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The Little Book of Going Green aims to shed light on the ways humans are harming the environment, from pollution and deforestation to industrial production and farming methods. Filled with facts, theories and tips on how we can do our bit for the planet, this is your one-stop guide to making every aspect of your life earth-friendly.
An insider account of how researchers unraveled the mystery of the thawing Arctic In the 1990s, researchers in the Arctic noticed that floating summer sea ice had begun receding. This was accompanied by shifts in ocean circulation and unexpected changes in weather patterns throughout the world. The Arctic's perennially frozen ground, known as permafrost, was warming, and treeless tundra was being overtaken by shrubs. What was going on? Brave New Arctic is Mark Serreze's riveting firsthand account of how scientists from around the globe came together to find answers. In a sweeping tale of discovery spanning three decades, Serreze describes how puzzlement turned to concern and astonishment as researchers came to understand that the Arctic of old was quickly disappearing--with potentially devastating implications for the entire planet. Serreze is a world-renowned Arctic geographer and climatologist who has conducted fieldwork on ice caps, glaciers, sea ice, and tundra in the Canadian and Alaskan Arctic. In this must-read book, he blends invaluable insights from his own career with those of other pioneering scientists who, together, ushered in an exciting new age of Arctic exploration. Along the way, he accessibly describes the cutting-edge science that led to the alarming conclusion that the Arctic is rapidly thawing due to climate change, that humans are to blame, and that the global consequences are immense. A gripping scientific adventure story, Brave New Arctic shows how the Arctic's extraordinary transformation serves as a harbinger of things to come if we fail to meet the challenge posed by a warming Earth.
This book explores the relationship between the land use choices of small-scale farmers and the rate of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. Although sustainable agriculture was introduced to the Amazon area about 10 years ago, it has been adopted by only a few farmers. Jill L. Caviglia analyses why this practice has not been more widely adopted and offers policy prescriptions to address this. The major source of deforestation in the Amazon is the use of slash-and-burn agriculture by small-scale farmers. The adoption of sustainable agriculture by these farmers could reduce the rate of deforestation dramatically. The author uses new, original case studies of farms in the area to estimate the probability of the adoption of sustainable agriculture and, once the adoption decision has been made, the intensity of adoption. The author finds that this is influenced greatly by farmer organizations and by providing the farmers with the knowledge that sustainable agriculture is a viable alternative to slash-and-burn practices. This book will be of great interest to scholars and policymakers in the areas of environmental economics, environmental policy and Latin American studies.
This book presents a detailed picture of the evolutionary processes at work in water markets with a particular focus on theory and practice in Australia. Policymakers are striving to strike a balance between the pros and cons of a property rights/market based approach to the allocation of water resources, as opposed to an approach that centres on government regulation. The current movement in Australia is toward the use of markets, and numerous reforms are either underway or under consideration in that direction. This provides an ideal opportunity to observe the factors at play in determining the balance and hence the mix of policy instruments at work. The distinguished contributors offer a range of perspectives - economic, legal, environmental - and combine conceptual analysis with evidence from real policy decisions. Policymakers and governmental advisers will find this book timely and extremely relevant to making decisions on what is arguably the world's most critical natural resource. The Evolution of Markets for Water will also be of great interest to academics and students with an interest in natural resource economics, law and management.
Ecosystems and Nature brings together the work of leading authorities in biodiversity research. It provides readers with a broad interdisciplinary perspective on the major issues in biodiversity, including economics, natural science, management and ethics. The collection is divided into four main sections: part I introduces some fundamental scientific and socio-economic concepts and analysis in order to illustrate the complexities involved in the human-ecosystems interface; part II deals with the valuation of ecosystems with special emphasis on the main biomes, faults, wetlands, marine systems, grasslands and agriculture; part III covers the problem of value appropriation and the relevant constraints and available policy instruments; the final section focuses on the difficult ethical issues that surround utilization and conservation of biodiversity.
How will future climates be different from today's world-and what consequences will changes in climate have for societies and their development strategies? This book is a primer on the essential science for grasping the workings of climate change and climate prediction. It is accessible for readers with little to no background in science, with an emphasis on the needs of those studying sustainable development. John C. Mutter gives a just-the-facts overview of how the climate system functions and what we know about why changes occur. He recounts the evolution of climatology from the earliest discoveries about Earth's climate to present-day predictive capabilities, and clearly presents the scientific basis of fundamental topics such as climate zones, ocean-atmosphere dynamics, and the long-term cycles from glacial to interglacial periods. Mutter also details the mechanisms of climate change and the ways in which human activity affects global climate. He explains the science behind some known consequences of rising temperatures, such as sea level rise, hurricane behavior, and climate variability. The primer discusses how climate predictions are made and examines the sources of uncertainty in forecasting. Climate Change Science is a straightforward and easy-to-read treatment of the fundamental science needed to comprehend one of today's most important issues.
This book provides an insight into some of the efforts and actions taken by the rapidly developing economy of Malaysia towards its 'Vision 2020' of becoming a developed country. Renuka Mahadevan explores whether the vision can become reality and not just remain a dream. The purpose of this book is thus to study selected key areas such as structural transformation, total factor productivity growth, human capital and technology development policies as well as poverty and income equality. In addition, the various challenges that Malaysia faces in an increasingly global environment, and its move to a knowledge economy are examined. Based on empirical investigation covering a wide number of topics, policy is critically reviewed and suggestions are made for sustainable growth and development. With a focus on policy in a range of macroeconomic topics, Sustainable Growth and Economic Development will be of interest to policy analysts and researchers in development economics.
The 4.4-billion-year history of the oceans and their role in Earth's climate system It has often been said that we know more about the moon than we do about our own oceans. In fact, we know a great deal more about the oceans than many people realize. Scientists know that our actions today are shaping the oceans and climate of tomorrow--and that if we continue to act recklessly, the consequences will be dire. In this timely and accessible book, Eelco Rohling traces the 4.4-billion-year history of Earth's oceans while also shedding light on the critical role they play in our planet's climate system. Beginning with the formation of primeval Earth and the earliest appearance of oceans, Rohling takes readers on a journey through prehistory to the present age, vividly describing the major events in the ocean's evolution--from snowball and greenhouse Earth to the end-Permian mass extinction, the breakup of the Pangaea supercontinent, and the changing climate of today. Along the way, he explores the close interrelationships of the oceans, climate, solid Earth processes, and life, using the context of Earth and ocean history to provide perspective on humankind's impacts on the health and habitability of our planet--and on what the future may hold for us. An invaluable introduction to the cutting-edge science of paleoceanography, The Oceans enables you to make your own informed opinions about the environmental challenges we face as a result of humanity's unrelenting drive to exploit the world ocean and its vital resources.
This book offers a comprehensive and accessible guide covering various aspects of trace metal contamination in abiotic and biotic matrices of an iconic Indian tropical mangrove wetland - Sundarban. Divided into nine chapters, the book begins by discussing the fundamental concepts of sources, accumulation rate and significance of trace metal speciation, along with the impact of multiple stressors on trace metal accumulation, taking into account both tourist activities and the exacerbating role of climate change. The second chapter presents a detailed account of the sampling strategy and preservation of research samples, followed by exhaustive information on sediment quality assessment and ecological risk, instrumental techniques in environmental chemical analyses, quality assurance and quality control, along with the Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs). Using raw data, the sediment quality assessment indices (e.g., pollution load index, index of geoaccumulation, Nemerow Pollution Load Index etc.) and conventional statistical analyses are worked out and interpreted precisely, allowing students to readily evaluate and interpret them. This is followed by chapters devoted to trace metal accumulation in sediments and benthic organisms, as well as acid-leachable and geochemical fractionation of trace metals in sediments. The book then focuses on chemical speciation of butylin and arsenic in sediments as well as macrozoobenthos (polychaetous annelids). Finally, potential positive role of the dominant mangrove Avicennia in sequestering trace metals from rhizosediments of Sundarban Wetland is elaborately discussed. This timely reference book provides a versatile and in-depth account for understanding the emerging problems of trace metal contamination - issues that are relevant for many countries around the globe.
This book provides an analytical discussion of the status of disaster risk reduction and governance in an Indian context, drawing examples and lessons from the output of the national and regional level programs and projects and from other relevant experiences in the country. Different types of disasters faced by Indian states are covered, including geophysical and hydrometeorological hazards. The book incorporates and draws upon some of the key lessons from the pre-disaster phase through the disaster phase and finally to the post-disaster phase, thus establishing an effective framework in the form of key lessons learned. The rich content of the book is based on contributions from various stakeholders, from academicians and practitioners to decision makers and nongovernment organizations related to disaster risk management systems in an Indian context. Special emphasis is given to analyzing field experiences from academic perspectives and pointing out key issues along with the relevance of risk governance of disaster risk reduction. The book works as a comprehensive reference in disaster risk governance for disaster managers in India and other countries. The book has 19 chapters organized into four parts. Part I provides the outline and basics of disaster risk governance perspectives at the national level with supporting examples from a global point of view. Part II specifically emphasizes the detailed perspectives on risk governance at the regional and local levels. Part III is devoted to approaches and issues of disaster risk governance and development at various levels, stressing the practices and clear examples of disaster risk governance, policy options, institutional organization, risk-reduction strategies, and key lessons learned. Finally, Part IV highlights risk reduction and cross-cutting issues, focusing on risk mitigation and scientific intervention for disaster risk reduction.
The musteloids are the most diverse super-family among carnivores, ranging from little known, exotic, and highly-endangered species to the popular and familiar, and include a large number of introduced invasives. They feature terrestrial, fossorial, arboreal, and aquatic members, ranging from tenacious predators to frugivorous omnivores, span weights from a 100g weasel to 30kg giant otters, and express a range of social behaviours from the highly gregarious to the fiercely solitary. Musteloids are the subjects of extensive cutting-edge research from phylogenetics to the evolution of sociality and through to the practical implications of disease epidemiology, introduced species management, and climate change. Their diversity and extensive biogeography inform a wide spectrum of ecological theory and conservation practice. The editors of this book have used their combined 90 years of experience working on the behaviour and ecology of wild musteloids to draw together a unique network of the world's most successful and knowledgeable experts. The book begins with nine review chapters covering hot topics in musteloid biology including evolution, disease, social communication, and management. These are followed by twenty extensive case studies providing a range of comprehensive geographic and taxonomic coverage. The final chapter synthesises what has been discussed in the book, and reflects on the different and diverse conservation needs of musteloids and the wealth of conservation lessons they offer. Biology and Conservation of Musteloids provides a conceptual framework for future research and applied conservation management that is suitable for graduate level students as well as professional researchers in musteloid and carnivore ecology and conservation biology. It will also be of relevance and use to conservationists and wildlife managers.
This book addresses key issues related to the choice between governments regulating and enforcing society's sustainability and social responsibility objectives, and firms reporting on their sustainable and socially responsible activities so stakeholders can exert pressure on firms to achieve society's goals. While these may be considered as the two endpoints of a continuum, it is clear that there are differing perspectives on the role of governments in sustainability and responsibility. At one end of this continuum are stakeholders who believe the only way to achieve a sustainable and socially conscious society is to establish and enforce regulations with the concomitant governmental organizations to oversee and enforce those regulations. At the other end are those who consider firms to be crucial organizations for achieving sustainability and socially responsible outcomes, and who feel it is the responsibility of stakeholders to determine the legitimacy of firms' actions. It is probably not the case that any economies exist at either end of this continuum, but it is clear that the availability of reliable information is critical for any stakeholder to review the performance of either the governments or the firms. This book presents a varied set of papers that explore the issues that must be considered, regardless of which position a stakeholder takes.
The siting or development of risky facilities, such as nuclear power plants or waste repositories, remains an intractable policy problem for all democratic nations. In this valuable new book, the authors present a comparative study of various siting controversies in North America, Asia, Europe and Australia. They argue that devising effective policies for dealing with siting conflicts will require social learning and changes in both institutional design and policy process. This volume studies the issue of siting in the context of a transactions cost framework. It analyses the extent to which the institutional and policy environment can assist in managing siting conflicts, as well as considering the effect of other important factors such as equity, incentive structures, social pressures, alliances, the nature of decision processes and information strategies. By adopting a broad comparative perspective and using international case studies, the authors are able to identify the similarities and differences in siting problems between nations, and the approaches and policies adopted. As well as extending the theoretical and comparative knowledge of siting conflicts, they also help to develop more robust and effective policies for managing and resolving future disputes. This book addresses a growing policy problem confronting all democratic nations. By exploring the lessons to be learned from international siting experiences, it will prove invaluable reading for academics, policymakers, government agencies, NGOs, and other societal interests involved in environmental and siting issues.
For much of history, soil has played a major, and often central, role in the lives of humans. Entire societies have risen, and collapsed, through the management or mismanagement of soil; farmers and gardeners worldwide nurture their soil to provide their plants with water, nutrients, and protection from pests and diseases; major battles have been aborted or stalled by the condition of soil; murder trials have been solved with evidence from the soil; and, for most of us, our ultimate fate is the soil. In this book Richard Bardgett discusses soil and the many, and sometimes surprising, ways that humanity has depended on it throughout history, and still does today. Analysing the role soil plays in our own lives, despite increasing urbanization, and in the biogeochemical cycles that allow the planet to function effectively, Bardgett considers how superior soil management could combat global issues such as climate change, food shortages, and the extinction of species. Looking to the future, Bardgett argues that it is vital for the future of humanity for governments worldwide to halt soil degradation, and to put in place policies for the future sustainable management of soils.
Sustainability assessment refers to any process that directs decision-making towards sustainability. This groundbreaking Handbook presents state of the art thinking and research on the theory and practice of this broad and rapidly evolving field. Emphasizing how traditional impact assessment practices can be improved to contribute to sustainable outcomes, the overall aim is to enhance the effectiveness of sustainability assessment practice. Based on original contributions from world-leading researchers and practitioners, the book examines sustainability assessment in five sections: the first explores the conceptual foundations of sustainability assessment from different perspectives; the second section introduces some of the different scales and decision-contexts to which sustainability assessment can be applied; third, sectoral approaches to sustainability assessment are investigated, focusing in particular on energy as a key area of future focus; the fourth section introduces several tools used within sustainability assessment, including ecosystem services, multi-criteria analysis, systems analysis, and objectives-driven approaches; finally, key aspects of sustainability assessment governance are considered, including managing decision complexity and community engagement. This essential and comprehensive exploration of sustainability, including strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats, will be invaluable to students, academics and practitioners.
This book presents reviews, examples and case studies of innovative applications in solid and hazardous waste management. The economics of waste management have since become a significant research area in their own right, and two chapters address these issues. In addition, dedicated chapters cover specific categories of waste such as biomedical and institutional waste, plastics and e-waste. The book subsequently discusses newer analytical methods like SEM, EDX, XRD and optical microscopy, along with selected "older" methods for sampling and characterizing different types of waste. The various applications of mathematical tools like linear optimization, various software/models like WISCLeach, and DRASTIC, and tools like remote sensing and GIS are illustrated in many of the chapters. Lastly, since composting is one of the most popular treatment methods for managing the organic component of municipal solid waste, the book provides an overview of composting and the fundamentals of microbiology that are essential to understanding waste-related biological processes. The book was primarily written for students and practitioners in the field who are already familiar with the basics. All chapters were prepared by practicing experts and scholars in the field, and are intended to help readers better understand and apply these principles and practices in their own endeavours. Key topics covered in the book: * The circular economy and the economics of solid waste management * Various remote sensing and GIS applications for managing municipal solid waste, coal fires in mines, changes in land use and land cover in industrial areas, etc. * Treatment and management of different types of solid waste: institutional (including biomedical), residential, e-waste, plastic, and ash from thermal power plants * Sampling and characterization of municipal waste and compost * Fundamentals of microbiology * Overview of environmental regulations, especially those pertaining to solid and hazardous waste management
This book addresses the pulmonary and non-pulmonary manifestations related to exposure to airborne hazards after the collapse of the World Trade Center. Leading experts consider both short and long term effects on survivors, first responders, and residents of surrounding areas and offer clinical practice guidelines for treatment. Respiratory complications are the most obvious manifestation, but the text additionally covers oncology, psychiatry, and other organ systems for both adults and children. Knowledge of the medical ramifications from the World Trade Center collapse has broad scientific applicability to occupational and environmental medicine, preventive medicine, and epidemiology. With the advent of bioterrorism since 9/11, understanding prevention, treatment, monitoring, and basic and clinical research aspects of particulate matter air pollution is relevant and critically important to being a medical provider. This book will prove useful to pulmonologists, primary care providers, epidemiologists, psychiatrists, occupational and environmental specialists, allergists, immunologists, toxicologists and public policy experts.
The original biodynamic sowing and planting calendar, now in its 59th year. This useful guide shows the optimum days for sowing, pruning and harvesting various plants and crops, as well as working with bees. It includes Thun's unique insights, which go above and beyond the standard information presented in some other lunar calendars. It is presented in colour with clear symbols and explanations. The calendar includes a pullout wallchart that can be pinned up in a barn, shed or greenhouse as a handy quick reference.
This book focuses on modelling in ecological economics and offers a comprehensive overview of current and emerging methods of applying mathematical, computational and conceptual methods to environmental issues. Following a detailed introduction, the authors investigate various modelling techniques including: * evolutionary modelling * input-output modelling * neo-Austrian modelling * entropy in ecological economics * thermodynamic models * multi-criteria evaluation * agent-based modelling * the environmental Kuznets curve. In each of the specially commissioned chapters, the expert authors have tried to limit the level of complexity to create a unique and accessible resource. As such, this book should have a wide appeal amongst scholars, researchers and students with an interest in modelling techniques and their use in ecological and environmental economics.
By adopting a wide-ranging perspective, this book addresses the key issues relevant to contemporary China, providing a valuable tool with which to understand the challenges and opportunities facing political and economic actors, both domestic and foreign, over the next decades. The book addresses key issues now subject to considerable debate, such as sustainable growth, the imbalances in society deriving from growing inequalities and environmental threats. Concluding this section is an overview of how Chinese-US relations, and China's geo-political role at the international level, have evolved at the turn of the 21st century. The book then goes on to analyse those issues linked to the impacts of recent welfare system reforms. In particular, those impacts on the health care and pension systems, growing unemployment deriving from reform of state-owned enterprises and the related phasing out of the 'cradle-to-grave' welfare system. The closing chapter looks at the potential provided by a fast-growing insurance market in conjunction with WTO opening measures, to assess whether increased opportunities are likely to arise for foreign insurance suppliers. Scholars of political economy and international economics as well as academics and researchers of Asian - particularly Chinese studies, will find this book of great value.
This work presents and discusses the latest approaches and strategies for implementing Sustainability and Green IT into higher education and business environments. Following the global financial crisis in 2007/2008, businesses began to struggle coping with the increased IT/IS cost and their environmental footprint. As a consequence, action by universities to incorporate sustainability and 'Green IT' as parts of their teaching and learning materials, acknowledging their importance for global and local businesses, is being increasingly implemented. The book addresses the cooperation and coordination between academics and practitioners needed in order to achieve the changes required to obtain sustainability. Intended for researchers, lecturers and post-graduate students, as well as professionals in the Information Society and ICT and education sectors, and policy makers.
This book is about a subject that Michael Greenberg has worked on and lived with for almost forty years. He was brought up in the south Bronx at a time when his neighborhood suffered from terrible air and noise pollution, and domestic waste went untreated into the Hudson River. For him, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was a blessing. It included an ethical position about the environment, and the law required some level of accountability in the form of an environmental impact statement, or EIS.
After forty years of thinking about and working with NEPA and the EIS process, Greenberg decided to conduct his own evaluation from the perspective of a person trained in science who focuses on environmental and environmental health policies. This book of carefully chosen real case studies goes beyond the familiar checklists of what to do, and shows students and practitioners alike what really happens during the creation and implementation of an EIS.
This book highlights the implications of nanotechnology and the effects of nanoparticles on agricultural systems, their interactions with plants as well as their potential applications as fertilizers and pesticides. It also discusses how innovative, eco-friendly approaches to improve food and agricultural systems lead to increased plant productivity. Further, it offers insights into the current trends and future prospects of nanotechnology along with the benefits and risks and their impact on agricultural ecosystems. Nanomaterials in agriculture reduce the amount of chemical products sprayed by means of smart delivery of active ingredients; minimize nutrient losses in fertilization; and increase yields through optimized water and nutrient management. There is also huge potential for nanotechnology in the provision of state-of-the-art solutions for various challenges faced by agriculture and society, both today and in the future.
This thoughtful book provides an overview of the major developments in the theory and practice of 'environmental justice'. It illustrates the direction of the evolution of rights of nature and exposes the diverse meanings and practical uses of the concept of environmental justice in different jurisdictions, and their implications for the law, society and the environment. The term 'environmental justice' has different meanings to different scholars and is applied in many different contexts. For some, the focus is on equal distribution of the earth's benefits, with concern for the interests of the less wealthy, disadvantaged minorities, or indigenous peoples. For others, the focus is on the interests of the earth and nature itself. Additionally, for some, environmental justice is a framework for discourse, whilst for others it connotes specific legal principles and procedures. The application of these interpretations through the law involves diverse approaches and rules. In this timely book, expert contributors identify the meanings and the practical translations of environmental justice, reflecting the perspectives of academic, judicial and indigenous people from many countries. Among the issues considered are the rights of nature and its application through judicial practice, and approaches to respecting the laws, cultures and the rights of Indigenous peoples. This integrated exploration of the topic will provide an excellent resource for scholars, judicial officers and practitioners interested in environmental and social justice issues.
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