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With development of implants and in vivo detection devices comes the complication of the interaction between the materials used in the devices and biological fluids. This book examines these interactions causing fouling in biosensors and the serious issue of thrombus formation. The chemistry of surface-protein and surface-cell interactions is considered, the coatings and strategies re the avoidance of fouling are compared and the expert contributors provide a comprehensive look at the physical chemistry of the implant surface and the fouling problem. Finishing with a discussion of the future for surface modified biosensors in point-of-care devices and microfluidic technologies, this book provides an important addition to the literature suitable for professional researchers in academia and industry and postgraduate students.
This book presents a state-of-the-art review of the latest advances in developing calcium- phosphate bone cements and their applications. It covers the synthesis methods, characterization approaches, material modification and novel binders, as well as the fabrication technologies of calcium-phosphate-based biomaterials in regenerative medicine and their clinical applications. It also highlights methodologies for fabricating scaffolds, biofunctional surfaces/interfaces and subsequently modulating the host response to implantable/injectable materials, and integrates a series of discussions and insights into calcium-phosphate cements and constructs in bone regenerative medicine. As such, the book not only covers the fundamentals but also opens new avenues for meeting future challenges in research and clinical applications.
This new book educates readers about new technologies before they appear in hospitals, enabling medical physicists and clinicians to prepare for new technologies thoroughly and proactively, and provide better patient care once new equipment becomes available. Emerging technologies in imaging, treatment planning, treatment delivery, dosimetry and informatics are all discussed. The book is divided into three parts: recently developed technologies available for practice; technologies under development nearing completion; and technologies in an early stage of development that could have potential radiotherapy applications. Features: Introduces emerging technologies in imaging, treatment planning, treatment delivery, dosimetry and informatics The advantages and limitations of each technology in clinical settings are discussed, and recommendations on how to adopt the technologies are provided Critiques and improvement points are provided for researchers, in addition to suggestions on how to prepare quality assurance are provided as needed
This brief book systematically discusses all subjects that affect the pullout strength of pedicle screws. These screws are used in spinal surgeries to stabilize the spine. The holding strength of the pedicle screw is vital since loosening of the pedicle screws can cause revision surgeries. Once the pedicle screw is pulled out, it is harder to obtain same stabilization for the fused vertebrae. The book reviews the effect of screw designs, application techniques, cement augmentation, coating of the screw and test conditions on the pullout strength. The studies with finite element analysis were also included.
This book explains how current medicines against cancer work and how we find new ones. It provides an easy-to-understand overview of current options to treat patients with cancer, which includes Surgery, Radiation therapy, Chemotherapy, Targeted therapy and Immunotherapy. The efficiency of all these treatments is limited by the capacity of cancer cells to escape therapy. This book explains the mechanisms of anti-cancer drug resistance and strategies to overcome it. The discovery and development process of a new drug is detailed beginning with the identification and validation of a therapeutic target, the identification of an inhibitor of the target and its subsequent preclinical and clinical development until its approval by regulatory authorities. Particular emphasis has been given to specific aspects of the development process including lead generation and optimization, pharmacokinetics, ADME analysis, pharmacodynamics, toxicity and efficacy assessment, investigational new drug (IND) and new drug application (NDA) and the design of clinical trial and their phases. The book covers many aspects of modern personalized oncology and discusses economic aspects of our current system of developing new medicines and its impact on our societies and on future drug research. The author of this book, Dr. Link counts with more than 20 years of experience in biomedical research reflected in numerous publications, patents and key note and plenary presentations at international conferences. Interested readers, students and teachers should read this book as it provides a unique way to learn/teach about basic concepts in oncology and anti-cancer drug research.
This book critically summarizes the effects of various suitable alloying elements and particulate reinforcements on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg and Mg alloys targeting biomedical applications. The suitability of alloying elements and particulate reinforcements are discussed based on their levels of toxic effects on human body. First attempt is made to study and discuss on the various available synthesizing techniques for fabrication of both impermeable and porous Mg materials. Further, more emphasis on development of new magnesium matrix nanocomposites (MMNC) is made owing to the similarities between natural bone and MMNCs as bio-"nanocomposite". The information on synthesis, toxicity of alloying elements and reinforcements and their effects on mechanical and degradation properties of pure Mg will enable the researchers to effectively design Mg alloys and composites targeting biomedical applications.
This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies.Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among the topics covered in-depth are:* The structure of cancer cells and their properties, as well as techniques for selective targeting of cancer and gene therapy.* Nanoplasmonics: Lorentz-Mie simulations of optical properties of nanoparticles and the use of plasmonic nanoparticles in diagnosis and therapy.* Nanophotonics: short and ultrashort laser pulse interactions with nanostructures, time and space simulations of thermal fields in and around the nanobioparticles, and nanoclusters heated by radiation.* Modeling of soft and hard biological tissue ablation by activated nanoparticles, as well as optical, thermal, kinetic, and dynamic modeling.* Detection techniques, including the design and methods of activation of nanodrugs and plasmon resonance detection techniques.* Design and fabrication of nanorobots and nanoparticles.* Effective implementation of nanotherapy treatments.* Nanoheat transfer, particularly the heating and cooling kinetics of nanoparticles.* ...and more!Each chapter contains a set of lectures in the form of text for student readers and PowerPoints for use by instructors, as well as homework exercises. Selected chapters also contain computer practicums, including Maple codes and worked-out examples. This book helps readers become more knowledgeable and versant in nanomedicine and nanotechnology, inspires readers to work creatively and go beyond the ideas and topics presented within, and is sufficiently comprehensive to be of value to research scientists as well as students.
This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.
An important guide that reviews the basics of magnetic biosensor modeling and simulation Magnetic Sensors for Biomedical Applications offers a comprehensive review of magnetic biosensor modelling and simulation. The authors--noted experts on the topic--explore the model's strengths and weaknesses and discuss the competencies of different modelling software, including homemade and commercial (for example Multi-physics modelling software). The section on sensor materials examines promising materials whose properties have been used for sensing action and predicts future smart-materials that have the potential for sensing application. Next, the authors present classifications of sensors that are divided into different sub-types. They describe their working and highlight important applications that reveal the benefits and drawbacks of relevant designs. The book also contains information on the most recent developments in the field of each sensor type. This important book: Provides an even treatment of the major foundations of magnetic biosensors Presents problem solution methods such as analytical and numerical Explains how solution methods complement each other, and offers information on their materials, design, computer aided modelling and simulation, optimization, and device fabrication Describes modeling work challenges and solutions Written for students in electrical and electronics engineering, physics, chemistry, biomedical engineering, and biology, Magnetic Sensors for Biomedical Applications offers a guide to the principles of biomagnetic sensors, recent developments, and reveals the impact of sensor modelling and simulation on magnetic sensors.
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
The second edition of Nanotechnology in Biology and Medicine is intended to serve as an authoritative reference source for a broad audience involved in the research, teaching, learning, and practice of nanotechnology in life sciences. This technology, which is on the scale of molecules, has enabled the development of devices smaller and more efficient than anything currently available. To understand complex biological nanosystems at the cellular level, we urgently need to develop a next-generation nanotechnology tool kit. It is believed that the new advances in genetic engineering, genomics, proteomics, medicine, and biotechnology will depend on our mastering of nanotechnology in the coming decades. The integration of nanotechnology, material sciences, molecular biology, and medicine opens the possibility of detecting and manipulating atoms and molecules using nanodevices, which have the potential for a wide variety of biological research topics and medical uses at the cellular level. This book presents the most recent scientific and technological advances of nanotechnology for use in biology and medicine. Each chapter provides introductory material with an overview of the topic of interest; a description of methods, protocols, instrumentation, and applications; and a collection of published data with an extensive list of references for further details. The goal of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most recent advances in instrumentation, methods, and applications in areas of nanobiotechnology, integrating interdisciplinary research and development of interest to scientists, engineers, manufacturers, teachers, and students.
Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering is a unique source for rapidly evolving updates on topics that are at the interface of the biological sciences and engineering. Biomaterials, biomedical devices and techniques play a significant role in improving the quality of health care in the developed world. The book covers an extensive range of topics related to biomedical engineering, including biomaterials, sensors, medical devices, imaging modalities and imaging processing. In addition, applications of biomedical engineering, advances in cardiology, drug delivery, gene therapy, orthopedics, ophthalmology, sensing and tissue engineering are explored. This important reference work serves many groups working at the interface of the biological sciences and engineering, including engineering students, biological science students, clinicians, and industrial researchers.
'Mechanotransduction' is the term for the ability, first described by 19th-century anatomist Julius Wolff, of living tissues to sense mechanical stress and respond by tissue remodeling. More recently, the scope of mechanotransduction has been expanded to include the sensation of stress, its translation into a biochemical signal, and the sequence of biological responses it produces. This book looks at mechanotransduction in a more restricted sense, focusing on the process of stress sensing and transducing a mechanical force into a cascade of biochemical signals. This stress has become increasingly recognized as one of the primary and essential factors controlling biological functions, ultimately affecting the function of the cells, tissues, and organs. A primary goal of this broad book is also to help define the new field of mechanomics, which attempts to describe the complete mechanical state of a biological system.
Consistently rated as the best overall introduction to computer-based image processing, The Image Processing Handbook covers two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, image printing and storage methods, image processing algorithms, image and feature measurement, quantitative image measurement analysis, and more. Incorporating image processing and analysis examples at all scales, from nano- to astro-, this Seventh Edition: Features a greater range of computationally intensive algorithms than previous versions Provides better organization, more quantitative results, and new material on recent developments Includes completely rewritten chapters on 3D imaging and a thoroughly revamped chapter on statistical analysis Contains more than 1700 references to theory, methods, and applications in a wide variety of disciplines Presents 500+ entirely new figures and images, with more than two-thirds appearing in color The Image Processing Handbook, Seventh Edition delivers an accessible and up-to-date treatment of image processing, offering broad coverage and comparison of algorithms, approaches, and outcomes.
This book highlights the recent advances in nanotheranostics from basic research to potential applications, and discusses the modular design and engineering of multiplex nanoparticles including gold nanostructures, luminescent nanoparticles, dendrimers and liposomes. Each chapter demonstrates multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy as new modalities for cancer theranostics. This comprehensive book presents expert views on the latest developments in theranostic nanomedicine. It focuses on potential theranostic applications of multifunctional nanoparticles ranging from identifying noninvasively cancer cells by molecular detection, and visualizing in vivo drug delivery by means of contrast enhanced imaging, to destroying cancer cell s with minimal side effects via selective accumulation at tumor sites, and real-time monitoring therapeutic effectiveness. It also presents an interdisciplinary survey of nanotheranostics and as such is a valuable resource for researchers and students in related fields. Zhifei Dai is a Professor at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Engineering, Peking University, China.
Robotic exoskeletons that allow stroke survivors to regain use of their limbs, 3D-printed replacement body parts, and dozens of other innovations still in schematic design are revolutionizing the treatment of debilitating injuries and nervous system disorders. What all these technologies have in common is that they are modeled after engineering strategies found in nature--strategies developed by a vast array of organisms over eons of evolutionary trial and error. Eugene Goldfield lays out many principles of engineering found in the natural world, with a focus on how evolutionary and developmental adaptations, such as sensory organs and spinal cords, function within complex organisms. He shows how the component parts of highly coordinated structures organize themselves into autonomous functional systems. For example, when people walk, spinal cord neurons generate coordinated signals that continuously reorganize patterns of muscle activations during the gait cycle. This self-organizing capacity is just one of many qualities that allow biological systems to be robust, adaptive, anticipatory, and self-repairing. To exploit the full potential of technologies designed to interact seamlessly with human bodies, properties like these must be better understood and harnessed at every level, from molecules to cells to organ systems. Bioinspired Devices brings together insights from a wide range of fields. A member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Goldfield offers an insider's view of cutting-edge research, and envisions a future in which synthetic and biological devices share energy sources and control, blurring the boundary between nature and medicine.
A comprehensive guide to the art and science of bioimaging data acquisition, processing and analysis Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis gets newcomers to bioimage data analysis quickly up to speed on the mathematics, statistics, computing hardware and acquisition technologies required to correctly process and document data. The past quarter century has seen remarkable progress in the field of light microscopy for biomedical science, with new imaging technologies coming on the market at an almost annual basis. Most of the data generated by these systems is image-based, and there is a significant increase in the content and throughput of these imaging systems. This, in turn, has resulted in a shift in the literature on biomedical research from descriptive to highly-quantitative. Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis satisfies the demand among students and research scientists for introductory guides to the tools for parsing and processing image data. Extremely well illustrated and including numerous examples, it clearly and accessibly explains what image data is and how to process and document it, as well as the current resources and standards in the field. * A comprehensive guide to the tools for parsing and processing image data and the resources and industry standards for the biological and biomedical sciences * Takes a practical approach to image analysis to assist scientists in ensuring scientific data are robust and reliable * Covers fundamental principles in such a way as to give beginners a sound scientific base upon which to build * Ideally suited for advanced students having only limited knowledge of the mathematics, statistics and computing required for image data analysis An entry-level text written for students and practitioners in the bioscience community, Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis de-mythologises the vast array of image analysis modalities which have come online over the past decade while schooling beginners in bioimaging principles, mathematics, technologies and standards.
Handbook of Vascular Motion provides a comprehensive review of the strategies and methods to quantify vascular motion and deformations relevant for cardiovascular device design and mechanical durability evaluation. It also explains the current state of knowledge of vascular beds that are particularly important for the medical device industry. Finally, it explores the application of vascular motion to computational simulations, benchtop testing and fatigue analysis, as well as further implications on clinical outcomes, product development and business.
This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual inspection of images and who wish to learn more about the diagnostic potential of quantitative and biophysics-based medical imaging markers and the challenges that the paucity of such markers poses for next-generation imaging technologies.
This book presents an overview of up-converting phosphor (UCP), including UCP preparation, development of the rapid detection strips and UCP industrialization. It also discusses the wide clinical applications of this technology, such as in food poisoning, infectious diseases, drug-abuse and disaster rescue, where rapid point-of-care testing is often critical. Conventional testing methods are mainly based on gold immunochromatography, which relies heavily on results being read with the naked eye. However, up-converting phosphor technology (UPT) employs UCP particles as labels for rapid target detection. Unlike other conventional fluorescence techniques, UCP is excited by infrared light and emitted visible light. This anti-stokes phenomenon provides this special label with significant advantages, including zero background detection, high resistance to environmental influences (e.g. pH, salts, sample contamination), high sensitivity and quantitative detection. Systematically summarizing UCP technology and its wide applications, this book is a valuable resource for researchers and technicians in the field.
Peptides serve as effective drugs in the clinic today. However the inherent drawbacks of peptide structures can limit their efficacy as drugs. To overcome this researchers are developing new methods to create tailor-made' peptides and proteins with improved pharmacological properties. Design of Peptides and Proteins provides an overview of the experimental and computational methods for peptide and protein design, with an emphasis on specific applications for therapeutics and biomedical research. Topics covered include: * Computer modeling of peptides and proteins * Peptidomimetics * Design and synthesis of cyclic peptides * Carbohydrates in peptide and protein design * De novo design of peptides and proteins * Medical development applications * An extended case study - the design of insulin variants Design of Peptides and Proteins presents the state-of-the-art of this exciting approach for therapeutics, with contributions from international experts. It is an essential resource for academic and industrial scientists in the fields of peptide and protein drug design, biomedicine, biochemistry, biophysics, molecular modelling, synthetic organic chemistry and medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry.
The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law. The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC - a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re-thinking the adopted solutions.
Atlas of Hematopathology: Morphology, Immunophenotype, Cytogenetics, and Molecular Approaches, Second Edition, will appeal to both a wide range of people undergoing training in a variety of medical fields and practicing non-hematopathologists. For clinicians, fellows and residents, correct diagnosis (and therefore correct treatment) of diseases depends on a strong understanding of the molecular basis for the disease, making this book a crucial resource. This atlas contains hundreds of high-quality color images that mirror the findings that fellows and clinicians encounter in practice. In addition, it provides information in a quick, simple and user-friendly manner, attracting both those in training and non- experts. Residents, fellows, practicing clinicians, and researchers in pathology, hematology and hematology/oncology will find this a useful resource.
MRI techniques have been recently introduced for non-invasive qualification of regional myocardial mechanics, which is not achievable with other imaging modalities. Covering more than twenty-three years of developments in MRI techniques for accessing heart mechanics, this book provides a plethora of techniques and concepts that assist readers choose the best technique for their purpose. It reviews research studies and clinical trials that implemented MRI techniques for studying heart mechanics.
This book summarizes the various microfluidic-based approaches for single-cell capture, isolation, manipulation, culture and observation, lysis, and analysis. Single-cell analysis reveals the heterogeneities in morphology, functions, composition, and genetic performance of seemingly identical cells, and advances in single-cell analysis can overcome the difficulties arising due to cell heterogeneity in the diagnostics for a targeted model of disease. This book provides a detailed review of the state-of-the-art techniques presenting the pros and cons of each of these methods. It also offers lessons learned and tips from front-line investigators to help researchers overcome bottlenecks in their own studies. Highlighting a number of techniques, such as microfluidic droplet techniques, combined microfluidics-mass-spectrometry systems, and nanochannel sampling, it describes in detail a new microfluidic chip-based live single-cell extractor (LSCE) developed in the editor's laboratory, which opens up new avenues to use open microfluidics in single-cell extraction, single-cell mass spectrometric analysis, single-cell adhesion analysis and subcellular operations. Serving as both an elementary introduction and advanced guidebook, this book interests and inspires scholars and students who are currently studying or wish to study microfluidics-based cell analysis methods.
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