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This book presents the timeline of immunodiagnostics evolution, including advancements in immunological/nucleic acid probes, assay design, labelling techniques, and devices for signal transduction and acquisition. In the past few years, enzyme and nanocatalyst-based immune assays have undergone numerous modifications to enhance their sensitivity and potential for automation. Further, to reduce production costs and the use of laboratory animals, engineering small antibodies and nucleic acid probes (aptamers) has become increasingly popular in the development of novel and powerful bioassays. In light of the notable advancements in immunodiagnostics, this book highlights the combined efforts of clinicians, biotechnologists, material scientists, nanotechnologists and basic scientists in a coherent and highly structured way. The book takes readers on the journey of immunodiagnostic technologies, from their introduction to the present.
Evolutionary developmental biology or evo-devo is a field of biological research that compares the underlying mechanisms of developmental processes in different organisms to infer the ancestral condition of these processes and elucidate how they have evolved. It addresses questions about the developmental bases of evolutionary changes and evolution of developmental processes. The book's content is divided into three parts, the first of which discusses the theoretical background of evo-devo. The second part highlights new and emerging model organisms in the evo-devo field, while the third and last part explores the evo-devo approach in a broad comparative context. To the best of our knowledge, no other book combines these three evo-devo aspects: theoretical considerations, a comprehensive list of emerging model species, and comparative analyses of developmental processes. Given its scope, the book will offer readers a new perspective on the natural diversity of processes at work in cells and during the development of various animal groups, and expand the horizons of seasoned and young researchers alike.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the genetic basis underlying endocrine diseases. It covers both the molecular and clinical consequences of these genetic defects, as well as the relevance for clinical care, highlighting issues of genetic counseling. Several endocrine diseases have a genetic background, and contemporary research in the field plays a crucial role in the clinical care of endocrine diseases. In recent years, there have been major developments in our understanding of the genetic basis of endocrine diseases. Several novel genes and mutations predisposing individuals to monogenic endocrine diseases have been discovered, and with the advent of next generation sequencing, a huge amount of new data has become available. Further, novel molecular mechanisms, such as genomic imprinting, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of endocrine diseases. A better understanding of the genetic background of these diseases is relevant not only from the research perspective, but also in terms of clinical care. As such, this book is an essential read for both researchers and clinicians working in the field.
This book provides a comprehensive overview of the role of neuroglia in neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroglia are the most abundant cells in the nervous system and consist of several distinct cell types, such as astrocytes, oligodendrocytes,and microglia. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroglia participate in the neurodegenerative process, and as such are essential players in a variety of diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's. Intended for researchers and students, the book presents recent advances concerning the biology of neuroglia as well as their interaction with neurons during disease progression. In addition, to highlight the function of neuroglia in different types of neurodegenerative disease, it also discusses their mechanisms and effects on protecting or damaging neurons.
This volume examines all facets of the complex biology of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies, which play an essential role in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and immunity to parasites. It highlights the unique mechanisms involved in the regulation of IgE production at both the molecular and cellular level. Furthermore, it discusses in detail novel findings on how the affinity, specificity and cross-reactivity of IgE can fine-tune mast cell responses to allergens. The book also explores the beneficial roles of IgE antibodies in immunity to helminthes and protection against tumors, and how the properties of IgE-mediated immunity are employed in the development of IgE therapeutic antibodies. All chapters were written by respected experts in their fields and will appeal to scientists and clinicians alike.
The blood system is multi-scale, from the organism to the organs to cells to intracellular signaling pathways to macromolecule interactions. Blood consists of circulating cells, cellular fragments (platelets and microparticles), and plasma macromolecules. Blood cells and their fragments result from a highly-ordered process, hematopoiesis. Definitive hematopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow, where pluripotential stem cells give rise to multiple lineages of highly specialized cells. Highly-productive and continuously regenerative, hematopoiesis requires a microenvironment of mesenchymal cells and blood vessels. A Systems Biology Approach to Blood is divided into three main sections: basic components, physiological processes, and clinical applications. Using blood as a window, one can study health and disease through this unique tool box with reactive biological fluids that mirrors the prevailing hemodynamics of the vessel walls and the various blood cell types. Many blood diseases, rare and common can and have been exploited using systems biology approaches with successful results and therefore ideal models for systems medicine. More importantly, hematopoiesis offers one of the best studied systems with insight into stem cell biology, cellular interaction, development; linage programing and reprograming that are every day influenced by the most mature and understood regulatory networks.
Recent Advances in Prolactin Research summarizes the current knowledge of prolactin (PRL), PRL receptor, PRL-dependent signaling pathways, the role of PRL in oncogenesis and PRL crosstalk with other oncogenic factors. The chapters are written by experts in these fields and focus on identifying and reviewing timely experimental findings that provide new insights into the expanding role of PRL in the pathophysiology associated with a variety of human conditions. Prolactin is a peptide hormone that is best known for its role in lactation. Prolactin also has an influence on hematopoiesis and angiogenesis, and is involved in the regulation of blood clotting through several pathways. Although PRL was discovered more than 80 years ago, the understanding of PRL signaling and its relationship to various pathologies is still very incomplete. PRL is not only a pituitary hormone with an important role in reproduction, but PRL also acts as a cytokine, modulating a wide variety of physiological processes. For example, data gathered during the last decade have demonstrated that locally produced PRL acts as the autocrine/paracrine factor and plays a contributory role during breast oncogenesis. In fact, the scientific and clinical communities have suggested that the manipulation of the PRL axis may lead to the successful treatment of breast cancer. However, recent work has demonstrated that the role of the PRL axis is much more complex than first envisaged.
This book presents and discusses current research in the study of cancer prevention. Topics discussed include the etiological models of prostate cancer; in vitro evidence of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus reactivation by corticosteroids; role of immunoregulators in nitric oxide production; a prooxidant mechanism of red wine polyphenols in chemoprevention of cancer; fas-resistance in adult t-cell leukaemia lymphoma and cancer prevention through nutrition education in the workplace.
Cardiorespiratory function is prominently affected by oxidative stress. Cigarette smoking is the archetype of oxidative and nitrative stress and free radical formation. New adverse effects of smoking keep on propping up in research. The chapters provide the comprehensive view of new developments in this area regarding cardiovascular and lung function and muscle catabolism. Alterations in inflammatory cytokines and proteins as well as degradation of muscle proteins due to smoking, by far unrecognized, caused by oxidative stress also are presented. Much less is known about the effect of cognitive stress on vagally-mediated cardiorespiratory function and surprisingly, on vagal immune pathway. The experimental studies also show that clinically important meconium aspiration syndrome contains an oxidative trait which is amenable to antioxidative treatment. This volume creates a source of information on the damaging role of oxidative stress in cardiorespiratory function that has by far not been available.
With an emphasis on applications of computational models for solving modern challenging problems in biomedical and life sciences, this book aims to bring collections of articles from biologists, medical/biomedical and health science researchers together with computational scientists to focus on problems at the frontier of biomedical and life sciences. The goals of this book are to build interactions of scientists across several disciplines and to help industrial users apply advanced computational techniques for solving practical biomedical and life science problems. This book is for users in the fields of biomedical and life sciences who wish to keep abreast with the latest techniques in signal and image analysis. The book presents a detailed description to each of the applications. It can be used by those both at graduate and specialist levels.
The proposed volume provides both fundamental and detailed information about the computational and computational-experimental studies which improve our knowledge of how leaving matter functions, the different properties of drugs (including the calculation and the design of new ones), and the creation of completely new ways of treating numerical diseases. Whenever it is possible, the interplay between theory and experiment is provided. The book features computational techniques such as quantum-chemical and molecular dynamic approaches and quantitative structure-activity relationships. The initial chapters describe the state-of-the art research on the computational investigations in molecular biology, molecular pharmacy, and molecular medicine performed with the use of pure quantum-chemical techniques. The central part of the book illustrates the status of computational techniques that utilize hybrid, so called QM/MM approximations as well as the results of the QSAR studies which now are the most popular in predicting drugs' efficiency. The last chapters describe combined computational and experimental investigations.
This is the first book entirely dedicated to Intravital Microscopy. It provides the reader with a broad overview of the main applications of Intravital Microscopy in various areas of the biomedical field. The book contains accurate descriptions of the state of the art methodologies used to image various organs at different level of resolution, ranging from whole tissue down to sub-cellular structures. Moreover, it is an extremely valuable guide to scientists that want to adopt this powerful technique and do not have experience with animal models and microscopy.
This book addresses important biomaterials which are commonly used to fabricate scaffolds and it describes two major protocols employed in scaffold fabrication. Tissue engineering or regenerative medicine aims at restoring ex-novo tissues and organs whose functionality has been compromised as a consequence of diseases or traumatic events. The innovative concept underlying tissue engineering is the use of autologous cells, obtained from a biopsy of the patient. Cells are seeded on a porous scaffold which has the role of supporting and guiding cells towards the development of tissue-like structures as well as providing a platform for the delivery under controlled condition of growth factor release, etc. The successful manufacture of scaffolds for tissue engineering applications is crucial. In this book, these biomaterials are discussed. The book also covers illustrated examples, structure and properties of scaffolds, cellular interactions and drug delivery.
This edited volume is a definitive text on adaptive clinical trial designs from creation and customization to utilization. As this book covers the full spectrum of topics involved in the adaptive designs arena, it will serve as a valuable reference for researchers working in industry, government and academia. The target audience is anyone involved in the planning and execution of clinical trials, in particular, statisticians, clinicians, pharmacometricians, clinical operation specialists, drug supply managers, and infrastructure providers. In spite of the increased efficiency of adaptive trials in saving costs and time, ultimately getting drugs to patients sooner, their adoption in clinical development is still relatively low. One of the chief reasons is the higher complexity of adaptive design trials as compared to traditional trials. Barriers to the use of clinical trials with adaptive features include the concerns about the integrity of study design and conduct, the risk of regulatory non-acceptance, the need for an advanced infrastructure for complex randomization and clinical supply scenarios, change management for process and behavior modifications, extensive resource requirements for the planning and design of adaptive trials and the potential to relegate key decision makings to outside entities. There have been limited publications that address these practical considerations and recommend best practices and solutions. This book fills this publication gap, providing guidance on practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation. The book comprises three parts: Part I focuses on practical considerations from a design perspective, whereas Part II delineates practical considerations related to the implementation of adaptive trials. Putting it all together, Part III presents four illustrative case studies ranging from description and discussion of specific adaptive trial design considerations to the logistic and regulatory issues faced in trial implementation.
Bringing together the expertise of leading key opinion leaders from pharmaceutical industry, academia, and regulatory agencies, this book provides a balanced and comprehensive coverage of practical considerations for adaptive trial design and implementation.
This book, for the first time, comprehensively assembles and analyzes a large body of information on the role of the fundamental mechanism of the protein biosynthesis pathway, translation, in cancer biology. It systematically explores the function of the translation machinery and its regulation, including cell signaling, in the development, maintenance and progression of human cancer. The work presented here unveils the tremendous potential and applications of this vast and exciting branch of genetic, biochemical and molecular science in cancer medicine and drug development.
Chapters contributed by experts in the field take the reader on a journey that starts with a dissection of the translation machinery and its regulation in norm and cancer. Later chapters characterize etiological and pathogenetic roles that translation plays in specific cancer types. Various aspects of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic significance of the translation machinery and its control in cancer are discussed. Readers will discover the importance of the process of translation and its regulatory mechanisms in physiology and cancer biology.
The chapters and the numerous illustrations included here were contributed by expert scientists and clinicians from renowned academic and clinical establishments in Canada, the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, Belgium, Spain, Germany and Australia.
The book conveys information and knowledge that may interest a broad range of students and scholars ranging from basic scientists to clinicians and drug developers seeking to better understand the protein synthesis and its aberrations in cancer biology and cancer medicine.
This book explores a novel technique for processing biodiesel using lipase immobilization by encapsulation and its physical properties, stability characteristics, and application in stirred tank and re-circulated packed bed immobilized reactors for biodiesel production. The enzymatic processing of biodiesel addresses many of the problems associated with chemical processing. It requires only moderate operating conditions and yields a high-quality product with a high level of conversion and the life cycle assessment of enzymatic biodiesel production has more favourable environmental consequences. The chemical processing problems of waste water treatment are lessened and soap formation is not an issue, meaning that waste oil with higher FFA can be used as the feedstock. The by product glycerol does not require any purification and it can be sold at higher price. However, soluble enzymatic processing is not perfect. It is costly, the enzyme cannot be recycled and its removal from the product is difficult. For these reasons, immobilized enzymatic process has been developed which retains the advantages of the soluble enzymatic process and reuse of the enzyme is possible which decreases the enzyme cost, the biodiesel produced does not contain any enzyme residue and the activity of the enzyme can be increased by immobilization. The drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme process are mass transfer limitation, enzyme leakage, the lack of a versatile commercial immobilized enzyme and some of immobilization methods involve toxic chemicals. To overcome the drawbacks of the immobilized enzyme, an attempt is made to use a degradable biopolymer ( -carrageenan) as a carrier for lipase immobilization.
This monograph summarizes the large amount of experimental data accumulated during many years of studying the functions of the blood system and its regulatory mechanisms under the action of diverse morbific factors within the models of pathological processes (e.g. immobilization stress, blood loss, inflammation, cytostatic and radiation myelosuppressions, experimental encephalopathies, neuroses, and spontaneous leucosis). These data are is analyzed with the understanding that hematopoietic tissue is an integrated system that can react to the challenges of both the internal and external environments. This analysis helped develop the theory of hematopoiesis control describing the regularities in the work of basic subdivisions of the hematopoietic tissue under normal and pathological conditions, as well as the performance and interaction of the local and long-ranged control systems. The monograph is recommended for Physiologists, Pathophysiologists, Hematologists, Oncologists, Pharmacologists and other professionals.
This third volume in the series Tumor Dormancy, Quiescence, and Senescence discusses the role of tumor dormancy and senescence in a number of diseases, including breast cancer, ovarian cancer and leukemia. The contents are organized under five subheadings: General Applications, Role in Breast Cancer, Role in Ovarian Cancer, Role in Leukemia and Role in Cardiovascular Disease. The first section includes basic information on the definition of dormancy, how cells become senescent and what they do, along with an appraisal of the current state of research on dormancy. Section Two explores dormancy in breast cancer, including the progression of hormone-dependent mammary tumors after dormancy. Section Three details the resistance of Type II ovarian tumors, in which the resistant tumor cell population persists after chemotherapy in a state of dormancy, with recurrent tumors arising upon transformation of such dormant cells back to malignant growth. This section explains how lineage, histological subtypes and grade influence the differential response of ovarian cancer resistance to platinum drugs. The fourth section explores leukemia, discussing regulation of the promyelocytic leukemia protein and its role in premature senescence. The final section explores the role of senescence and autophagy in age-related cardiovascular diseases and the observation that autophagy seems to retard cardiac senescence. Like the two preceding volumes in the series, Volume 3 stands out for its comprehensive approach, its roster of some 26 expert contributors representing seven different countries and its up-to-date review of leading-edge technology and methods.
Cutting edge technologies can propel a simple finding in basic science to a concept that can be of immense value to the society. While applying novel techniques to unravel the mysteries of biological processes, an offshoot of applied branch emerged. This field, which is now widely referred to as Translational Research utilizes basic science findings and translates these findings into innovative concepts for the benefit of mankind. This branch of science has evolved into a multidisciplinary juggernaut encompassing all known fields of science as varied as biomedicine, environment, law, economics, sociology, etc. With the ever increasing interest in this branch and the dreams and aspirations that this field can bring, basic science researchers are now taking a bold step into this new realm, merging different fields of knowledge to come up with novel inventions. This book "Translational research in environmental and occupational stress" provides and insight into the research that led to discoveries, inventions and development of novel technologies which will have a tremendous impact on the future of mankind.
This well-illustrated textbook covers the full range of lung and pleural diseases from the pathologic standpoint. Both diseases of adults and pediatric lung diseases are presented. The book will serve as an excellent guide to the diagnosis of these diseases, but in addition it explains the disease mechanisms and etiology. Genetics and molecular biology are also discussed whenever necessary for a full understanding. The author is an internationally recognized expert who runs courses on lung and pleural pathology attended by participants from all over the world. In compiling this book, he has drawn on more than 30 years' experience in the field.
When is a human study ethical? For years, science and society have struggled with this question. Experts have put great effort into developing ethical principles and rules that adequately protect and respect volunteers in studies aimed at improving human health. But experts have missed something important. They have created a research ethics system without the help of people who know what it is like to be a research subject. This is a serious omission. Experienced research subjects can make valuable contributions to research ethics. People who have been in studies have information about the experience that other people can overlook. Their experience as subjects gives them special insights into ethics, too. Experienced subjects also know about problems that can lead people to refuse to join studies, or drop out before studies are complete. Scientists and ethicists often speak of subjects as partners in research, but the reality is quite different. Experienced subjects are rarely appointed to the advisory groups that create guidelines for ethical research, or to the committees that review individual studies to determine whether they meet ethical and regulatory standards. A large body of work describes the perceptions and viewpoints of people who have participated in research. But experts rarely use this material to guide improvements in human subject protection. Although subjects have the power to decide whether to participate in a study, they have little control over anything else that goes on in research. Silent Partners moves research subjects to the forefront. It examines what research participation is like for healthy volunteers and patients. It explains why subjects' voices should influence research ethics. Silent Partners shows how experienced research subjects can become real-not just symbolic-partners in research.
Reflecting over three decades of advances, "Epidermal Cells: Methods and Protocols, Third Edition" underscores these advances in our understanding of epidermal biology with updated and entirely new protocols that compliment and extend the earlier edition. The inclusion of protocols useful for both in vitro and in vivo studies reflects many useful developments in the field. Written in the highly successful "Methods in Molecular Biology" series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls.
Dependable and easy to follow, "Epidermal Cells: Methods and Protocols, Third Edition" serves researchers working to accelerate the work in this vital field of study.
The integrin family is composed of 24 members and approximately ten years ago (2003) we published a book devoted to the nine I domain integrin subunits. In this second edition, I am pleased that most of the original authors have been able to contribute to the updated version.
I domain containing integrins include collagen receptors and leukocyte receptors. In 2003 the knockout mouse phenotypes for all of the I domain integrins had not yet been published; they are now, and are summarized and discussed in this edition.
Interestingly, a recent 10 integrin mutation in dogs has indicated that collagen-binding integrins in the musculoskeletal system might have much more severe phenotypes in larger animals/humans compared to the mild integrin phenotypes observed in collagen-binding integrin deficient mice. This finding is further discussed in the book.
In the cancer field, the microenvironment is taking center stage, and here collagen receptors on fibroblasts are predicted to play important roles in paracrine signaling, in regulating tissue stiffness and matrix remodeling.
New technologies, new mouse models in combination with analyses of I integrins in larger animals/humans are thus predicted to increase our knowledge about this group of receptors. With this in mind we look forward to another 10 years of research with I domain integrins.
Providing a comprehensive foundation for planning, executing, and monitoring public health research of all types, this book goes beyond traditional epidemiologic research designs to cover state-of-the-art, technology-based approaches emerging in the new public health landscape. Written by experts in the field, each chapter includes a description of the research method covered, examples of its application in public health, clear instructions on how to execute the method, and a discussion of emerging issues and future directions. In addition, each chapter addresses the topic in the context of global health and health disparities. Such breadth provides readers with practical tools they can use in the field, as well as a current understanding of conceptual discussions. Illustrated with engaging case studies that enhance understanding of the concepts presented, Public Health Research Methods is a comprehensive, must-have reference ideal for researchers in all sectors-government, academia, and non-profit.
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