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Using examples from across the sub-disciplines of physics, this introduction shows why effective field theories are the language in which physical laws are written. The tools of effective field theory are demonstrated using worked examples from areas including particle, nuclear, atomic, condensed matter and gravitational physics. To bring the subject within reach of scientists with a wide variety of backgrounds and interests, there are clear physical explanations, rigorous derivations, and extensive appendices on background material, such as quantum field theory. Starting from undergraduate-level quantum mechanics, the book gets to state-of-the-art calculations using both relativistic and nonrelativistic few-body and many-body examples, and numerous end-of-chapter problems derive classic results not covered in the main text. Graduate students and researchers in particle physics, condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, string theory, and mathematical physics more generally, will find this book ideal for both self-study and for organized courses on effective field theory.
With ninety per cent of visible matter in the universe existing in the plasma state, an understanding of magnetohydrodynamics is essential for anyone looking to understand solar and astrophysical processes, from stars to accretion discs and galaxies; as well as laboratory applications focused on harnessing controlled fusion energy. This introduction to magnetohydrodynamics brings together the theory of plasma behavior with advanced topics including the applications of plasma physics to thermonuclear fusion and plasma- astrophysics. Topics covered include streaming and toroidal plasmas, nonlinear dynamics, modern computational techniques, incompressible plasma turbulence and extreme transonic and relativistic plasma flows. The numerical techniques needed to apply magnetohydrodynamics are explained, allowing the reader to move from theory to application and exploit the latest algorithmic advances. Bringing together two previous volumes: Principles of Magnetohydrodynamics and Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, and completely updated with new examples, insights and applications, this volume constitutes a comprehensive reference for students and researchers interested in plasma physics, astrophysics and thermonuclear fusion.
This text on optics for graduate students explains how to determine
material properties and parameters for inaccessible substrates and
unknown films as well as how to measure extremely thin films. Its
14 case studies illustrate concepts and reinforce applications of
ellipsometry -- particularly in relation to the semiconductor
industry and to studies involving corrosion and oxide growth.
It began with plutonium, the first element ever manufactured in quantity by humans. Fearing that the Germans would be the first to weaponise the atom, the United States marshalled brilliant minds and seemingly inexhaustible bodies to find a way to create a nuclear chain reaction of inconceivable explosive power. In a matter of months, the Hanford nuclear facility was built to produce the enigmatic and deadly new material that would fuel atomic bombs. In the desert of eastern Washington State, far from prying eyes, scientists Glenn Seaborg, Enrico Fermi and thousands of others-the physicists, engineers, labourers and support staff at the facility-manufactured plutonium for the bomb dropped on Nagasaki, and for the bombs in the current American nuclear arsenal, enabling the construction of weapons with the potential to end human civilisation. With his characteristic blend of scientific clarity and storytelling, Steve Olson asks why Hanford has been largely overlooked in histories of the Manhattan Project and the Cold War. Olson, who grew up just twenty miles from Hanford's B Reactor, recounts how a small Washington town played host to some of the most influential scientists and engineers in American history as they sought to create the substance at the core of the most destructive weapons ever created. The Apocalypse Factory offers a new generation this dramatic story of human achievement and ultimately, of lethal hubris. *2020 marks the 75th anniversary of the United States' detonation of nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August 1945.
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions in the universe, which within seconds release energy comparable to what the Sun releases in its entire lifetime. The field of GRBs has developed rapidly and matured over the past decades. Written by a leading researcher, this text presents a thorough treatment of every aspect of the physics of GRBs. It starts with an overview of the field and an introduction to GRB phenomenology. After laying out the basics of relativity, relativistic shocks, and leptonic and hadronic radiation processes, the volume covers all topics related to GRBs, including a general theoretical framework, afterglow and prompt emission models, progenitor, central engine, multi-messenger aspects (cosmic rays, neutrinos, and gravitational waves), cosmological connections, and broader impacts on fundamental physics and astrobiology. It is suitable for advanced undergraduates, graduate students, and experienced researchers in the field of GRBs and high-energy astrophysics in general.
The development of nuclear weapons during the Manhattan Project is one of the most significant scientific events of the twentieth century. This revised and updated 4th edition explores the challenges that faced the scientists and engineers of the Manhattan Project. It gives a clear introduction to fission weapons at the level of an upper-year undergraduate physics student by examining the details of nuclear reactions, their energy release, analytic and numerical models of the fission process, how critical masses can be estimated, how fissile materials are produced, and what factors complicate bomb design. An extensive list of references and a number of exercises for self-study are included. Revisions to this fourth edition include many upgrades and new sections. Improvements are made to, among other things, the analysis of the physics of the fission barrier, the time-dependent simulation of the explosion of a nuclear weapon, and the discussion of tamped bomb cores. New sections cover, for example, composite bomb cores, approximate methods for various of the calculations presented, and the physics of the polonium-beryllium "neutron initiators" used to trigger the bombs. The author delivers in this book an unparalleled, clear and comprehensive treatment of the physics behind the Manhattan project.
The study of neutrinos and their interaction with matter has made many important contributions to our present knowledge of physics. This advanced text introduces neutrino physics and presents a theoretical framework for describing relativistic particles. It gives a pedagogical description of the neutrino, its properties, the standard model of electroweak interactions, and neutrino scattering from leptons and nucleons. Focusing on the role of nuclear effects, the discussion extends to various processes of quasielastic, inelastic, and deep inelastic scattering from nucleons and nuclei. Neutrino sources, detection and oscillation, along with the role of neutrinos in astrophysics and motivation for the need of physics beyond the standard model are discussed in detail. This topical book will stimulate new ideas and avenues for research, and will form a valuable resource for advanced students and researchers working in the field of neutrino physics.
Whether you are a scientist or a poet, pro-nuclear energy or staunch opponent, conspiracy theorist or pragmatist, James Mahaffey's books have served to open up the world of nuclear science like never before. With clear explanations of some of the most complex scientific endeavors in history, Mahaffey's new book looks back at the atom's wild, secretive past and then toward its potentially bright future. Mahaffey unearths lost reactors on far flung Pacific islands and trees that were exposed to active fission that changed gender or bloomed in the dead of winter. He explains why we have nuclear submarines but not nuclear aircraft and why cold fusion doesn't exist. And who knew that radiation counting was once a fashionable trend? Though parts of the nuclear history might seem like a fiction mash-up, where cowboys somehow got a hold of a reactor, Mahaffey's vivid prose holds the reader in thrall of the infectious energy of scientific curiosity and ingenuity that may one day hold the key to solving our energy crisis or sending us to Mars.
Scattering theory provides a framework for understanding the scattering of waves and particles. This book presents a simple physical picture of diffractive nuclear scattering in terms of semi-classical trajectories, illustrated throughout with examples and case studies. Trajectories in a complex impact parameter plane are discussed, and it stresses the importance of the analytical properties of the phase shift function in this complex impact plane in the asymptotic limit. Several new rainbow phenomena are also discussed and illustrated. Written by Nobel Prize winner Roy J. Glauber, and Per Osland, an expert in the field of particle physics, the book illustrates the transition from quantum to classical scattering, and provides a valuable resource for researchers using scattering theory in nuclear, particle, atomic and molecular physics.
An up-to-date text, covering the concept of incomplete fusion (ICF) in heavy ion (HI) interactions at energies below 10 MeV/ nucleon. Important concepts including the exciton model, the Harp Miller and Berne model, Hybrid model, Sum rule model, Hot spot model and promptly emitted particles model are covered in depth. It studies the ICF and PE-emission in heavy ion reactions at low energies using off-beam and in-beam experimental techniques. Theories of complete fusion (CF) of heavy ions based on Compound Nucleus (CN) mechanism of statistical nuclear reactions, details of the Computer code PACE4 based on CN mechanism, pre-equilibrium (PE) emission, modeling of (ICF) and their limits of application are discussed in detail.
Covering both fundamental and advanced aspects in an accessible way, this textbook begins with an overview of nuclear reactor systems, helping readers to familiarize themselves with the varied designs. Then the readers are introduced to different possibilities for materials applications in the various sections of nuclear energy systems. Materials selection and life prediction methodologies for nuclear reactors are also presented in relation to creep, corrosion and other degradation mechanisms. An appendix compiles useful property data relevant for nuclear reactor applications.
Throughout the book, there is a thorough coverage of various materials science principles, such as physical and mechanical metallurgy, defects and diffusion and radiation effects on materials, with serious efforts made to establish structure-property correlations wherever possible. With its emphasis on the latest developments and outstanding problems in the field, this is both a valuable introduction and a ready reference for beginners and experienced practitioners alike.
CP violation is an intriguing and elusive subject, and current knowledge of it remains limited, on both the experimental and theoretical levels. Researchers lack a fundamental understanding of its origin, and this is all the more important because CP violation is related to the generation problem and mass problem, two of the basic open questions in particle physics. This book provides beginning researchers with a self-contained introduction to the subject, starting at an elementary level and taking the reader to the forefront of current research.
The third, revised edition of this popular textbook and reference, which has been translated into Russian and Chinese, expands the comprehensive and balanced coverage of nuclear reactor physics to include recent advances in understanding of this topic. The first part of the book covers basic reactor physics, including, but not limited to nuclear reaction data, neutron diffusion theory, reactor criticality and dynamics, neutron energy distribution, fuel burnup, reactor types and reactor safety. The second part then deals with such physically and mathematically more advanced topics as neutron transport theory, neutron slowing down, resonance absorption, neutron thermalization, perturbation and variational methods, homogenization, nodal and synthesis methods, and space-time neutron dynamics. For ease of reference, the detailed appendices contain nuclear data, useful mathematical formulas, an overview of special functions as well as introductions to matrix algebra and Laplace transforms. With its focus on conveying the in-depth knowledge needed by advanced student and professional nuclear engineers, this text is ideal for use in numerous courses and for self-study by professionals in basic nuclear reactor physics, advanced nuclear reactor physics, neutron transport theory, nuclear reactor dynamics and stability, nuclear reactor fuel cycle physics and other important topics in the field of nuclear reactor physics.
Iran s nuclear program has generated intense controversy ever since the International Atomic Energy Agency reported in 2003 that Iran was secretly pursuing enrichment activities. Although Iranian officials insist the program is peaceful, many in the international community are skeptical of Iran s stated aims and some allege there is no greater nuclear-weapons proliferation danger in the world today.
Nuclear Iran" guides readers through the intricate maze of science and secrecy that lies at the heart of Iran s nuclear ambitions. Writing for the general reader, Jeremy Bernstein brings his knowledge as a physicist to bear on the issues, offering elucidations of the scientific principles and technical hurdles involved in creating nuclear reactors and bombs. His explanations range from the physics of fission to methods of isotope separation to the technologies required for weaponizing fissile uranium and plutonium. Iran s construction of centrifuges capable of producing weapons-grade uranium has received much media attention, and Bernstein explains how these complex devices work. He intersperses many elements of the human story into his discussions of technology, such as the fact that centrifuges were first invented by German war prisoners working in the Soviet Union.
Nuclear Iran "turns a spotlight on the controversial underground uranium-enrichment facility in Natanz and heavy water reactor in Arak, and profiles key figures in the ongoing international trade in weapons technology, including the Pakistani physicist A. Q. Khan. This succinct book is timely reading for anyone who wishes to understand the science behind the international crisis surrounding Iran s nuclear program."
High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, this book is a valuable resource for research scientists and graduate students in physics and astrophysics.
'Everything about this story is astounding' Bryan Appleyard, Sunday Times "Trinity" was the codename for the test explosion of the atomic bomb in New Mexico on 16 July 1945. Trinity is now also the extraordinary story of the bomb's metaphorical father, Rudolf Peierls; his intellectual son, the atomic spy, Klaus Fuchs, and the ghosts of the security services in Britain, the USA and USSR. Against the background of pre-war Nazi Germany, the Second World War and the following Cold War, the book traces how Peierls brought Fuchs into his family and his laboratory, only to be betrayed. It describes in unprecedented detail how Fuchs became a spy, his motivations and the information he passed to his Soviet contacts, both in the UK and after he went with Peierls to join the Manhattan Project at Los Alamos in 1944. Frank Close is himself a distinguished nuclear physicist: uniquely, the book explains the science as well as the spying. Fuchs returned to Britain in August 1946 still undetected and became central to the UK's independent effort to develop nuclear weapons. Close describes the febrile atmosphere at Harwell, the nuclear physics laboratory near Oxford, where many of the key players were quartered, and the charged relationships which developed there. He uncovers fresh evidence about the role of the crucial VENONA signals decryptions, and shows how, despite mistakes made by both MI5 and the FBI, the net gradually closed around Fuchs, building an intolerable pressure which finally cracked him. The Soviet Union exploded its first nuclear device in August 1949, far earlier than the US or UK expected. In 1951, the US Congressional Committee on Atomic Espionage concluded, 'Fuchs alone has influenced the safety of more people and accomplished greater damage than any other spy not only in the history of the United States, but in the history of nations'. This book is the most comprehensive account yet published of these events, and of the tragic figure at their centre.
The two decades between the first and second world wars saw the emergence of nuclear physics as the dominant field of experimental and theoretical physics, owing to the work of an international cast of gifted physicists. Prominent among them were Ernest Rutherford, George Gamow, the husband and wife team of Frederic and Irene Joliot-Curie, John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton, Gregory Breit and Eugene Wigner, Lise Meitner and Otto Robert Frisch, the brash Ernest Lawrence, the prodigious Enrico Fermi, and the incomparable Niels Bohr. Their experimental and theoretical work arose from a quest to understand nuclear phenomena; it was not motivated by a desire to find a practical application for nuclear energy. In this sense, these physicists lived in an 'Age of Innocence'. They did not, however, live in isolation. Their research reflected their idiosyncratic personalities; it was shaped by the physical and intellectual environments of the countries and institutions in which they worked. It was also buffeted by the political upheavals after the Great War: the punitive postwar treaties, the runaway inflation in Germany and Austria, the Great Depression, and the intellectual migration from Germany and later from Austria and Italy. Their pioneering experimental and theoretical achievements in the interwar period therefore are set within their personal, institutional, and political contexts. Both domains and their mutual influences are conveyed by quotations from autobiographies, biographies, recollections, interviews, correspondence, and other writings of physicists and historians.
The book bridges the gap between a course on modern physics and an advanced formal treatise on nuclear physics. The treatment of topics is simple and direct. Physical ideas are given prominence and this has been done by informal discussions and many analogies. It starts with the tools of nuclear physics, both experimental and mathematical. The author has taken special care in treating the nuclear shell model throughout the analogy with atomic and molecular physics. It is a suitable text for any student who has been exposed to a college level course in modern physics and who has mathematical competence at the level of calculus and elementary vector analysis. An important feature of the book is that numerous illustrative examples have been given along with 200 neatly drawn figures and problem question sets.
This is the 37th edition of Reference Data Series No. 2, which presents the most recent reactor data available to the IAEA. It contains summarized information as of the end of 2016 on power reactors operating, under construction and shut down as well as performance data on reactors operating in the IAEA Member States. The information is collected through designated national correspondents in the Member States and the data are used to maintain the IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS).
This textbook brings together nuclear and particle physics, presenting a balanced overview of both fields as well as the interplay between the two. The theoretical as well as the experimental foundations are covered, providing students with a deep understanding of the subject. In-chapter exercises ranging from basic experimental to sophisticated theoretical questions provide an important tool for students to solidify their knowledge. Suitable for upper undergraduate courses in nuclear and particle physics as well as more advanced courses, the book includes road maps guiding instructors on tailoring the content to their course. Online resources including color figures, tables, and a solutions manual complete the teaching package. This textbook will be essential for students preparing for further study or a career in the field who require a solid grasp of both nuclear and particle physics.
You cannot hide from radioactivity. Even the book you are holding is slightly radioactive, but there are more serious risks. Radioactivity - the breakdown of unstable atomic nuclei, releasing radiation - is a fundamental process in nature. It is a process that has been harnessed to provide wide and important applications in science, medicine, industry, and energy production. But it remains much misunderstood - and feared, perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. In recent times there have been increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism. The traces of radioactive atoms in rocks have allowed us to understand the nature and history of the Earth, in particular to date events in that history. Radioactive dating has been used for a variety of purposes, from determining the age of the first hominids to the dating of the Turin Shroud. The discovery of radioactivity has improved our survival kit, but also gave us the chance to reach a new level of awareness on the history of our species and its environmental impacts. In this Very Short Introduction, Claudio Tuniz explains the nature of radioactivity and discuss its role in nature. Describing radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth, he also looks at its wide range of applications in biomedicine and in science, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
Nuclear Physics: Principles and Applications is an introduction to the basic theory and applications of modern nuclear physics. Aimed at students taking a first course in nuclear physics, the text is divided into two broad sections. The first part provides a general introduction to nuclear physics, whilst the latter half focuses on some of the most important and current applications, including nuclear medicine, instrumentation and energy from fission and fusion. Written from an experimental point of view, this text offers the reader many practical examples and problems to help encourage understanding. Although, complex material treatments are avoided, derivations of formulae are given as necessary, but with a minimum mathematical complexity.
Nuclear Physics: Principles and Applications
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