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The thoroughly revised second edition of this authoritative Handbook, complete with new chapters, comprehensively examines the current status and future directions of model-based systems in decision support and their application to sustainable development planning. The Handbook presents a full review of model-based applications in sustainable development planning, paying particular attention to environment disaster, ecosystem management, energy, infrastructure development, and agricultural systems, amongst other contemporary issues. Conceptual and policy oriented papers debate the future directions of model-based sustainable development planning. Given the rise in prominence of sustainable development planning in recent years, this Handbook will be invaluable to a wide-ranging audience including NGOs, planners, consultants, policymakers, and academics.
To understand modern principles of sustainable management and the conservation of wildlife species requires intimate knowledge about demography, animal behavior, and ecosystem dynamics. With emphasis on practical application and quantitative skill development, this book weaves together these disparate elements in a singlecoherent textbook for senior undergraduate and graduate students. It reviews analytical techniques, explaining the mathematical and statistical principles behind them, and shows how these can be used to formulaterealistic objectives within an ecological framework.
This third edition is comprehensive and up-to-date, and includes: Brand new chapters that disseminate rapidly developing topics in the field: habitat use and selection; habitat fragmentation, movement, and corridors; population viability. analysis, the consequences of climate change; and evolutionary responses to disturbanceA thorough updating of all chapters to present important areas of wildlife research and management with recent developments and examples.A new online study aid - a wide variety of downloadable computer programs in the freeware packages R and Mathcad, available through a companion website. Worked examples enable readers to practice calculations explained in the text and to develop a solid understanding of key statistical procedures and population models commonly used in wildlife ecology and management.The first half of the book provides a solid background in key ecological concepts. The second half uses these concepts to develop a deeper understanding of the principles underlying wildlife management and conservation. Global examples of real-life management situations provide a broad perspective on the international problems of conservation, and detailed case histories demonstrate concepts and quantitative analyses. This third edition isalso valuable to professional wildlife managers, park rangers, biological resource managers, and thoseworking in ecotourism.
This book describes and analyses necessities for a more resource-efficient world. It discusses solutions for a more sustainable use of natural resources, addressing decision-makers and experts from the fields of policy development, industry, academia, civil society, and the media. The book presents strategies, concrete ways and examples of achieving more sustainable resource use in practice. Following on from two previous titles published on Factor X by the Umweltbundesamt (German Environment Agency), entitled "Factor X: Policy, Strategies and Instruments for a Sustainable Resource Use" (2013) and "Factor X: Re-source - Designing the Recycling Society" (2014), this book further investigates how savings in natural resources and resource efficiency improvements could be achieved, focusing on good practice examples that cover different resource categories, pursue different efficiency strategies and come from different sectors, e.g. innovative products or services, technology, man agement approaches, systemic approaches, etc. The background against which this work is done has a highly comprehensive span, from the first Declaration of the Factor X Club in the nineties, to the European Commission's Roadmap to a Resource Efficient Europe that was published in September 2011, through to the German Federal government's German Resource Efficiency Programme (ProgRess I and II) in 2012 and 2016, the G7 Alliance for Resource Efficiency, and most recently the development and implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG).
This unique transdisciplinary publication is the result of collaboration between UNESCO's Local and Indigenous Knowledge Systems (LINKS) programme, the United Nations University's Traditional Knowledge Initiative, the IPCC, and other organisations. Chapters, written by indigenous peoples, scientists and development experts, provide insight into how diverse societies observe and adapt to changing environments. A broad range of case studies illustrate how these societies, building upon traditional knowledge handed down through generations, are already developing their own solutions for dealing with a rapidly changing climate and how this might be useful on a global scale. Of interest to policy-makers, social and natural scientists, and indigenous peoples and experts, this book provides an indispensable reference for those interested in climate science, policy and adaptation.
This book provides a first comprehensive legal examination of water rights arrangements and water rights trading in China. Although recent water reform in China has made substantial progress in policy development and practice, how its legal and institutional framework facilitates or hinders the application of tradable water rights remains less addressed in the existing scholarship. Against the backdrop of China's water reform and the wider international debate in water governance, this book aims to provide an innovative approach to the complex issue of water governance by critically analysing the recent legal and policy developments in China towards tradable water rights. It examines the deficiencies of the current systems for water rights arrangements and trading, explores how China may learn from and build on the international trends in water rights trading practice (mainly Australia and the US), and proposes legal and policy frameworks for defining and administering tradable water rights in China that underpin sustainable water use in the face of exacerbated water scarcity, variability, and uncertainty. All in all, the book proposes pragmatic strategies for China's water law and policy reform to move towards tradable water rights, which encompasses a comprehensive prescription from initialising and defining tradable water rights to administering water rights and trading. By reflecting on the deepening water reforms in both China and other jurisdictions, the book aims to contribute to the international water governance debate by exploring from a legal and policy perspective, how China, comparative to other cases around the world, can find a balanced combination of water allocation mechanisms to address its water challenges. It is hoped that the observations and proposed implications for China's water reform will contribute to developing a better understanding of the way in which experiences in water markets can be shared from jurisdiction to jurisdiction.
Economic development that meets the needs of the global population without jeopardizing the capacity of future generations is a worldwide challenge for Multinational Enterprises (MNEs). They are expected to balance their role as global economic actors and environmental stewards in the environment in which they operate. Contributors from India, Europe and the United States offer new perspectives, contrasting US, European and emerging economies' approaches to sustainability and how they can generate roadmaps which yield innovative solutions for one of the most contentious issues of our era. Their review suggests that the differential performance across developed and emerging economies has exposed potential weaknesses. Emerging Dynamics of Sustainability in Multinational Enterprises promotes greater emphasis on experimenting with unique local and sustainable approaches to solving problems faced by firms in, or from, emerging economies. This is a critical resource for researchers, practitioners and policy-makers concerned with sustainable development issues, and a fresh reference for graduate-level students and academics focusing on corporate governance, sustainable development and ethics as well as multinational enterprise management.
This book summarizes the research findings in regarding a region as a rational and abstract concept and explores the principles of regional science. Focusing on location theory, spatial dynamics and regional evolution theory, it stresses that the region as a scientific concept is an essential abstract of an economic entity of a place. While it introduces a number of case studies, the content is general and universal rather than specific. Beginning with location theory - the basis of regional science - it explains how regions breed their own characteristics as economic entities against a background of place. For example, it discusses the location theory of the tourism industry and analyzes issues of facility location and R&D-industry location theory. The second part of the book addresses interactions with the spatial dynamics, including the dynamic mechanism of regions against a background of space. Spatial dynamics, which includes concepts from statistical physics, provides insights into the dynamic mechanism of aggregation, diffusion, and industrial clustering in regional science as well as in geography and economics. The book then describes regional dynamics as a development of spatial dynamics: REGION is completely independent as a research object and is no longer part of spatial dynamics. This book also discusses in detail regions as the dynamic characteristics of the economy or the basic characteristics of a certain place and examines the theory of regional evolution. It argues that regions are evolution and irreversible features of development with path dependence, which are the characteristics of a region that differ from general economic phenomena. This book by Professor Zheng Wang is outstanding. Its focus on Regional Science will open this area up to a wide variety of theoretical and applied researchers. I recommend the work without reservations. It covers critically important principles in the field and should be read and used by students, faculty and applied researchers doing policy analysis. I can see this as an important handbook and reference work as well as a textbook in the field. Kingsley Haynes
This is the work of a man who has known and loved the Scottish Cairngorms for more than 30 years. Jim Crumley marries a poet's instincts to an uncompromising passion for the Cairngorm's arctic character, and for those wildlife tribes which thrive there. He marks nature's rhythms with thoughtful observations of bird and beast, flower and landscape. In the process he strives for a purer empathy with the wilds, seeks out the nourishing bond of man and landscape. Ultimately, the book asserts that the Cairngorms are nature's place. Crumley proposes a radical solution to safeguard the mountains from a threatening array of forces ranged against them. In his conclusion he invokes what Seton Gordon called "the spirit of the high and lonely places".
This book assesses the structure of projects under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. It explains why, instead of the expected bilateral structure where a company from an industrialized country invests in a project in a developing country and receives the emission reduction credits in return, a unilateral structure prevails whereby a company from a developing country finances the emission reduction project itself and sells the emission reduction credits. The book arrives at three fundamental, interconnected, conclusions: CDM is logically a unilaterally driven investment activity; CDM investment is an irrelevant compliance instrument for companies from industrialised countries and that this state of affairs is unlikely to change post 2012; and CDM thrives in less equal and less ambitious post-2012 climate regimes. Unique in its analysis of corporate views on investment in CDM projects, this book will find widespread appeal amongst climate policy analysts, company representatives involved in developing CDM acquisition strategies and climate policymakers. It will also be of interest to anyone involved in the study of climate change, emissions reduction and trading and carbon markets.
The Oxford Handbook of Humanitarian Medicine is a practical guide covering all aspects of the provision of care in humanitarian situations and complex emergencies. It includes evidence-based clinical guidance, aimed specifically at resource limited situations, as well as essential non-clinical information relevant for people working in field operations and development. The handbook provides clear recommendations, from the experts, on the unique challenges faced by health providers in humanitarian settings including clinical presentations for which conventional medical training offers little preparation. It provides guidance for syndromic management approaches, and includes practical guidance on the integration of context specific mental health care. The handbook goes beyond the clinical domain, however, and also provides detailed information on the contextual issues involved in humanitarian operations, including health systems design, priorities in displacement, security and logistics. It outlines the underlying drivers at play in humanitarian settings, including economics, gender based inequities, and violence, guiding the reader through the epidemiological approaches in varied scenarios. It details the relevance of international law, and its practical application in complex emergencies, and covers the changing picture of humanitarian operations, with increasingly complicated and chaotic contexts and the escalation of violence against humanitarian providers and facility. The Oxford Handbook of Humanitarian Medicine draws on the accumulated experience of humanitarian practitioners from a variety of disciplines and contexts to provide an easily accessible source of information to guide the reader through the complicated scenarios found in humanitarian settings.
Many dryland regions contain archaeological remains which suggest that there must have been intensive phases of settlement in what now seem to be dry and degraded environments. This book discusses successes and failures of past land use and settlement in drylands, and contributes to wider debates about desertification and the sustainability of dryland settlement.
Agriculture is becoming increasingly influenced by globalisation. The result is a more interconnected world where new forms of trade and cultural exchange can thrive on an international level. This novel Handbook provides insights to the ways in which globalisation is affecting the whole agri-food system, from farms to the consumer. The expert contributors cover themes including the physical basis of agriculture, the influence of trade policies, the nature of globalised agriculture, and resistance to globalisation in the form of attempts to foster sustainability and multifunctional agricultural systems. They present a state-of-the-art summary of current debates and provide a starting point for subsequent research into solutions aimed at addressing food insecurity, global hunger and uneven development. Drawing upon studies from around the world, the Handbook will appeal to a broad and varied readership, across academics, students, and policy-makers interested in economics, trade, geography, sociology and political science.
This major annual publication presents a comprehensive overview of cutting-edge issues in environmental and resource economics. The expert contributors address some of today's most pressing environmental concerns including: * pollution control policies * Graphical Information Systems (GIS) and spatial analysis * disclosure strategies for pollution control * environmental policy under imperfect competition * transport and the environment * optimal forest harvesting. The Yearbook is an essential resource for economists, scholars and practitioners working in environmental and resource economics.
Analytical Transport Economics opens with a critical examination and overview of the scope of transport economics. Next, the production of transport, travel demand, transport externalities and transport markets are thoroughly analysed. The distinguished group of contributors then examine transport policy, both regarding infrastructure and transport markets. Specific attention is paid to the role of government after deregulation and to the transport policy of the European Union. Transport infrastructure is also analysed in view of its effects on the wider economy. Finally, the role of transport in a number of more specific situations is considered, that is in an urban environment, in transitional economies and in developing economies. This book is a considerably revised version of the well-received European Transport Economics (1993), described as 'A book every transport scientist should have in his possession' - Professor Eddy Van de Voorde, University of Antwerp, Belgium. There are a number of new chapters, a few that had lost their usefulness over time have been omitted, and others have been thoroughly revised and updated. With its strong international focus, academics and advanced students of economics, transport economics and public policy as well as policymakers within government and private enterprise will find this book essential reading.
This timely book examines the role played by regional authorities in the EU in the transition towards renewable energy. Regional governments generally have important decision-making powers concerning energy transition, but they may encounter resistance to the establishment of renewable energy activities in their communities. Drawing on both academia and practice, the expert contributors explore some of the key legal questions that have emerged along the energy transition path. Specific attention is paid to support mechanisms, administrative procedures for authorizing renewable energy projects, including the relevance of procedural rights as set out in the Aarhus Convention, and opportunities for allowing citizens, particularly citizens living near renewable energy projects, participate financially in renewable energy production. Based on experiences in several Member States (Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the Netherlands) improvements to the content and application of the law are discussed. The book shows the complexities of renewable energy law, which will most likely become a controversial field of law in the near future. Providing a much-needed contribution to the literature, this is the first book to map legal questions around renewable energy from the perspective of local governments. It will have great appeal to scholars across both law and social sciences, as well as to practitioners in governments, NGOs and law firms.
In recent years a wide range of non-state certification programs have emerged to address environmental and social problems associated with the extraction of natural resources. This book provides a general analytical framework for assessing the emergence and effectiveness of voluntary certification programs. It focuses on certification in the forest and fisheries sectors, as initiatives in these sectors are among the most advanced cases of non-state standard setting and governance in the environmental realm. Paying particular attention to the Forest Stewardship Council and the Marine Stewardship Council, the author examines how certification initiatives emerged, the politics that underlie their development, their ability to influence producer and consumer behavior, and the broader consequences of their formation and spread. The analysis of the certification of forests and fisheries offers a wealth of insights from which to better understand the capacity of non-state governance programs to ameliorate global environmental problems. Containing a detailed review of the direct effects and broader consequences of forest and fisheries certification, this book will be warmly welcomed by scholars of environmental politics and corporate social responsibility, as well as practitioners involved in non-state certification programs throughout the world.
This book highlights rice and water resources security in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam - countries that share the international Mekong River, which is a source of both regional cooperation and conflict. It discusses the topography, population, economy, rice production and rice trade of these four riparian countries, and analyses the impacts of climate change, El Nino and La Nina, and the construction of Mekong mainstream dams on water resources and rice productivity. Further, this publication assesses the role of the Mekong River Commission, a river basin organization responsible for the sustainable development and water resource management of the Mekong, and examines regional cooperation frameworks such as the Lower Mekong Initiative, and the Mekong-Japan Summit. The book then explores the emerging role of China in promoting the Lancang-Mekong cooperation between China and Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam in developing the Mekong River Basin, which could determine the future water and rice security of the region.
The restoration of the Florida Everglades, the largest ecosystem restoration project in the world, is now underway. Missing from the original plan, however, is a study of the region's cities and farms and the economic impact their growth will make on this already endangered ecosystem. This book provides that analysis. Richard Weisskoff applies the widely-used Regional Economic Modeling Inc. (REMI) model to forecast the future of South Florida's six million-person, $300 billion economy. In addition, he supplies four significant pieces to the model, namely, detailed projections for agriculture, investment, tourism, and restoration spending. By integrating these and the results of a second economic modeling system (IMPLAN), he traces out three development paths for the region to the year 2030, and the demands for water and urban land required for each path. Also featured are the results of two land use/land cover surveys which are then used to measure the change in the value of ecosystem services in the Everglades region. The author provides an economic history of the region and statistically documents the transformation of the original Everglades into the sprawling cities and the sugar-citrus-cattle emporium, all of which share the same fragile ecosystem. The study concludes that the ultimate success of the restoration of the Everglades will depend on choices made regarding the future of the region's cities and farms. While the volume focuses on the Everglades, it serves also as a case study for other such restoration projects. Ecological and environmental economists, regional scientists, planning professionals, and government agencies will find this timely volume of great interest.
This book advances discussions of values in fisheries by showing the rich theoretical insights and connections possible when value is grounded in a multi-dimensional social well being approach. Questions of value have long been a central, if often unacknowledged, concern in maritime studies and in research on fisheries. Social scientists have looked at changing perceptions of value as coastal regions and fisheries have industrialized, economic interconnections have deepened, ecosystems have been depleted, shifts in population have occurred, and governance arrangements have been transformed. With a focus on the diverse ways in which small-scale fisheries are valued, the contributions to this volume address these and other themes through cases from numerous countries in Asia, Europe, and Latin America. "This volume provides a timely contribution to the development of new approaches that seek to capture the complexity of how fisheries can be understood beyond standard mo no-dimensional, and often economic, interpretations. Each chapter makes a clear and stand-alone contribution to conceptual and methodological advancement, and collectively these works cover a wide range of frameworks and schools of thought." Dr Sarah Coulthard, Senior Lecturer in International Development, Northumbria University, UK "The list of contributing authors [is] impressive and covers a wide geographical range of illustrative examples, [which] helps to demonstrate the global value of small-scale fisheries." Professor J. Allister McGregor, Professor in Political Economy, the University of Sheffield, UK
In August 2007 a Russian flag was planted under the North Pole during a scientific expedition triggering speculation about a new scramble for resources beneath the thawing ice. But is there really a global grab for Polar territory and resources? Or are these activities vastly exaggerated? In this rich and wide-ranging book, Klaus Dodds and Mark Nuttall look behind the headlines and hyperbole to reveal a complex picture of the so-called scramble for the poles. Whilst anxieties over the potential for conflict and the destruction of what is often perceived as the world's last wildernesses have come to dominate Polar debates and are, to some extent, justified, their study also highlights longer historical and geographical patterns and processes of human activity in these remote territories. Over the past century, Polar landscapes have been probed, drilled, fished, tested on and dug up, as their indigenous populations have struggled to protect their rights and interests. No longer remote places, or themselves 'poles apart' from one another, the contemporary geopolitics of the Polar regions has lessons for us all as we confront a warming world where access to resources is a concern for states, big and small.
Global Environmental Law at a Crossroads analyzes cutting-edge developments in environmental law around the globe. Written in the aftermath of the "Rio+20" conference, this book addresses environmental governance from the international, regional and national levels. The topics include climate change initiatives, market-based environmental measures, water and food systems management, environmental governance structures and theories, and examples of environmental policy innovations from around the world. The global coverage draws on experiences from the EU, the Middle East, China, Brazil, Ecuador, Nigeria, Ethiopia, New Zealand and Australia. This book will be a useful resource to scholars and students of environmental law and policy. Government and environmental officials as well as resource managers will find of interest the analyses of varied experiences around the world. These comparative experiences provide a rich introduction to the emerging field of global environmental law.
In this book Professors Pablo Mart nez de Anguita and John E. Wagner put two disciplines together, regional and ecological economics, presenting a way to understand ecological economic concerns from a regional perspective, and providing a mathematical tool to measure their interrelationships. This book offers different regional economic models that explicitly include the role of the natural resources and pollutants in economic regions through the use of Social Accounting Matrixes and Input-output models.
The main objective of this book is to explore Input-output and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) models by expanding the accounts to include natural resources and the environment. The proposed models in this book incorporate the forest and other natural resources and pollutants as a component in a larger model of how the economy and environment of larger areas interact. This book will be of interests to postgraduates, researchers and scientists in the fields of regional, resource, environmental, or ecological economics.
An increasingly competitive environment can lead to considerable problems for many organizations as they struggle to adapt to change. As a result, they fail to create the conditions that can lead to sustainable development over the long term, thus affecting the capabilities of employees. This book provides a fresh perspective on sustainable change and development in organizations, as well as a critical perspective on lean implementation, work environment and sustainability. The expert contributors address the development in, and of, organizations, as well as the development process between organizations, such as in networks or clusters. They discuss topics, such as the role of customers in the development of public organizations; developing knowledgeable practice at work; exploring evidence-based practice and the challenge of regional gender contracts. Undergraduates and postgraduates in different management fields including organizational theory, innovation, human resources, quality development and entrepreneurship will find this book to be of interest. The empirical results and interdisciplinary approach will appeal to practitioners and policy-makers at national, as well as international levels.
Exposure to Contaminants in Drinking Water: Estimating Uptake through the Skin and by Inhalation examines the current state of science in this field by identifying and reviewing the available information resources; evaluating various models and approaches; and demonstrating the feasibility of developing estimates of the distribution of absorbed doses of contaminants in drinking water through contact with the skin and by inhalation. This book, the product of a fifteen-member expert working group convened by the Risk Science Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, includes contributions from experts in exposure modeling and measurement; water chemistry; time-activity patterns; dermal and respiratory uptake; and the use of probability distributions in characterizing exposures.
The Little Book of Going Green aims to shed light on the ways humans are harming the environment, from pollution and deforestation to industrial production and farming methods. Filled with facts, theories and tips on how we can do our bit for the planet, this is your one-stop guide to making every aspect of your life earth-friendly.
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