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Rapidly increasing aging population and environmental stressors are the two main global concerns of increasing incidence of a variety of pathologies in the modern society. The complex etiologies and pathologies cause major challenges to disease treatment. On the other hand, several herbs are known for their health-caring and disease-curing activities. Ashwagandha, a popular herb in Indian traditional home medicine, Ayurveda, has gathered increasing recognition in recent years when the chemically synthesized drugs for single target therapies showed limited success and adverse toxic effects. Ashwagandha is known as a powerful adaptogen and trusted to enhance function of the brain, reproductive system, cell-mediated immunity and increase the body's defense against disease, and possess anti-inflammatory, anticancer and anti-arthritic activities. In this book, for the first time, we provide a complete portrait on scientific understanding of the effects of Ashwagandha and its active principles for a variety of preventive and therapeutic activities.
Reviews in Fluorescence 2016, the tenth volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. Reviews in Fluorescence offers an essential reference material for any research lab or company working in the fluorescence field and related areas. All academics, bench scientists, and industry professionals wishing to take advantage of the latest and greatest in the continuously emerging field of fluorescence will find it an invaluable resource.
This book summarizes the effective reinforcement of scaffolds by means of different kinds of fibers and tubes to meet different needs in the context of tissue repair. It covers the fabrication of the reinforced scaffolds, the factors influencing their properties, and their applications for hard and soft tissue repair. Further, it presents a range of concrete examples, case studies and research frontiers, providing readers a better understanding of how the respective fibers or tubes influence the mechanical properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility and bioactivity of scaffolds, and how they fulfill specific medical requirements. As such, the book provides a valuable and informative resource for researchers, technicians and students in the fields of biomaterials, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.
This book highlights selected current data and its relevance in the human health care system, offering a fundamental primer on genetics and human health. With the advent of new high-throughput technologies (for the whole genome including exome sequencing), the conventional focus on genetics and individual genes is now shifting toward the analysis of complex genes, gene-gene interactions and the association between genes and environment, including epigenetics. The rapidly changing scientific research landscape, with the ever-growing influx of data on one hand and emergence of newer and more complicated diseases on the other, has created a dilemma for researchers and caregivers, who are still hopeful that advances in genetics and genomics will provide avenues for the understanding, prevention and possible cure of human diseases. The book focuses on the interactions between genes and proteins at both the transcriptome and proteome levels, which in turn affect the human genome and health. Additionally, it covers the domain that must be explored in order to understand the gene-gene and protein-protein interactions that contribute to human health. The book offers a valuable guide for all students and researchers working in the area of molecular genetics and genomics.
How partisanship, polarization, and medical authority stand in the way of evidence-based medicine The U.S. medical system is touted as the most advanced in the world, yet many common treatments are not based on sound science. Unhealthy Politics sheds new light on why the government's response to this troubling situation has been so inadequate, and why efforts to improve the evidence base of U.S. medicine continue to cause so much political controversy. This critically important book paints a portrait of a medical industry with vast influence over which procedures and treatments get adopted, and a public burdened by the rising costs of health care yet fearful of going against "doctor's orders." Now with a new preface by the authors, Unhealthy Politics offers vital insights into the limits of science, expertise, and professionalism in American politics.
This compilation presents original study results on the leading edge of neuroscience research. Each article has been carefully selected in an attempt to present substantial research results across a broad spectrum. Included in this volume is research on holographic memory; epilepsy and psychiatric co-morbidities; emotional modulation of prepulse inhibition of the startle response in humans; neuroimaging and electrophysiology efficacy in measuring acute effects and long-term sequelae following sports-related concussion; children with writing disabilities; neuroimmune connections in the posterior nasopharyngeal cavity; pulse attraction-repulsion; autism spectrum disorders in children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1; avidity of autoantibodies against antigens in nervous tissue; epidemiological study of childhood epilepsy using the newly classification proposed by the international league against epilepsy; and the role of neuromuscular ultrasound in the diagnostic of the multifocal motor neuropathy.
The authors' of this book discuss the most recent advances in neuroscience research. The chapters include updated information on clinical and technical implementation of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in stroke imaging; association between word display and executive functioning; the connectivity between the cerebellum and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG); the identification and validation of EEG, MRI and SPECT biomarkers for diagnosing, monitoring progression and predicting the onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD); an examination of the leptin receptor, a drive of adult neurogenesis that may treat Alzheimer's disease; the language of neurons and their clinical applications such as in deep brain stimulation; the use of folic acid and its intake by pregnant women to support both physiological changes in the mother and the optimal growth and development of the fetus and offspring; examples of the continuum of shapes and sizes of different dendritic spines, from simple to complex, observed in the human brain; an examination of spastic diplegia, the most common form of cerebral palsy; and the identification of new mechanisms of pharmacological effects of certain neurotropic peptides.
This book presents the latest developments in medicine and biology. Chapters include research on trends in the birth prevalence of boys with isolated hypospadias and undescended testis in Hungary during the last 50 years; alleviating premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms using a natural factor; neutralization-enhancing RF antibodies; advances in the diagnosis, assessment, management and outcome of Takayasu's arteritis; macronutrients and premenstrual syndrome; pressurised intraperitoneal aerosol chemotherapy (PIPAC); the control of MAO expression; and what we know about iMAO.
Tryptophan is not only an essential amino acid but also an effective signaling molecule as an indicator of amino acid sufficiency. Serotonin is biosynthesized from the essential amino acid tryptophan. The first chapter of this book deals with the effects of tryptophan as well as some strategies of treatments that modify serotonin levels on cognitive processes during aging and neurodegenerative diseases. The changes of tryptophan metabolism under immunological challenges and physiological conditions like stress are examined as well. In the third chapter, the authors illustrate the key role of L-tryptophan in metabolic functions with special emphasis on the alterations of circadian rhythms. The remaining chapters of the book focus on new research findings on L-tryptophan synthesis from D-serine; the complex experimental and theoretical studies of the tryptophan molecule in its collisions with low and high energy electrons; and finally, a commentary on a novel tryptophan-selective amino acid transporter that is functionally coupled to ID01-dependent signaling pathways.
The book provides an comprehensive overview on biology, genetics and cellular functions of serpins (serine protease inhibitors) in health and disease. With over 1000 members serpins are the most diverse family of protease inhibitors. Latest groundbreaking research findings are presented and broaden the understanding on inhibitory and non-inhibitory serpins, not only in mammalian organisms but also in insects, worms, plants and viruses.
Awarded second place in the 2017 AJN Book of the Year Award in the Research category What is the evidence? How do you find it? How do you evaluate it? Put the evidence to work in your practice! The 5th Edition of this AJN Book of the Year shows you how to integrate today's best scientific knowledge into your clinical decision-making. Step by step, you'll learn to effectively evaluate and apply nursing research and to understand its potential impact on the quality of your patient care. Look for the Plus Code inside new, printed texts-your key to unlocking your Davis Digital eBook online at DavisPlus.
In Cancer on Trial Peter Keating and Alberto Cambrosio explore how practitioners established a new style of practice, at the center of which lies the cancer clinical trial. Far from mere testing devices, these trials have become full-fledged experiments that have redefined the practices of clinicians, statisticians, and biologists. Keating and Cambrosio investigate these trials and how they have changed since the 1960s, all the while demonstrating their significant impact on the progression of oncology. A novel look at the institution of clinical cancer research and therapy, this book will be warmly welcomed by historians, sociologists, and anthropologists of science and medicine, as well as clinicians and researchers in the cancer field.
This book is a continuation of the book "Medicine Researcher Biographical Sketches and Research Summaries" which compiles biographical sketches of top professionals in the field of medicinal research, as well as research summaries from a number of different focuses in this important field.'
Cardiovascular disease refers to the class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. While the term technically refers to any disease that affects the cardiovascular system, it is usually used to refer to those related to atherosclerosis. Chronic heart failure (CHF) has emerged as a major worldwide epidemic. This book gathers the latest research in cardiovascular disease with a focus on such topics as cardiac thrombus quantification in clinical practice; aspartate protease cathepsin D in liver and heart injury, pathophysiology and therapy; hypertension, arterial stiffness and cardiovascular outcomes; fractional flow reserve is an essential measure for the management of patients with stable coronary artery disease; arterial stiffness and vascular calcifications in chronic kidney disease patients; the clinical application of coronary flow velocity reserve by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography; management of right heart failure; short QT syndrome; new horizons in preventing graft arterial disease; and associations between cathepsin B and inflammation markers in elderly males and females.
This book covers the basic experimental models in glioblastoma research. It starts with a description in the first two chapters of general clinical, neuroimaging and genetic data about glioblastoma (WHO grade IV glioma), which is the most frequent and the most malignant primary tumour in adults. Despite the complex treatment which includes neurosurgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, survival of the patients usually is between 9 and 12 months. Moreover, the surgery is not able to cure the disease due to the specific infiltrative growth pattern of glioblastoma. Therefore, laboratory research is essential in order to find new molecular and cellular therapies for this lethal disease. After shortly reviewing the modern hypothesis regarding the origin of glioblastoma in the third chapter, namely the cancer stem cells hypothesis, the author describes step-by-step in the following chapters (Chapters 4-8) the most important in vitro and in vivo models of research in glioblastoma. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the first and the essential step in any research project on glioblastoma: how to obtain good quality glioblastoma samples, how to prepare the samples and how to store the samples long-term for subsequent research. Open surgery and the image-guided stereotactic technique are also described in this chapter. After obtaining the tumour samples, the next step is to initiate the primary cells cultures. These in vitro techniques (either serum conditioning cell cultures and tumour stem cells cultures) will be discussed in detail in Chapters 5 and 6. Usually the new molecules with antitumor activity are tested in vitro on both primary glioblastoma cells cultures but also on glioblastoma cells lines in order to obtain a better standardised results. The next chapter, Chapter 7 is dedicated to in vivo techniques, which are required for testing the anti-tumoural effect of the new molecules before starting with the clinical trials. The author describes in detail the techniques of stereotactic intracranial inoculation of glioblastoma cells (either glioblastoma cell lines or glioblastoma-derived tumour stem cells) and the main growth patterns of the intracranial glioblastoma xenografts obtained using these techniques. Another technique very useful for exploring in real time the migratory glioblastoma cells is the organotypic brain slice cultures which is described in the last chapter of the book.
This volume focuses on procedures for the development and application of several research animal models and in vitro methods that allow researchers to gain insight into the underlying cellular, biochemical, and physiological mechanisms involved in traumatic and ischemic injury. The chapters in this book discuss topics, such as animal models and techniques commonly used to study traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, sepsis, burn injury, hind limb ischemia, myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion injury, intracranial pressure, global hypoxia-induced perinatal seizures models, and in vitro models. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and comprehensive, Traumatic and Ischemic Injury: Methods and Protocols is a valuable resource for novices with limited experience to help them initiate new research projects, and established researchers to help them identify comparable approaches and strategies to their studies in this field.
"Methods and Applications of Statistics in Clinical Trials, Volume 2: Planning, Analysis, and Inferential Methods" includes updates of established literature from the Wiley Encyclopedia of Clinical Trials as well as original material based on the latest developments in clinical trials. Prepared by a leading expert, the second volume includes numerous contributions from current prominent experts in the field of medical research. In addition, the volume features:
- Multiple new articles exploring emerging topics, such as evaluation methods with threshold, empirical likelihood methods, nonparametric ROC analysis, over- and under-dispersed models, and multi-armed bandit problems
- Up-to-date research on the Cox proportional hazard model, frailty models, trial reports, intrarater reliability, conditional power, and the kappa index
- Key qualitative issues including cost-effectiveness analysis, publication bias, and regulatory issues, which are crucial to the planning and data management of clinical trials
This concise guide to the assessment of medical research is
designed to accompany every library visit. The first section of the
book introduces the rationale behind critical appraisal, discusses
the questions to be asked of each section of paper and identifies
the common pitfalls ion published research.
The second section tackles the five main genres of medical
research in detail:
Each method is given a comprehensive one page checklist to aid
the reader in assessing the methodological quality and clinical
relevance of published studies. Experiences researchers will be
able to rely on the checklists alone as an aide-memoire, but all of
the checklists questions are expanded and discussed in the
This highly practical guide is written in a lively and jargon-free style and will be an indispensable companion to all health professionals and students.
This book describes the human amniotic membrane from its origin, characterization and medical applications, summarizing all the latest developments and findings related to this tissue with contributions from some of the leading researchers in the field. The book addresses issues for its preservation, separation and identification of amniotic membrane-derived cells, as well as the potential ethical issues involved in their use. The topic of this book is particularly pertinent for clinicians and researchers involved in the research and use of this tissue.
This book provides the first comprehensive coverage of the quickly evolving research field of membrane contact sites (MCS). A total of 16 chapters explain their organization and role and unveil the significance of MCS for various diseases. MCS, the intracellular structures where organellar membranes come in close contact with one another, mediate the exchange of proteins, lipids, and ions. Via these functions, MCS are critical for the survival and the growth of the cell. Owing to that central role in the functioning of cells, MCS dysfunctions lead to important defects of human physiology, influence viral and bacterial infection, and cause disease such as inflammation, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. To approach such a multifaceted topic, this volume assembles a series of chapters dealing with the full array of research about MCS and their respective roles for diseases. Most chapters also introduce the history and the state of the art of MCS research, which will initiate discussion points for the respective types of MCS for years to come. This work will appeal to all cell biologists as well as researchers on diseases that are impacted by MCS dysfunction. Additionally, it will stimulate graduate students and postdocs who will energize, drive, and develop the research field in the near future.
This book covers the latest developments in rolling circle amplification (RCA) technology with applications in clinical diagnostic tests and molecular medicine. Topics covered include new enzymes useful in RCA, techniques involving RCA for enhanced signal amplification, novel RCA diagnostics, sensors for expediting RCA detection, and prospective RCA-based therapeutics. This is a valuable book for university professors and students in the field of biomedical engineering and biomolecular pharmacology as well as R&D managers of biotechnology and biopharmaceutical companies. Specifically, this book: Reviews prospective RCA-based therapeutics, including RCA-derived DNA nanoparticles that strongly bind to cancer cells Expands readers' understanding of sensor systems for expediting detection of RCA products by using probe-tagged magnetic nanobeads Maximizes reader insights into novel RCA diagnostics, such as PNA openers-assisted RCA for detection of single target cells and in situ RCA diagnosis of cancer cells and malignant tissues Presents innovative methods for quasi-exponential enhancement of RCA-generated signals, such as nicking enzyme-assisted cascade RCA and RCA coupled with loop-mediated amplification Advance Praise for Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA): "This book provides a badly needed compendium of innovative RCA methods and applications. It should help further increase the community of scientists that have employed RCA in research and diagnostic programs."- Charles Cantor, Professor Emeritus of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University Executive Director, Retrotope Inc. (USA) "In this new book Vadim Demidov has assembled an enticing menu of articles that illustrate the evolution of the RCA field, including improved protein parts for building superior DNA nanomachines, enhanced modalities of amplification and detection, diagnostic applications, and even a sampling of potential therapeutic applications. The reader will appreciate that while RCA has come of age, there is no lack of exciting surprises, turns, and twists in the continuing evolution of the technology."- Paul Lizardi, Professor of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine (retired) Investigator, University of Granada, Spain, President, PetaOmics, Inc., San Marcos, Texas.
This is the sixth book in The Unofficial Guides to Medicine series. These textbooks are now a globally recognized for combining expert input, with student and junior doctor contributions to produce valuable guides relevant to today's juniors. The Unofficial Guide to Medical Research, Audit and Teaching will teach you the skills expected of students and today's graduates beyond just clinical medicine. It contains convenient checklists for critical appraisal which may be used as a day-to-day reference by professionals, as well as suggestions for audits, and tips for teaching effectively. This book covers all the non-clinical competencies that will make you an excellent doctor, and highly competitive on the job market.
This volume provides key molecular biological protocols and experimental strategies currently employed to study the various stages of mammary gland development. Chapters are divided into four parts covering genetically modified mouse models that exhibit prenatal and pubertal mammary gland phenotypes, 2D and 3D-model culture systems, methodologies for mammary stem cell isolation, and translational applications that provide a bridge between experimental studies of mammary gland development and the study of human breast cancer. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and cutting-edge, Mammary Gland Development: Methods and Protocols will be useful for researchers whose primary interest is in mammary gland development; developmental biologists, epithelial cell biologists, and those with an interest in molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer.
This book presents current research in the field of neuroscience. Topics discussed include noradrenergic actions in prefrontal cortex; prefrontal morphology, neurobiology and clinical manifestations of schizophrenia; prefrontal cholinergic receptors; deep brain stimulation and cortical stimulation methods; deep brain stimulation in adult and pediatric dystonia; cognitive aspects in idiopathic epilepsy; cognitive interventions to improve prefrontal functions; molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease and DNA repair and Huntington's disease.
The world is faced with an epidemic of metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. This is due to changes in dietary habits and the decrease in physical activity. Exercise is usually part of the prescription, the first line of defense, to prevent or treat metabolic disorders. However, we are still learning how and why exercise provides metabolic benefits in human health. This open access volume focuses on the cellular and molecular pathways that link exercise, muscle biology, hormones and metabolism. This will include novel "myokines" that might act as new therapeutic agents in the future.
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