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Global Deforestation provides a concise but comprehensive examination of the variety of ways in which deforestation modifies environmental processes, as well as the societal implications of these changes. The book stresses how forest ecosystems may be prone to nearly irreversible degradation. To prevent the loss of important biophysical and socioeconomic functions, forests need to be adequately managed and protected against the increasing demand for agricultural land and forest resources. The book describes the spatial extent of forests, and provides an understanding of the past and present drivers of deforestation. It presents a theoretical background to understand the impacts of deforestation on biodiversity, hydrological functioning, biogeochemical cycling, and climate. It bridges the physical and biological sciences with the social sciences by examining economic impacts and socioeconomic drivers of deforestation. This book will appeal to advanced students, researchers and policymakers in environmental science, ecology, forestry, hydrology, plant science, ecohydrology, and environmental economics.
This volume provides a modern introduction to the soil fauna and their contributions to ecosystem function, the mechanisms that structure soil fauna assemblages from local to global scales, and the potential impacts of global change on soil fauna assemblages and through this ecosystem function. Wanting to be an accessible primer, this book is a high level overview of current knowledge rather than a detailed tome of all existing information, with emphasis being placed on key findings and general patterns. It focuses on the soil fauna but contextualizes these assemblages in relation to the microbial assemblages belowground and the vegetation aboveground. It is clear that our knowledge of soil fauna assemblages is ever increasing, but there is still a lot to discover. Key areas of research are highlighted, with particular reference to the future of soil fauna assemblages.
This book is the first major study of the history of environmentalism, from its origins in romanticism and the nature cults of the late 18th century to the global environmental movements of today. Radkau shows that this is not a single story of the steady ascent of environmentalism but rather a multiplicity of stories, each with its own dramatic tension: between single-issue movements and the challenges posed by the interconnection of environmental issues, between charismatic leaders and bureaucratic organizations, and between grassroot movements and global players. While the history can be traced back several centuries, environmentalism has flourished since the environmental revolution of 1970, spurred on by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster in 1986 and the growing concern about global warming. While environmentalists often opposed the scientific mainstream, they were also often led by scientific knowledge. Environmentalism is the true Enlightenment of our time D so much so that we can call our era the age of ecology . This timely and comprehensive global history of environmentalism will be essential reading for anyone concerned with the most pressing global issues of our time.
Living in a Dangerous Climate provides a journey through human and Earth history, showing how a changing climate has affected human evolution and society. Is it possible for humanity to evolve quickly, or is slow, gradual, genetic evolution the only way we change? Why did all other Homo species go extinct while Homo sapiens became dominant? How did agriculture, domestication and the use of fossil fuels affect humanity's growing dominance? Do today's dominant societies - devoted as they are to Darwinism and 'survival of the fittest' - contribute to our current failure to meet the hazards of a dangerous climate? Unique and thought provoking, the book links scientific knowledge and perspectives of evolution, climate change and economics in a way that is accessible and exciting for the general reader. The book is also valuable for courses on climate change, human evolution and environmental science.
This original and timely volume provides unique insights and analysis on the pressing question of how to achieve environmental sustainability while fostering economic growth. The emphasis of the book lies in finding critical solutions to global climate change including chapters on environmental fiscal reform and unemployment in Spain, EU structural and cohesion policy and sustainable development, ecological tax reform in Europe and Asia, Australia's carbon pricing mechanism, and many other timely topics. This insightful volume will appeal to policy makers in government as well as academics and students in environmental law, environmental economics and environmental sustainability.
This book consists of two parts. The first part describes the context in which the Prefectures of Minamisoma and Kesennuma need to operate and what the meaning is of the multiple disasters that occurred in the area. The second part illuminates the design process and content of the Minamisoma and Kesennuma designs. Thirdly, the chapters are alternated with reflections on the design and analyses of the disaster on specific themes: energy, demographics and economic factors, environment, water and ecology. The book ends with observations and transcripts of participants in the process, highlighting the benefits of the approach, the appraisal of the process, the appreciation of the design and the parts that could be improved. This final element will lead to recommendation how to implement these kinds of approaches in the area itself and how to spread out over the Tohuku region (the tsunami hit region) and other regions in Japan and Worldwide.
Transboundary Pollution: Evolving Issues of International Law and Policy provides a comprehensive and perceptive overview of the legal principles that govern pollution internationally and explores the utilisation of these principles in practice. Legal principles regarding State responsibility for transboundary pollution are well settled in international law. At issue is how these principles are applied and what mechanisms are developed to regulate specific types of transboundary pollution, including pollution of the marine environment and shared water resources, nuclear pollution and air pollution. Expert contributors come together in this book to discuss all major aspects of transboundary pollution and the practical application of the State responsibility doctrine. Empirical studies of European, Asian and Southeast Asian countries demonstrate regional perspectives of how international law and policy governing transboundary pollution translates into practice. Academics, students and practitioners alike will benefit from the perceptive and discerning insight the book presents into this important issue within international law, environmental law and public policy.
Along with environmental impact assessment, social impact assessment (SIA) has its origins in the 1970s and has developed from being a tool to meet regulatory requirements, to a discipline that seeks to contribute proactively to better project and policy development and to enhance the wellbeing of affected people. This volume, edited by a leading authority in the field, collates the classic articles in the history of SIA along with the most significant recent papers in this expanding area. This important collection, with an original introduction by the editor, will be an invaluable source of reference for students, academics and practitioners with an interest in the field of social impact assessment.
First published in 1987, Peter Brimblecombe's book provides an engaging historical account of air pollution in London, offering a fascinating insight into the development of air pollution controls against a changing social and economic background. He examines domestic and industrial pollution and their effects on fashions, furnishings, buildings and human health. The book ends with an intriguing analysis of the dangers arising from contemporary pollutants and a glimpse of what the future may hold for London.
Hunting with falcons for houbara bustards was an integral part of traditional life in the desert. Over the last few decades, this magnificent bird - so well adapted to the desert environment - has become an endangered species, due both to continued hunting and to the degradation of its habitat by domestic livestock. This book highlights the achievements of the National Wildlife Research Center of Saudi Arabia in securing the survival of the species through captive breeding, with the aim of reintroducing the houbara to the wild. The breeding programme has proved to be the greatest source of information yet available on the bird, yielding important data not obtainable from wild houbaras. Propagation of the Houbara Bustard is a practical 'how-to' manual for breeding the bird in captivity. It also presents and summarises the background data on houbara diet, behaviour, physiology, reproductive biology and veterinary care that have enabled the breeding programme to succeed in the short span of eight years. It will be of interest not only to breeders of houbara and other bustard species, but to all those who are studying or managing wild populations.
The Global Energy Assessment (GEA) brings together over 300 international researchers to provide an independent, scientifically based, integrated and policy-relevant analysis of current and emerging energy issues and options. It has been peer-reviewed anonymously by an additional 200 international experts. The GEA assesses the major global challenges for sustainable development and their linkages to energy; the technologies and resources available for providing energy services; future energy systems that address the major challenges; and the policies and other measures that are needed to realize transformational change toward sustainable energy futures. The GEA goes beyond existing studies on energy issues by presenting a comprehensive and integrated analysis of energy challenges, opportunities and strategies, for developing, industrialized and emerging economies. This volume is an invaluable resource for energy specialists and technologists in all sectors (academia, industry and government) as well as policymakers, development economists and practitioners in international organizations and national governments.
In 1986, about a decade before Alberta's oil sands exploded onto the international energy scene, Harry G Frankfurt wrote a provocative essay on an unlikely subject: the insidious influence of the half-truths, misinformation and propaganda that make up the "bullshit" that is so prevalent in our society. Frankfurt, professor emeritus at Princeton University and one of the world's most influential moral philosophers, concluded that "bullshit is a greater enemy of the truth than lies are". Over roughly the same period, the controversial and unprecedented growth of the Alberta tar sands has escalated the amount of disinformation in the air almost as quickly as it has greenhouse gases. To either demonise or promote the most controversial energy source since nuclear power, environmental groups, Big Oil and government officials have assaulted us with an endless array of hype that has not been seen since the great tobacco wars. In his second RMB Manifesto, Jeff Gailus explores two of the most salient features of the early 21st century: the explosion of oil sands development and the ubiquity of hogwash. The two, he suggests, are engaged in a symbiotic dance that allows them both to thrive -- to the detriment of our moral and social well-being.
Includes a guide to ethical shopping and investing Your introduction to taking simple steps towards sustainable living Packed with practical and realistic advice, Green Living For Dummies is a comprehensive guide to minimising your impact on the world around you. Here you'll discover effective and simple strategies for making a difference in every part of your life - from reducing energy waste in your home and cutting reliance on your car, to going green in the garden and at work. * Minimise household rubbish* Buy green energy* Eat seasonally and organically* Switch holidays for eco-tourism* Teach your kids to be green
Local Climate Change Law examines the role of local government, especially within cities, in addressing climate change through legal, policy, planning and other tools. This timely study offers a multi-jurisdictional perspective, featuring international contributors who examine both theoretical and practical dimensions of how localities are addressing climate mitigation and adaptation in Australia, Canada, China, Europe, South Africa and the United States, as well as considering the place of localities in global climate law agreements and transnational networks. Written from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book will appeal to academics, post graduate and undergraduate students in law and political science, local and national government policy makers and politicians, as well as practising local government lawyers. Anyone with a general interest in environmental issues will also find much to interest them in this insightful study.
This book combines urban planning and architectural tools in an attempt to overcome the limitations of sectoral measures. In this perspective, it offers a forum for the debate of different approaches used by schools of planning and architecture. It explores strategies by drawing from the potential contributions of cognitive models for decisions, the role of utopian thinking and retrofitting actions and their interconnectedness, the role of cultural legacy for urban and landscape design, the design perspectives about public spaces, and the role of architecture design and urban and regional planning for landscape quality. The book also discusses on design as a process of decision-making that operates as an act of empathy that aligns with human and ecological values - emotional, physical and socio-cultural. Each planning and design act has different possible effects able to help making clear strategic and local actions, contributing to community empowerment and to landscape and local governance. Design activity along the river and multiple experiences (design processes, urban fringe design, agri-urban models, river parks, UNESCO sites, River Contracts, greenbelts and ecological networks), through reflection on design roles, helping to understand the design process and its results at different scales. Roberta Ingaramo, architect, PhD, is Assistant Professor in Architectural and Urban Design, Department of Architecture and Design (DAD), Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy), Master in Conservation of Historic Towns and Buildings, Katholieke Universiteit (Belgium). [email protected] Angioletta Voghera, architect, PhD, is Associate Professor of Urban and Regional Planning, Inter-university Department of Urban and Regional Studies and Planning (DIST), Polytechnic University of Turin (Italy). [email protected]
What are the manifest and likely future consequences of climate change? How will the world respond to the challenges of climate change in the twenty-first century? How should people think about confronting the politics of climate change?
In this highly accessible introduction to the predicted global impacts of climate change, Constance Lever-Tracy provides an authoritative guide to one of the most controversial issues facing the future of our planet. Discussing how the social and natural sciences must work together more effectively in confronting climate change, Lever-Tracy provides a sober, critical assessment of the politics of global warming and climate change.
By combining sociology, environmental studies and politics, Confronting Climate Change will serve as an introduction that will appeal to students and general readers alike.
This book helps enforcement personnel who are concerned with controlling poaching and trade in wildlife. The book contains introductory material that gives an overview of wildlife trade. It contains sections on law enforcement as well as a list of useful addresses. It is useful for people concerned with the protection of wild flora and fauna.
This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.
Managing natural resources sustainably is a complex task that demands the involvement of many different stakeholders. Network arrangements are increasingly used to try and achieve such sustainable management. This book assesses the practice of such networks using original research into case studies of landscape, habitat and water management from England, Norway, Sweden, Spain and Zimbabwe. Informed by institutionalist theory, the case studies explore the role of social capital and institutional capacity in successful networking. They demonstrate the importance of policy champions and of developing a common problem framework, often based on a common knowledge base. Norms of mutuality and reciprocity together with trust are shown to play a major role in implementing jointly developed strategies for managing natural resources. While highlighting the potential of networks, the research also identifies the limitations of such arrangements, suggesting a continuing need for national frameworks to provide financial incentives and regulate local action. This original and up-to-date research will appeal to scholars as well as undergraduates, graduates and practitioners interested in geography, environmental studies, planning studies and environmental politics.
Over-exploitation of environment and natural resources is becoming increasingly widespread in the modern world. To combat this, environmental economists have attempted to value such resources in order to ensure that they are given due recognition in any ex ante appraisal, or ex post evaluation of projects or policies; and also to ensure that optimal levels of consumption are determined for the resource. This authoritative collection, along with an original introduction by the editors, brings together seminal papers published in the last three decades which demonstrate the application of a number of techniques employed to value a range of environmental and natural resources. It will be of immense value to students, scholars and practitioners with an interest in environmental affairs and natural resources.
This book analyses the relation between different discourses and actors through an ethnographic approach, showing not only how fishermen in Slovenia respond to international political economy, how they struggle to survive but also how they generate small changes. Fishing in the northeastern part of the Adriatic Sea makes for a substantial economy anchored in many stories. Regional conflicts, wars, the demise of empires and the rise of nation states with ensuing maritime border issues, socialist heritage, transnational and transformational processes in Europe, and the growth of capitalist relations between production and consumption in coastal areas, have all contributed to the specific discourses that have affected this relatively under-researched area. How this complex, layered and ambiguous quarrelling is constituted at different levels and how this situation is lived and experienced by the local fishermen working along the present Slovene coast effectively forms the core of this book.
Soil fertility is the backbone of agricultural systems and plays a key role in determining food quantity and quality. In recent decades, soil fertility has decreased due to indiscriminate use of agrochemicals, and nations around the globe are now facing the challenge of increasing food production while sustainably maintaining soil fertility. Written by leading international scientists in the field, this book explores soil fertility management strategies, including agronomic, microbiological and soil-science based strategies. Highlighting the practices that can be incorporated into organic farming and discussing recent advances, it is a valuable resource for researchers wanting to broaden their vision and the scope of their investigations.
This book presents the most comprehensive and systematic description currently available of both classical and novel theories of cloud processes, providing a much-needed link between cloud theory, observation, experimental results, and cloud modeling. This volume shows why and how modern models serve as a major tool of investigation of cloud processes responsible for atmospheric phenomena, including climate change. It systematically describes classical as well as recent advancements in cloud physics, including cloud-aerosol interaction; collisions of particles in turbulent clouds; and the formation of multiphase cloud particles. As the first of its kind to serve as a practical guide for using state-of-the-art numerical cloud models, major emphasis is placed on explaining how microphysical processes are treated in modern numerical cloud resolving models. The book will be a valuable resource for advanced students, researchers and numerical model designers in cloud physics, atmospheric science, meteorology, and environmental science.
Economic development that is environmentally, socially and ethically sound is at the forefront of contemporary debates all over the world. This is especially relevant to international trade where goods manufactured in least developed countries (LDCs) are being exported to developed countries (DCs) via international supply chains. This book looks at Bangladesh's ready-made garments (RMG) industry -- the seventh largest in the world -- facing demands for environmental and social management according to standards set by consumers in environmentally progressive societies. Apart from these concerns not having found cultural or institutional resonance in Bangladesh, the pressures for cost reduction, on-time delivery and cheap labour in a highly competitive international market make the problem that much more complex. In this book Selim uses the analytical framework provided by the ecological modernisation theory to examine the economic, communicative and social political aspects of ethical trade, and argues that the economy-ecology relationship can indeed be a positive sum game if nation-states and economic actors change their policymaking styles and greening behaviour to take advantage of scientific evidence and green technological opportunities.
An indispensable guide to food, our most powerful tool to reverse the global epidemic of chronic disease, heal the environment, reform politics, and revive economies, from #1 New York Times bestselling author Mark Hyman, MD -- "Read this book if you're ready to change the world" (Tim Ryan, US Representative). What we eat has tremendous implications not just for our waistlines, but also for the planet, society, and the global economy. What we do to our bodies, we do to the planet; and what we do to the planet, we do to our bodies. In Food Fix, #1 bestselling author Mark Hyman explains how our food and agriculture policies are corrupted by money and lobbies that drive our biggest global crises: the spread of obesity and food-related chronic disease, climate change, poverty, violence, educational achievement gaps, and more. Pairing the latest developments in nutritional and environmental science with an unflinching look at the dark realities of the global food system and the policies that make it possible, Food Fix is a hard-hitting manifesto that will change the way you think about -- and eat -- food forever, and will provide solutions for citizens, businesses, and policy makers to create a healthier world, society, and planet.
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