiologically by synaptic dysfunction, and clinically by a progressive decline in cognition. Currently, AD has no cure and its prevalence is predicted to triple by 2050 with the rapid increase in the ageing population, unless more effective treatments are developed. Since the publication of the second book volume, the rapid progress in the research fields of AD and dementia continues through the intensive efforts of research scientists worldwide. This third book volume contains 15 chapters, bringing together a presentation of research frontiers in current AD/dementia research. The topics include molecular genetics of AD, gene expression abnormalities in AD progression, presenilins, taupathy in AD, single -induced(neuron gene expression abnormalities in AD, intracellular A neurodegeneration, roles of lipoprotein receptors in AD onset and progression, cholesterol and tau hyperphosphorylation, AD diagnostics and therapeutic strategies, in vivo visualisation of amyloid-like structures, cathepsin B, antiamyloidogenesis and neuroprotection, environmental enrichment, Fragile X mental retardation gene and dementia, category learning in Parkinson's disease, cerebrovascular disease and dementia, and dementia and hypertension. These chapters cover current advances in our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying AD and dementia, in the diagnosis of early AD and dementia, and in the development of therapeutic agents that target memory-relevant AD pathogenesis. The book will be highly valuable to students and scientists worldwide who are interested in the scientific research progress in AD and dementia.
Dr. Catalano has for the last ten years been doing consulting for the Pharmaceutical Industry. During his consulting he discovered that small businesses such as, generic, startups, and virtual companies do not have the budget or the resources to apply the computer software utilized in project management and therefore do not apply project management principles in their business model. This reduces their effectiveness and increases their operating cost. Application of Project Management Principles to the Management of Pharmaceutical R&D Projects is presented as a paper-based system for completing all the critical activities needed apply the project management system. This will allow these small business to take advantage of the project management principles and gain all the advantages of the system. This book will be beneficial for beginners to understand the concepts of project management and for small pharmaceutical companies to apply the principles of project management to their business model.
Now in its second edition, this comprehensive handbook provides a state-of-the-art overview of recent advances in drug and non-drug therapies for obesity and diabetes. It also addresses major comorbidities, covering topics such as, cardiovascular diseases, renal and neuropsychiatric disorders, appetite control and micro RNAs. Special attention is also devoted to pediatric care, including the latest recommendations for therapy and prevention. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are among the top global health-care budget concerns worldwide and impact professional practice at all levels: in hospitals, clinics and physicians' offices alike. They prominently feature in headlines, and virtually no family, community or country is exempt from their protean, deleterious consequences. Furthermore, given the multiple intersections in their pathways, they often go hand in hand. The good news is that scientific advances in all fields, including genomics, metabolomics, lipidomics and microbiomics, are increasing our understanding of these two disease areas. At the same time, artificial intelligence, machine learning, mobile health and advanced implantable and external devices are rendering prevention and management more available, safe and cost-effective. In addition, bariatric and metabolic surgery has evolved from a niche specialty to an officially endorsed option for several modalities of obesity and diabetes. This book presents the latest lifestyle, pharmacological, surgical and non-surgical treatment options, including endoscopic intervention and cell therapy. Objectively reviewing natural and artificial sweeteners and critically examining issues such as public health initiatives, government mandated taxes for unhealthy foods and environmental planning, no stone is left unturned in gathering the latest practical information. As such, the book will appeal to seasoned specialists, as well as students and healthcare professionals in training.
Handbook of Methods for Designing, Monitoring, and Analyzing Dose-Finding Trials gives a thorough presentation of state-of-the-art methods for early phase clinical trials. The methodology of clinical trials has advanced greatly over the last 20 years and, arguably, nowhere greater than that of early phase studies. The need to accelerate drug development in a rapidly evolving context of targeted therapies, immunotherapy, combination treatments and complex group structures has provided the stimulus to these advances. Typically, we deal with very small samples, sequential methods that need to be efficient, while, at the same time adhering to ethical principles due to the involvement of human subjects. Statistical inference is difficult since the standard techniques of maximum likelihood do not usually apply as a result of model misspecification and parameter estimates lying on the boundary of the parameter space. Bayesian methods play an important part in overcoming these difficulties, but nonetheless, require special consideration in this particular context. The purpose of this handbook is to provide an expanded summary of the field as it stands and also, through discussion, provide insights into the thinking of leaders in the field as to the potential developments of the years ahead. With this goal in mind we present: An introduction to the field for graduate students and novices A basis for more established researchers from which to build A collection of material for an advanced course in early phase clinical trials A comprehensive guide to available methodology for practicing statisticians on the design and analysis of dose-finding experiments An extensive guide for the multiple comparison and modeling (MCP-Mod) dose-finding approach, adaptive two-stage designs for dose finding, as well as dose-time-response models and multiple testing in the context of confirmatory dose-finding studies. John O'Quigley is a professor of mathematics and research director at the French National Institute for Health and Medical Research based at the Faculty of Mathematics, University Pierre and Marie Curie in Paris, France. He is author of Proportional Hazards Regression and has published extensively in the field of dose finding. Alexia Iasonos is an associate attending biostatistician at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York. She has over one hundred publications in the leading statistical and clinical journals on the methodology and design of early phase clinical trials. Dr. Iasonos has wide experience in the actual implementation of model based early phase trials and has given courses in scientific meetings internationally. Bjoern Bornkamp is a statistical methodologist at Novartis in Basel, Switzerland, researching and implementing dose-finding designs in Phase II clinical trials. He is one of the co-developers of the MCP-Mod methodology for dose finding and main author of the DoseFinding R package. He has published numerous papers on dose finding, nonlinear models and Bayesian statistics, and in 2013 won the Royal Statistical Society award for statistical excellence in the pharmaceutical industry.
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