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Lagoons represent nearly 13% of the shoreline globally and around 5% in Europe. Coastal lagoons are shallow water bodies separated from the ocean by a barrier (e.g., narrow spit), connected at least intermittently to the ocean by one or more restricted inlets, and usually geographically oriented parallel to the shore-line. Coastal lagoons are flexible and usually able to cope with environmental change, yet nowadays they are under threat. This is partly due to climate change impacts (for example, sea-level rise and hydro-meteorological extreme events) but also due to more direct human activities and pressures. The book focuses on addressing these challenges through integrated management strategies seen in a land-sea and science-stakeholder-policy perspective. Pan-European management challenges are seen from the context of the perspectives of Policy, Environment and Modelling. Four case study lagoons in different geographical locations in Europe provide examples of some of the practical experiences and results around these challenges. Possible impacts on drainage basins and lagoons are introduced through integrated scenarios which were developed through a multi-science and land-lagoon science perspective combined with interactions and contributions from stakeholders and citizens. Issues around climate change impacts on environmental conditions in both drainage basins and lagoons are also included. The book derives from a collaborative EC-funded project entitled 'Integrated Water Resources and Coastal Zone Management in European Lagoons in the Context of Climate Change' comprising nine partner institutes with a wide diversity in the scientific disciplines covered. Editors: Ana I. Lillebo, University of Aveiro, Portugal; Per Stalnacke, Bioforsk, Norwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Norway; Geoffrey D. Gooch, University of Dundee, Scotland, UK
Oil palms are ubiquitous--grown in nearly every tropical country, they supply the world with more edible fat than any other plant and play a role in scores of packaged products, from lipstick and soap to margarine and cookies. And as Jonathan E. Robins shows, sweeping social transformations carried the plant around the planet. First brought to the global stage in the holds of slave ships, palm oil became a quintessential commodity in the Industrial Revolution. Imperialists hungry for cheap fat subjugated Africa's oil palm landscapes and the people who worked them. In the twentieth century, the World Bank promulgated oil palm agriculture as a panacea to rural development in Southeast Asia. As plantation companies tore into rainforests, evicting farmers in the name of progress, the oil palm continued its rise to dominance, sparking new controversies over trade, land and labor rights, human health, and the environment. By telling the story of the oil palm across multiple centuries and continents, Robins demonstrates how the fruits of an African palm tree became a key commodity in the story of global capitalism, beginning in the eras of slavery and imperialism, persisting through decolonization, and stretching to the present day.
Groundbreakers describes an amazing technical journey in man's effort to find and produce oil and gas, with more than 450 pages and 130 illustrations. This is the first ever, comprehensive account of how upstream technology developed. The story is packed with human drama, extraordinary innovation and oversized personalities who dared to dream. By any standards, the story is unmatched for the sheer physical and intellectual bravado of its key players. The book relies on interviews with more than 125 technical leaders in the upstream and an exhaustive review of literature and patents since the mid-19th century. In addition, the book features timelines for exploration, drilling, reservoir engineering and production engineering innovations. There are copious endnotes and references, including an index of the key players.
This is the Paperback Student Edition of Water and Energy: Threats and Opportunities - Second Edition Rapid and important developments in the area of energy - water nexus over the last two to three years have been significant. This new edition of Water and Energy: Threats and Opportunities is timely and continues to highlight the inextricable link between water and energy, providing an up-to-date overview of the subject with helpful detailed summaries of the technical literature. Water and Energy has been up-dated throughout and major changes are: new chapters on global warming and fossil fuels, including shale gas and fracking; the consequences of the Deepwater Horizon accident in the Mexican Gulf and the Niger Delta oil spills; new developments in hydropower; and continued competition between food, water and energy. Water and Energy Threats and Opportunities, 2e creates an awareness of the important couplings between water and energy. It shows how energy is used in all the various water cycle operations and demonstrates how water is used and misused in all kinds of energy production and generation. Population increase, climate change and an increasing competition between food and fuel production create enormous pressures on both water and energy availability. Since there is no replacement for water, water security looks more crucial than energy security. This is true not only in developing countries but also in the most advanced countries. For example, the western parts of the USA suffer from water scarcity that provides a real security threat. Part One of the book describes the water-energy nexus, the conflicts and competitions and the couplings between water security, energy security, and food security. Part Two captures how climate change, population increase and the growing food demand will have major impact on water availability in many countries in the world. Part Three describes water for energy and how energy production and conversion depend on water availability. As a consequence, all planning has to take both water and energy into consideration. The environmental (including water) consequences of oil and coal exploration and refining are huge, in North America as well as in the rest of the world. Furthermore, oil leak accidents have hit America, Africa, Europe as well as Asia. The consequences of hydropower are discussed and the competition between hydropower generation, flood control and water storage is illustrated. The importance of water for cooling thermal power plants is described, as this was so tragically demonstrated at the Fukushima nuclear plants in 2011. Climate change will further emphasize the strong coupling between water availability and the operation of power plants. Part Four analyses energy for water - how water production and treatment depend on energy. The book shows that a lot can be done to improve equipment, develop processes and apply advanced monitoring and control to save energy for water operations. Significant amounts of energy can be saved by better pumping, the reduction of leakages, controlled aeration in biological wastewater treatment, more efficient biogas production, and by improved desalination processes. There are 3 PowerPoint presentations available for Water and Energy - threats and opportunities, 2e. About the author: Gustaf Olsson, Professor Em. in Industrial Automation, Lund University, Sweden Since 2006, Gustaf has been Professor Emeritus at Lund University, Sweden. Gustaf has devoted his research to control and automation in water systems, electrical power systems and process industries. From 2006 to 2008 he was part time professor in electrical power systems at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. He is guest professor at the Technical University of Malaysia (UTM) and at the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China and he is an honorary faculty member of the Exeter University in UK. Between 2005 and 2010 he was the editor-in-chief of the journals Water Science and Technology and Water Science and Technology/Water Supply, (IWA Publishing). From 2007 to 2010, he was a member of the IWA Board of Directors and in 2010 he received the IWA Publication Award. In 2012 he was the awardee of an Honorary Doctor degree at UTM and an Honorary Membership of IWA. Gustaf has guided 23 PhDs and a few hundred MSc students through their exams and has received the Lund University pedagogical award for distinguished achievements in the education. The Lund University engineering students elected him as the teacher of the year He has spent extended periods as a guest professor and visiting researcher at universities and companies in the USA, Australia and Japan and has been invited as a guest lecturer in 19 countries outside Sweden. He has authored nine books published in English, Russian, German and Chinese and and contributed with chapters in another 19 books as well as more than 170 scientific publications.
Molecular techniques are emerging as a rapid and powerful approach for microorganism detection. This project reviewed the efficacy of PCR assays for Cryptosporidium, Microcystis, adenovirus and ammonia oxidising bacteria, as well as candidate techniques for DNA extraction and inhibitor removal. The literature review led to an evaluation of DNA extraction kits and reagents for PCR; finalisation of assay formats; the development of PCR controls and Standard Operating Procedures (SOP); analysis of assay robustness using real samples; and completion of an Inter-laboratory trial using the SOP's developed. This book is co-published with Water Research Australia.
Specific issues investigated in this project were: Identifying the most effective substrate for optimum biofilm formation, and the range of operating conditions for optimum removals to be achieved; developing a standard suite of laboratory tests, both simulated filtration tests and genetic tests, to identify the potential of an existing filter to remove cyanobacterial metabolites; better understanding of the lag period prior to the onset of degradation of several metabolites; and the feasibility of artificially inoculating or "seeding" filters to enhance removal of the cyanobacterial metabolites. This book is co-published with Water Research Australia.
This project addressed a need for a sensitive, accurate and reliable testing method to aid assessment of the toxicity of algal blooms and assist water management. Increasingly, diagnostic dilemmas are resolved through the use of DNA-based technologies which often provide high sensitivity and specificity and are efficient both in terms of costs and time. However to date, no such test was available to the Victorian water industries. This project sought to bridge this gap by developing an automated DNA-based diagnostic assay for cyanobacterial bloom assessment blooms in Victorian waters. The assay exceeds expectation in its ability to accurately quantify levels of toxigenic cyanobacteria in bloom samples, retains exceptionally high specificity and sensitivity and each assay out-performs common conventional PCR approaches established in the literature. Four toxigen assays (microcystin, nodularin, cylindrospermopsin and saxitoxin) were designed, tested and optimised. This book is co-published with Water Research Australia Authors: Aaron Jex, Louise Baker and Raechel Littman, University of Melbourne
Our revision resources are the smart choice for those revising for the external assessment for the Engineering BTEC Tech Award. This book will help you to: Revise essential content and key skills, and assessment skills for the performance disciplines Organise your revision with the one-topic-per-page format Speed up your revision with helpful hints on how to tackle questions and tasks Track your revision progress with at-a-glance check boxes Check your understanding with annotated example responses Practice with revision questions and answers.
In a world where there is a growing awareness of the possible effects of human activities on climate change, there is a need to identify the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). As a result of this growing awareness, governments started to implement regulations that require water authorities to report their GHG emissions. With these developments there exists a strong need for adequate insight into the emissions of N2O and CH4. With this insight water authorities would be able to estimate and finally reduce their emissions. The overall objectives of the different research programs performed by partners of the GWRC members WERF (United States of America), WSAA (Australia), CIRSEE-Suez (France) and STOWA (the Netherlands) were: To define the origin of N2O emission. To understand the formation processes of N2O. To identify the level of CH4 emissions from wastewater collection and treatment systems. To evaluate the use of generic emission factors to estimate the emission of N2O from individual plants
This report focuses on the urban water management challenges facing cities across OECD countries, and explores both national and local policy responses with respect to water-risk exposure, the state of urban infrastructures and dynamics, and institutional and governance architectures. The analyses focus on four mutually dependent dimensions - finance, innovation, urban-rural co-operation and governance - and proposes a solutions-oriented typology based on urban characteristics. The report underlines that sustainable urban water management will depend on collaboration across different tiers of government working together with local initiatives and stakeholders.
Water resources allocation determines who is able to use water resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from water resources. This report overviews how allocation works in a range of countries and how the performance of allocation arrangements can be improved to adjust to changing conditions. Capturing information from 27 OECD countries and key partner economies, the report presents key findings from the OECD Survey of Water Resources Allocation and case studies of successful allocation reform. It provides practical policy guidance for water allocation in the form of a "health check", which can be used to assess the performance of current arrangements and manage the transition to improved regimes.
This report assesses the current trends, drivers, obstacles, mechanisms, impacts, costs and benefits of stakeholder engagement in the water sector. It builds on empirical data collected through an extensive survey across 215 stakeholders, within and outside the water sector, and 69 case studies collected worldwide. It highlights the increasing importance of stakeholder engagement in the water sector as a principle of good governance and the need for better understanding of the pressing and emerging issues related to stakeholder engagement. These include: the shift of power across stakeholders; the arrival of new entrants that ought to be considered; the external and internal drivers that have triggered engagement processes; innovative tools that have emerged to manage the interface between multiple players, and types of costs and benefits incurred by engagement at policy and project levels. This report provides pragmatic policy guidance to decision makers and practitioners in the form of key principles and a Checklist for Public Action with indicators, international references and self-assessment questions, which together can help policy makers to set up the appropriate framework conditions needed to yield the short and long-term benefits of stakeholder engagement.
The establishment of dedicated regulatory bodies in charge of regulating water services, whilst being recent, is nevertheless a consistent trend among OECD and non-OECD countries. This report presents a picture as of September 2014 of the governance arrangements, operational modalities and use of regulatory tools across a sample of 34 established water regulators. It relies on the OECD Best Practice Principles for Regulatory Policy: The Governance of Regulators to structure the information collected through a survey exercise. It has been developed in close co-operation with the OECD Network of Economic Regulators (NER). The results from the survey show that the 34 water regulators show generally a high level of adoption of good governance principles and practices. They display functions and powers that are in line with their objectives. Water regulators also show a strong culture of consultation. Other areas, in particular evaluation of regulatory impacts, could be further strengthened.
Landowners and managers, municipalities, the logging and livestock industries, and conservation professionals all increasingly recognize that setting prescribed fires may reduce the devastating effects of wildfire, control invasive brush and weeds, improve livestock range and health, maintain wildlife habitat, control parasites, manage forest lands, remove hazardous fuel in the wildland-urban interface, and create residential buffer zones.
In this practical and helpful manual, John R. Weir, who has conducted more than 720 burns in four states, offers a step-by-step guide to the systematic application of burning to meet specific land management needs and goals.
Discover the subject of optimization in a new light with this modern and unique treatment. Includes a thorough exposition of applications and algorithms in sufficient detail for practical use, while providing you with all the necessary background in a self-contained manner. Features a deeper consideration of optimal control, global optimization, optimization under uncertainty, multiobjective optimization, mixed-integer programming and model predictive control. Presents a complete coverage of formulations and instances in modelling where optimization can be applied for quantitative decision-making. As a thorough grounding to the subject, covering everything from basic to advanced concepts and addressing real-life problems faced by modern industry, this is a perfect tool for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in chemical and biochemical engineering.
For courses in Advanced Topics in Electronic Communications. Comprehensive in scope and contemporary in coverage, this text explores modern digital and data communications systems, microwave radio communications systems, satellite communications systems, and optical fiber communications systems. This text is the last 10 chapters from the Tomasi Electronic Communications Systems: Fundamental Through Advanced, 5/e.
Rainwater tank systems have been widely adopted across the world to provide a safe local source of water in underdeveloped rural areas, a substitution for mains water for non potable end uses in water stressed urban areas, as well as providing flooding control in monsoonal climates such as Korea, or combined sewer systems such as Germany. The importance of these systems in cities has grown, as water managers seek to provide a range of decentralised solutions to supply constraints of current water supply systems, whilst reducing the impact of urban development on the natural environment, and increasing resilience to the impacts of climate change. Rainwater tank systems are now often implemented under integrated urban water management (IUWM) and water sensitive urban design (WSUD) philosophies, which take a holistic view of the urban water cycle. Rainwater Tank Systems for Urban Water Supply is based on a comprehensive, multi-million dollar research program that was undertaken in South East Queensland (SEQ) Australia in response to the Millennium drought when the water supply level in the regions drinking water dams dropped to 17% in July 2007 and the area came close to running out of water. In particular, the book provides insights and detailed analysis of design, modelling, implementation, operation, energy usage, economics, management, health risk, social perceptions and implications for water quality/quantity of roof water runoff. The approaches and methodologies included in Rainwater Tank Systems for Urban Water Supply inform and validate research programs, and provide insights on the expected performance and potential pitfalls of the adoption of rainwater tanks systems including: actual harvested yield and resulting mains water savings, optimal sizing for rainwater storages and roof collection systems, expected water quality and implications for managing public health risks, modelling tools available for decision support, operation and management approaches of a decentralised asset at the household scale and community acceptance. The book is suitable for use at undergraduate and post graduate levels and is of particular interest to water professionals across the globe, who are involved in the strategic water planning for a town, city or a region. It is a valuable resource for developers, civil designers, water planners, architects and plumbers seeking to implement sustainable water servicing approaches for residential, industrial and commercial developments.
The first book on 6G wireless presents an overall vision for 6G - an era of intelligence-of-everything - with drivers, key capabilities, use cases, KPIs, and the technology innovations that will shape it. These innovations include immersive human-centric communication, sensing, localization, and imaging, connected machine learning and networked AI, Industry 4.0 and beyond with connected intelligence, smart cities and life, and the satellite mega-constellation for 3D full-Earth wireless coverage. Also covered are new air-interface and networking technologies, integrated sensing and communications, and integrated terrestrial and non-terrestrial networks. In addition, novel network architectures to enable network AI, user centric networks, native trustworthiness are discussed. Essential reading for researchers in academia and industry working on B5G wireless communications.
La Brea Tar Pits once trapped prehistoric mammals. Today that killer has a chemical cousin in the Athabasca oil sands of Alberta, Canada--immense deposits of natural asphalt destined for upgrading to synthetic crude oil. If the harvesting of this natural asphalt continues unabated, we might find ourselves stuck in a muck of a different kind. Humanity has used asphalt for thousands of years. This humble hydrocarbon may have glued the first arrowhead to the first shaft, but the changes wrought by this material are most dramatic since its emergence as pavement. Since the 1920s the automobile and blacktop have allowed unprecedented numbers of Americans to experience the beauty of their continent from the Adirondacks to the Rockies and beyond, to Big Sur and the Pacific Coast Highway. Blacktop roads, runways, and parking lots constitute the central arteries of our environment, creating a distinct "political territory" and a "political economy of velocity." In Asphalt: A History Kenneth O'Reilly provides a history of this everyday substance. By tracing the history of asphalt--in both its natural and processed forms--from ancient times to the present, O'Reilly sets out to identify its importance within various contexts of human society and culture. Although O'Reilly argues that asphalt creates our environment, he believes it also eventually threatens it. Looking at its role in economics, politics, and global warming, O'Reilly explores asphalt's contribution to the history, and future, of America and the world.
Fluid Power with Applications, Seventh Edition presents broad coverage of fluid power technology in a readable and understandable fashion. An extensive array of industrial applications is provided to motivate and stimulate students' interest in the field. Balancing theory and applications, this book is updated to reflect current technology; it focuses on the design, analysis, operation, and maintenance of fluid power systems. It also includes an Automation Studio (TM) CD (produced by Famic Technologies Inc.) that contains simulations and animations of many of the fluid power circuits presented throughout the book as well as a variety of additional fluid power applications. MARKET: A comprehensive reference for anyone in the Engineering Technology and Industrial Technology fields.
Plant diversity sustains all animal life, and the genetic diversity within plants underpins global food security. This text provides a practical and theoretical introduction to the strategies and actions to adopt for conserving plant genetic variation, as well as explaining how humans can exploit this diversity for sustainable development. Notably readable, it initially offers current knowledge on the characterization and evaluation of plant genetic resources. The authors then discuss strategies from in situ and ex situ conservation to crop breeding, exploring how these can be used to improve food security in the face of increasing agrobiodiversity loss, human population growth and climate change. Each chapter draws on examples from the literature or the authors' research and includes further reading references. Containing other useful features such as a glossary, it is invaluable for professionals and undergraduate and graduate students in plant sciences, ecology, conservation, genetics and natural resource management.
The European project MINOTAURUS explored innovative bio-processes to eliminate emerging and classic organic pollutants. These bio-processes are all based on the concept of immobilization of biocatalysts (microorganisms and enzymes) and encompass bioaugmentation, enzyme technology, rhizoremediation with halophytes, and a bioelectrochemical remediation process. The immobilization-based technologies are applied as engineered ex situ treatment systems as well as natural systems in situ for the bioremediation of groundwater, wastewater and soil. The selection and application of tailored physico-chemical, molecularbiological and ecotoxicological monitoring tools combined with a rational understanding of engineering, enzymology and microbial physiology is a pertinent approach to open the black-box of the selected technologies. Reliable process monitoring constitutes the basis for developing and refining biodegradation kinetics models, which in turn improve the predictability of performances to be achieved with technologies. Immobilised Biocatalysts for Bioremediation of Groundwater and Wastewater delivers insight into the concepts and performance of a series of remediation approaches. A key strength of this book is to deliver results from lab-scale through to piloting at different European reference sites. It further suggests frameworks for structuring and making evidence-based decisions for the most appropriate bioremediation measures.
Guidance for Professional Development in Drinking Water and Wastewater Industry recognises the water practitioners journey from the novice student phase all the way to an established expert position, both on technological and professional fronts. This book reviews various career phases and helps realise purpose, motivation, responsibilities and milestones for each professional stage. Since professional journeys are significantly different for individuals and designations, titles vary widely from organization to organization, general terminologies are used for describing career phases, mainly Student Phase, Entry-Level Professional, Mid-Level Professional and Established Practitioner. This guide helps the reader to understand a step-by-step professional development process in the industry and at the same time receive key inputs to minimise or avoid common mistakes related to the drinking water or wastewater occupations. The book provides an overview of common educational options available for students including short-term courses, diploma and certificates, associate degrees, bachelor degree, masters degree, doctorate degree, post-doctoral fellowship and continued education. With respect to job profiles, the guide covers different professional avenues such as consultant, engineer, designer, researcher, academic faculty member, sales and marketing, permitting authority staff, laboratory professionals, system operators, construction management staff, manufacturing and industry staff. In terms of technological knowledge, both drinking water and wastewater infrastructure systems are reviewed in the book. Discussions on drinking water systems mainly include intake structures, treatment systems, distributions network components whereas wastewater systems include collection and conveyance systems, treatment options and sludge management systems. Guidance for Professional Development in Drinking Water and Wastewater Industryis useful for every professional in the industry and particularly prospective students. It can be used by mentors and established practitioners as a guidance tool for training newcomers. Author: Archis Ambulkar, Harrisburg, PA, USA
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