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"Gene Therapy for Cartilage and Bone Tissue Engineering" outlines the tissue engineering and possible applications of gene therapy in the field of biomedical engineering as well as basic principles of gene therapy, vectors and gene delivery, specifically for cartilage and bone engineering. It is intended for tissue engineers, cell therapists, regenerative medicine scientists and engineers, gene therapist and virologists. Dr. Yu-Chen Hu is a Distinguished Professor at the Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University and has received the Outstanding Research Award (National Science Council), Asia Research Award (Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan) and Professor Tsai-Teh Lai Award (Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers). He is also a fellow of the American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) and a member of the Tissue Engineering International & Regenerative Medicine Society (TERMIS)-Asia Pacific Council.
Bioinspired concepts are becoming increasingly integrated into materials and devices intended for medical applications. Biological organisms evolve within specific environmental constraints, giving rise to elegant and efficient strategies for fabricating materials that often outperform man-made materials of similar composition. A main goal of the interdisciplinary field of bioinspired materials is to unlock the secrets of this process-the composition, processing, self-assembly, hierarchical organization, and properties of biological materials-and use this information to synthesize and engineer novel functional materials for a variety of practical applications. The authors are from a variety of scientific disciplines, including biology, biochemistry, chemistry, physics, materials science, mechanical engineering, and bioengineering. This book will appeal to readers interested in the cross-disciplinary fertilization of new ideas in this emerging field. The first volume of this book includes sections focused on the bioinspired approaches using biological macromolecules including poly(nucleic acids), polypeptides, and the derivatives. Both volumes cover the interdisciplinary fields of biological, synthetic, and the hybrid materials and describe their medical applications ranging from molecular to cellular levels.
Elastic Fiber Matrices: Biomimetic Approaches to Regeneration and Repair provides a comprehensive resource on the intrinsic and pathological aberrations of the complex process of elastic matrix assembly and/or variations thereof in different elastic tissue types, and on strategies to regenerate or restore lost elastin matrix, either in vitro or in vivo, including biomimetic elastin-like-peptides, gene therapy, drug delivery, tissue engineering (biomolecules, scaffolds, and mechanical stimuli), pharmacological approaches, elastin stabilization and preservation, stem cell therapy, allografts/xenografts, and synthetic/biological elastomers. Comprised of individual chapters contributed by leading researchers and scientists in the field, the text details current approaches for elastin matrix regeneration and repair, identifying their various advantages and limitations while offering valuable insight into emerging trends. Thus, this book is a must-have guide for academicians and industry professionals working in the areas of connective tissue biology, tissue engineering, dermal and cardiovascular biomaterials, and drug delivery.
This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual inspection of images and who wish to learn more about the diagnostic potential of quantitative and biophysics-based medical imaging markers and the challenges that the paucity of such markers poses for next-generation imaging technologies.
This unique book provides comprehensive overview of the field of immunology related to engineered nanomaterials used for biomedical applications. It contains literature review, case studies and protocols. The book can serve as a source of information about nanoimmunotoxicology for both junior scientists and experts in the field. The authors have more than 10 years of experience with preclinical characterization of engineered nanomaterials used for medical applications, and they share their experience with the readers. In addition, the international team of experts in the field provides the opinion and share the expertise on individual topics related to nanoparticle physicochemical characterization, hematocompatibility, and effects on the immune cell function . The second edition contains updated chapters from the first edition plus new chapters covering areas of tumor immunology, nanoparticle interaction with lymphatic system, mathematical modeling of protein corona, utilization of nanoparticles for the delivery of antiviral drugs, extensive analysis of nanoparticle anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties, novel ways of protecting therapeutic nanoparticles from the immune recognition, as well as case studies regarding nanoparticle sterilization, complement activation, protein binding and immunotherapy of cancer. The second edition comes in 3 volumes. Volume 1 is focused on nanoparticle characterization, sterility and sterilization, pyrogen contamination and depyrigenation. It also contains overview of regulatory guidelines, protocols for in vitro and in vivo immunotoxicity studies, and correlation between in vitro and in vivo immunoassays. Volume 2 is focused on hematocompatibility of nanomaterials. It provides comprehensive review and protocols for investigating nanoparticle interaction with erythrocytes, platelets, endothelial cells, plasma coagulation factors and plasma proteins forming so called 'corona' around nanoparticles. Volume 3 is dedicated to nanoparticle interaction with and effects on the immune cell function. It also contains examples of nanoparticle use for delivery of antiviral and anti-inflammatory drugs.
This book reviews drug delivery systems as mechanisms to introduce therapeutic agents into the body to help or improve tissue function, and examines different drug delivery systems applied in various organs. To date, polymeric systems, ceramic particles or composites have been used in different applications such as injectable, coatings of implants, scaffolds, or implantable devices. Such systems should be able to retain the therapeutic agent and release it in uniform amounts at a specific time.
Urologists have long used urinary stents in patients who have - or who are at risk of developing - an obstruction or blockage of the kidney. These rodlike devices are inserted into the ureter to keep the canal open or to help with healing after trauma, surgery or radiotherapy. More recently the use of stents for the prostate and urethra has also become more widespread, despite poor results in first generation models. Constant development has led to the introduction of second generation stents with a variety of designs, materials and coatings. These have gone a long way to counter the traditional side effects such as irritation, hematuria, infection and encrustation. Handbook of Urinary Stents has been written to provide urologists with a practical guide to the various new models for stenting. The book describes the various stents available; the criteria for their selection; their clinical application and potential complications of use. At the same time, the book provides thorough descriptions of relevant physiology and pathophysiology for those requiring deeper understanding of the subject. Key Points Provides a comprehensive, timely review for urologists needing an accessible guide to the range of stents available Chapters highlight the use of stents in special populations such as children and patients with transplanted ureter Emphasis on clinical complications following the use of stents and how to manage them effectively
This book discusses computer-supported medical diagnosis with a particular focus on ovarian tumor diagnosis - since ovarian cancer is difficult to diagnose and has high mortality rates, especially in Central and Eastern Europe. It presents the theoretical foundations (both medical and mathematical) of the intelligent OvaExpert system, which supports decision-making in tumor diagnosis. OvaExpert was created primarily to help gynecologists predict the malignancy of ovarian tumors by applying the existing diagnostic models and using modern methods of computational intelligence that accommodate imprecise and imperfect medical data, both of which are common features of everyday medical practice. The book presents novel methods based on interval-valued fuzzy sets and the theory of their cardinalities.
This timely book presents innovative technologies for use in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of brain disease. These technologies offer exciting possibilities in the medical field owing to their low-cost, portability and safety. The authors address cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, ischemia, haemorrhage, and vasospasm, these diseases having an ever-increasing societal relevance due to the global ageing population. The authors describe the potential of novel techniques such as microwave imaging and present innovative modalities for treatment of brain tumours using electromagnetic fields and nano-composites, as well as for monitoring brain temperature during surgery. Finally, Emerging Electromagnetic Technologies for Brain Diseases Diagnostics, Monitoring and Therapy addresses the perspectives which arise from multi-modal multi-spectral EM modalities, which make a synergic use of the different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This text will be of interest to readers from various different areas, given the fundamental interdisciplinarity of the subject matter. This includes researchers or practitioners in the field of electrical engineering, applied physicists, and applied mathematicians working on imaging applications for biomedical and electromagnetic technologies. Neurologists and radiologists may also find this book of interest, as may graduate students in these areas.
Adaptive Filtering Techniques for Remote Health Care Monitoring Systems aims to present a full picture of the state-of-the-art research and development of adaptive signal processing applications in various real-time applications. This book covers some important applications like MIMO, artifact removal, speech enhancement, beam forming, brain computer interface, genomic analysis, biomedical signal processing, healthcare technology, inter symbol interference cancellation, and others.It is certainly not the authors ambition to cover everything concerning adaptive filtering principles and applications. Rather, this edited book features the latest methodological, technical and practical progress on promoting the successful use of adaptive filtering principles and applications, which are more useful in the current day scenario. This book consists of ten chapters contributed by prominent researchers from throughout the world.The intended audience of this book will mainly consist of researchers, research students and practitioners in adaptive filtering and applications. This book is also of interest to researchers and industrial practitioners in areas such as algorithm developers, biomedical engineering, biomedical instrumentation, VLSI circuits design, and embedded systems. This edited book will present research outcomes on theoretical and technical issues related to real-time applications.The authors would like to convey their appreciation to all the contributors, including the accepted chapters authors, and many other participants who submitted their chapters that cannot be included in the book due to space limitation.
This volume is about ultra high-speed cameras, which enable us to see what we normally do not see. These are objects that are moving very fast, or that we just ignore. Ultra high-speed cameras invite us to a wonderland of microseconds. There Alice (the reader) meets a ultra high-speed rabbit (this volume) and travels together through this wonderland from the year 1887 to 2017. They go to the horse riding ground and see how a horse gallops. The rabbit takes her to a showroom where various cameras and illumination devices are presented. Then, he sends Alice into semiconductor labyrinths, wind tunnels, mechanical processing factories, and dangerous explosive fields. Sometimes Alice is large, and at other times she is very small. She sits even inside a car engine. She falls down together with a droplet. She enters a microbubble, is thrown out with a jet stream, and finds herself in a human body. Waking up from her dream, she sees children playing a game: "I see what you do not see, and this is....". Alice thinks: "The ultra high-speed rabbit showed me many things which I had never seen. Now I will go again to this wonderland, and try to find something new.
Built on a decade of experience with novel molecular diagnostics, this practice-oriented guide shows how to cope with validation issues during all stages of biomarker development, from the first clinical studies to the eventual commercialization of a new diagnostic test.
A significant portion of biomedical applications necessitates the establishment of an interface between the cells of the patient and the components of the device. In many cases, such as in implants and engineered tissues, the interaction of the cells with the biomaterial is one of the main determinants of the success of the system. Cell and Material Interface: Advances in Tissue Engineering, Biosensor, Implant, and Imaging Technologies explores this interaction and its control at length scales ranging from the nano to the macro. Featuring contributions from leading molecular biologists, chemists, and material scientists, this authoritative reference: Presents practical examples of cell and material interface-based applications Reflects the interdisciplinary nature of bioengineering, covering topics such as biosensing, immunology, and controlled delivery Explains the role of the cell and material interface in the context of cardiac and skin tissue engineering, nanoparticles, natural polymers, and more Cell and Material Interface: Advances in Tissue Engineering, Biosensor, Implant, and Imaging Technologies addresses concepts essential to biomaterial production methods and cell and material interactions. The book provides a solid starting point for elucidating and exploiting the different aspects of cellular interactions with materials for biomedical engineering.
In this book the recent progress accumulated in studies of the interaction of engineered nanoparticles with cells and cellular constituents is presented. The focus is on manufacturing and characterization of nanosized materials, their interactions with biological molecules such as proteins, the mechanisms of transport across biological membranes as well as their effects on biological functions. Fundamental molecular and cellular aspects are in the foreground of the book. A further particularity is the interdisciplinary approach, including fields such as preparatory and analytical chemistry, biophysics and the physics of colloids, advanced microscopy and spectroscopy for in-situ detection of nanoparticles, cellular toxicology and nanomedicine. Nanoscale particles are known to exhibit novel and unprecedented properties that make them different from their corresponding bulk materials. As our ability to control these properties is further advanced, a huge potential to create materials with novel properties and applications emerges. Although the technological and economic benefits of nanomaterials are indisputable, concerns have also been raised that nanoscale structuring of materials might also induce negative health effects. Unfortunately, such negative health effects cannot be deduced from the known toxicity of the corresponding macroscopic material. As a result, there is a major gap in the knowledge necessary for assessing their risk to human health.
This book explores how conditions for childbearing are changing in the 21st century under the impact of new biomedical technologies. Selective reproductive technologies (SRTs) - technologies that aim to prevent or promote the birth of particular kinds of children - are increasingly widespread across the globe. Wahlberg and Gammeltoft bring together a collection of essays providing unique ethnographic insights on how SRTs are made available within different cultural, socio-economic and regulatory settings and how people perceive and make use of these new possibilities as they envision and try to form their future lives. Topics covered include sex-selective abortions, termination of pregnancies following detection of fetal anomalies during prenatal screening, the development of preimplantation genetic diagnosis techniques as well as the screening of potential gamete donors by egg agencies and sperm banks. This is invaluable reading for scholars of medical anthropology, medical sociology and science and technology studies, as well as for the fields of gender studies, reproductive health and genetic disease research.
This is the first time that human organs, such as the heart, liver, kidney, stomach, uterus, skin, lung, pancreas and breast can be manufactured automatically and precisely for clinical transplantation, drug screening and metabolism model establishment. Headed by Professor Xiaohong Wang (also the founder and director) in the Center of Organ Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, this group has focused on organ manufacturing for over ten years. A series of technical bottleneck problems, such as vascular and nerve system establishment in a construct, multiple cell types and material system incorporation, and stem cell sequential engagement, have been overcome one by one. Two technical approaches have been exploited extensively. One is multiple nozzle rapid prototyping (RP), additive manufacturing (AM), or three-dimension (3D) printing. The other is combined mold systems. More than 110 articles and 40 patents with a series of theories and practices have been published consequently. In the future, all the failed organs (including the brain) in the human body can be substituted easily like a small accessory part in a car. Everyone can get benefit from these techniques, which ultimately means that the lifespan of humans, therefore, can be greatly prolonged from this time point. This book examines the progress made in the field and the developments made by these researchers (and authors) in the field.
This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.
This book deals with the adhesion, friction and contact mechanics of living organisms. Further, it presents the remarkable adhesive abilities of the living organisms which inspired the design of novel micro- and nanostructured adhesives that can be used in various applications, such as climbing robots, reusable tapes, and biomedical bandages. The technologies for both the synthesis and construction of bio-inspired adhesive micro- and nanostructures, as well as their performance, are discussed in detail. Representatives of several animal groups, such as insects, spiders, tree frogs, and lizards, are able to walk on (and therefore attach to) tilted, vertical surfaces, and even ceilings in different environments. Studies have demonstrated that their highly specialized micro- and nanostructures, in combination with particular surface chemistries, are responsible for this impressive and reversible adhesion. These structures can maximize the formation of large effective contact areas on surfaces of varying roughness and chemical composition under different environmental conditions.
Whole Body Vibrations: Physical and Biological Effects on the Human Body allows an understanding about the qualities and disadvantages of vibration exposure on the human body with a biomechanical and medical perspective. It offers a comprehensive range of principles, methods, techniques and tools to provide the reader with a clear knowledge of the impact of vibration on human tissues and physiological processes. The text considers physical, mechanical and biomechanical aspects and it is illustrated by key application domains such as sports and medicine. Consisting of 11 chapters in total, the first three chapters provide useful tools for measuring, generating, simulating and processing vibration signals. The following seven chapters are applications in different fields of expertise, from performance to health, with localized or global effects. Since unfortunately there are undesirable effects from the exposure to mechanical vibrations, a final chapter is dedicated to this issue. Engineers, researchers and students from biomedical engineering and health sciences, as well as industrial professionals can profit from this compendium of knowledge about mechanical vibration applied to the human body. Provides biomechanical and medical perspectives to understanding the qualities and disadvantages of vibration exposure on the human body Offers a range of principles, methods, techniques, and tools to evaluate the impact of vibration on human tissues and physiological processes Explores mechanical vibration techniques used to improve human performance Discusses the strong association between health and human well-being Explores physical, mechanical, and biomechanical aspects of vibration exposure in domains such as sports and medicine
The two volumes of this new edition of the Handbook cover the basic biological, medical, physical, and electrical engineering principles. They also include experimental results concerning how electric and magnetic fields affect biological systems-both as potential hazards to health and potential tools for medical treatment and scientific research. They also include material on the relationship between the science and the regulatory processes concerning human exposure to the fields. Like its predecessors, this edition is intended to be useful as a reference book but also for introducing the reader to bioelectromagnetics or some of its aspects. FEATURES * New topics include coverage of electromagnetic effects in the terahertz region, effects on plants, and explicitly applying feedback concepts to the analysis of biological electromagnetic effects * Expanded coverage of electromagnetic brain stimulation, characterization and modeling of epithelial wounds, and recent lab experiments on at all frequencies * Section on background for setting standards and precautionary principle * Discussion of recent epidemiological, laboratory, and theoretical results; including: WHO IARC syntheses of epidemiological results on both high and low frequency fields, IITRI lab study of cancer in mice exposed to cell phone-like radiation, and other RF studies * All chapters updated by internationally acknowledged experts in the field
Personal genome testing, gene editing for life-threatening diseases, synthetic life: once the stuff of science fiction, twentieth- and twenty-first-century advancements blur the lines between scientific narrative and scientific fact. This examination of bioengineering in popular and literary culture shows that the influence of science on science fiction is more reciprocal than we might expect. Looking closely at the work of Margaret Atwood, Richard Powers, and other authors, as well as at film, comics, and serial television such as Orphan Black, Everett Hamner shows how the genome age is transforming both the most commercial and the most sophisticated stories we tell about the core of human personhood. As sublime technologies garner public awareness beyond the genre fiction shelves, they inspire new literary categories like "slipstream" and shape new definitions of the human, the animal, the natural, and the artificial. In turn, what we learn of bioengineering via popular and literary culture prepares the way for its official adoption or restriction-and for additional representations. By imagining the connections between emergent gene testing and editing capacities and long-standing conversations about freedom and determinism, these stories help build a cultural zeitgeist with a sharper, more balanced vision of predisposed agency. A compelling exploration of the interrelationships among science, popular culture, and self, Editing the Soul sheds vital light on what the genome age means to us, and what's to come.
Increasingly, biomedical scientists and engineers are involved in projects, design, or research and development that involve humans or animals. The book presents general concepts on professionalism and the regulation of the profession of engineering, including a discussion on what is ethics and moral conduct, ethical theories and the codes of ethics that are most relevant for engineers. An ethical decision-making process is suggested. Other issues such as conflicts of interest, plagiarism, intellectual property, confidentiality, privacy, fraud, and corruption are presented. General guidelines, the process for obtaining ethics approval from Ethics Review Boards, and the importance of obtaining informed consent from volunteers recruited for studies are presented. A discussion on research with animals is included. Ethical dilemmas focus on reproductive technologies, stem cells, cloning, genetic testing, and designer babies. The book includes a discussion on ethics and the technologies of body enhancement and of regeneration. The importance of assessing the impact of technology on people, society, and on our planet is stressed. Particular attention is given to nanotechnologies, the environment, and issues that pertain to developing countries. Ideas on gender, culture, and ethics focus on how research and access to medical services have, at times, been discriminatory towards women. The cultural aspects focus on organ transplantation in Japan, and a case study of an Aboriginal child in Canada; both examples show the impact that culture can have on how care is provided or accepted. The final section of the book discusses data collection and analysis and offers a guideline for honest reporting of results, avoiding fraud, or unethical approaches. The appendix presents a few case studies where fraud and/or unethical research have occurred. Table of Contents: Introduction to Ethics / Experiments with Human Subjects or Animals / Examples of Ethical Dilemmas in Biomedical Research / Technology and Society / Gender, Culture, and Ethics / Data Collection and Analysis
This book provides an up-to-date analysis of the governance of biotechnology in post-Soviet Russia. The rapid advancement of the life sciences over the past few decades promises to bring tremendous benefits, but also raises significant social, ethical, legal, and security risks. Nations' adaptability to the twin challenges of attempting to secure the benefits while reducing the risks and threats is a large and still burgeoning governance challenge. Here, Novossiolova cuts across several sets of literature, bringing together elements of the anthropological study of culture; history of science and technology; management and international governance; and Soviet history and politics. Due to its multidisciplinary approach, in-depth analysis, accessible style, and extensive reference list, this text offers invaluable insights into the normative dimensions of the governance of biotechnology, unpacking both the formal and intangible attributes and artefacts of biotechnology policy and practice in Russia.
This volume focuses on smart medical and healthcare systems (modern intelligent systems for medicine and healthcare) and includes 31 papers presenting recent trends and innovations in medicine and healthcare, including biomedical engineering research and technologies; machine learning and labeling for biomedical visual data analysis and understanding; advanced ICT for medicine and healthcare; and healthcare support systems. Innovation in medicine and healthcare is an interdisciplinary research area, which combines advanced technologies and problem-solving skills with medical and biological science, and smart medical and healthcare systems can provide efficient and accurate solution to problems faced by healthcare and medical practitioners today by using advanced information communication techniques, computational intelligence, mathematics, robotics and other advanced technologies. Discussing the techniques developed in this area, which will have a significant effect on future medicine and healthcare, the book is a valuable resource for researchers, students, engineers, and professionals working in the fields of medical systems, medical technology, and intelligent systems.
Nanoindentation of Natural Materials: Hierarchical and Functionally Graded Microstructures provides a systematic introduction and review of state-of-the-art statistical hierarchical and functionally graded structures found in bone, teeth, hair, and scales, from a nanoindentation perspective, including detailed microstructure and composition. It covers the basics of hierarchical and functionally graded structures and nanoindentation techniques and detailed discussion with correlation micro/nano mechanical-structures The book includes practical issues backed with experimental data
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