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This volume provides updated, in-depth material on the application of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine. The aim of the book is to present solutions to the challenges and problems facing biology and medicine applications. This Volume comprises of 13 chapters, including an overview chapter, providing an up-to-date and state-of-the research on the application of intelligent optimization for bioinformatics applications, DNA based Steganography, a modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems, Optimization Methods for Medical Image Super Resolution Reconstruction and breast cancer classification. Moreover, some chapters that describe several bio-inspired approaches in MEDLINE Text Mining, DNA-Binding Proteins and Classes, Optimized Tumor Breast Cancer Classification using Combining Random Subspace and Static Classifiers Selection Paradigms, and Dental Image Registration. The book will be a useful compendium for a broad range of readers-from students of undergraduate to postgraduate levels and also for researchers, professionals, etc.-who wish to enrich their knowledge on Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine and applications with one single book.
Integrating basic to applied science and technology in medicine, pharmaceutics, molecular biology, biomedical engineering, biophysics and irreversible thermodynamics, this book covers cutting-edge research of the structure and function of biomaterials at a molecular level. In addition, it examines for the first time studies performed at the nano- and micro scale. With innovative technologies and methodologies aiming to clarify the molecular mechanism and macroscopic relationship, Nano/Micro Science and Technology in Biorheology thoroughly covers the basic principles of these studies, with helpful step-by-step explanations of methodologies and insight into medical applications. Written by pioneering researchers, the book is a valuable resource for academics and industry scientists, as well as graduate students, working or studying in bio-related fields.
This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics. This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.
This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently proposed signal processing tools and methods for addressing biological signals is included. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and expert practitioners but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
This book highlights the rapidly developing field of advanced optical methods for structural and functional brain imaging. As is known, the brain is the most poorly understood organ of a living body. It is indeed the most complex structure in the known universe and, thus, mapping of the brain has become one of the most exciting frontlines of contemporary research. Starting from the fundamentals of the brain, neurons and synapses, this book presents a streamlined and focused coverage of the core principles, theoretical and experimental approaches, and state-of-the-art applications of most of the currently used imaging methods in brain research. It presents contributions from international leaders on different photonics-based brain imaging modalities and techniques. Included are comprehensive descriptions of many of the technology driven spectacular advances made over the past few years that have allowed novel insights of the structural and functional details of neurons. The book is targeted at researchers, engineers and scientists who are working in the field of brain imaging, neuroscience and connectomics. Although this book is not intended to serve as a textbook, it will appeal to undergraduate students engaged in the specialization of brain imaging.
This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.
This volume presents the proceedings of the CLAIB 2014, held in Parana, Entre Rios, Argentina 29, 30 & 31 October 2014. The proceedings, presented by the Regional Council of Biomedical Engineering for Latin America (CORAL) offer research findings, experiences and activities between institutions and universities to develop Bioengineering, Biomedical Engineering and related sciences. The conferences of the American Congress of Biomedical Engineering are sponsored by the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering (IFMBE), Society for Engineering in Biology and Medicine (EMBS) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), among other organizations and international agencies and bringing together scientists, academics and biomedical engineers in Latin America and other continents in an environment conducive to exchange and professional growth. The Topics include: - Bioinformatics and Computational Biology - Bioinstrumentation; Sensors, Micro and Nano Technologies - Biomaterials, Tissue Engineering and Artificial Organs - Biomechanics, Robotics and Motion Analysis - Biomedical Images and Image Processing - Biomedical Signal Processing - Clinical Engineering and Electromedicine - Computer and Medical Informatics - Health and home care, telemedicine - Modeling and Simulation - Radiobiology, Radiation and Medical Physics - Rehabilitation Engineering and Prosthetics - Technology, Education and Innovation
Exploring the synthesis, characterization, surface manipulation, electron transfer and biological activity of silver nanoparticles, this book examines the fundamentals of the properties and synthesis of these particles. With a renewed interest in silver nanoparticles, this book addresses the need to understand their potential in industrial, medical and other applications. It is divided into six chapters, each written by an expert and providing a comprehensive review of the topic while detailing recent advances made in each specific area. These topics include surface plasmon band, synthesis and characterization, Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and plasmon resonance mediated processes, photocatalysis, biomedical applications and biological activity. It also presents the current state of the art, challenges and future trends of catalysis, sensing and biomedical applications.'Silver Nanoparticle Applications' provides an invaluable reference work and introduction for chemists, biologists, physicists and biomedical researchers who are interested in exploring the uses and applications of silver nanoparticles. It is also intended for students, researchers and professionals interested in nanotechnology.
This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2014 workshop on Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together scientists and clinicians in the field of computational spine imaging. The chapters included in this book present and discuss the new advances and challenges in these fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modeling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis. The book also includes papers and reports from the first challenge on vertebra segmentation held at the workshop.
This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students covers the fundamental relationships between the structure and properties of materials and biological tissues. The successful integration of material and biological properties, shape, and architecture to engineer a wide range of optimized designs for specific functions is the ultimate aim of a biomaterials scientist. Relevant examples illustrate the intrinsic and tailored properties of metal, ceramic, polymeric, carbon-derived, composite, and naturally derived biomaterials. Fundamentals of Biomaterials is written in a single voice, ensuring clarity and continuity of the text and content. As a result, the reader will be gradually familiarized with the field, starting with materials and their properties and eventually leading to critical interactions with the host environment. Classical and novel examples illuminate topics from basic material properties to tissue engineering, nanobiomaterials, and guided tissue regeneration. This comprehensive and engaging text: integrates materials and biological properties to understand biomaterials function and design provides the basics of biological tissue components and hierarchy includes recent topics from tissue engineering and guided tissue regeneration to nanoarchitecture of biomaterials and their surfaces contains perspectives/case studies from widely-recognized experts in the field features chapter-ending summaries to help readers to identify the key, take-home messages.
The book is a collection of peer-reviewed scientific papers submitted by active researchers in the 1st International Conference on Advancements of Medical Electronics (ICAME2015). The conference is organized jointly by the Department of Biomedical Engineering and Electronics and Communication Engineering, JIS College of Engineering, West Bengal, India. The primary objective of the conference is to strengthen interdisciplinary research and its applications for the welfare of humanity. A galaxy of academicians, professionals, scientists, statesman and researchers from different parts of the country and abroad got together and shared their knowledge. The book presents research articles of medical image processing & analysis, biomedical instrumentation & measurements, DSP & clinical applications, embedded systems & its applications in healthcare. The book can be referred as a tool for further research.
The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning.
The present volumeis devoted to cellular events that allow adaptation to environmental conditions, particularly mechanotransduction.It begins with cell organization and a survey of cell types in the vasculature and respiratory tract. It then addresses cell structure and functions, especially in interactions with adjoining cells and matrix."
Statistical Computing in Nuclear Imaging introduces aspects of Bayesian computing in nuclear imaging. The book provides an introduction to Bayesian statistics and concepts and is highly focused on the computational aspects of Bayesian data analysis of photon-limited data acquired in tomographic measurements. Basic statistical concepts, elements of decision theory, and counting statistics, including models of photon-limited data and Poisson approximations, are discussed in the first chapters. Monte Carlo methods and Markov chains in posterior analysis are discussed next along with an introduction to nuclear imaging and applications such as PET and SPECT. The final chapter includes illustrative examples of statistical computing, based on Poisson-multinomial statistics. Examples include calculation of Bayes factors and risks as well as Bayesian decision making and hypothesis testing. Appendices cover probability distributions, elements of set theory, multinomial distribution of single-voxel imaging, and derivations of sampling distribution ratios. C++ code used in the final chapter is also provided. The text can be used as a textbook that provides an introduction to Bayesian statistics and advanced computing in medical imaging for physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists. It is also a valuable resource for a wide spectrum of practitioners of nuclear imaging data analysis, including seasoned scientists and researchers who have not been exposed to Bayesian paradigms.
This book discusses the latest developments of the synthesis, preparation, characterization, and applications of nano/microstructure-based materials in biomedical and energetic fields. It introduces several popular approaches to fabricating these materials, including template-assisted fabrication, electrospinning of organic/inorganic hybrid materials, biomineralization-mediated self-assembly, etc. The latest results in material evaluation for targeted applications are also presented. In particular, the book highlights the latest advances and future challenges in polymer nanodielectrics for energy storage applications. As such, it offers a valuable reference guide for scholars interested in the synthesis and evaluation of nano/microstructure-based materials, as well as their biomedical and energetic applications. It also provides essential insights for graduate students and scientists pursuing research in the broad fields of composite materials, polymers, organic/inorganic hybrid materials, nano-assembly, etc.
This brief introduces recursive modeling techniques that take account of variations in blood glucose concentration within and between individuals. It describes their use in developing multivariable models in early-warning systems for hypo- and hyperglycemia; these models are more accurate than those solely reliant on glucose and insulin concentrations because they can accommodate other relevant influences like physical activity, stress and sleep. Such factors also contribute to the accuracy of the adaptive control systems present in the artificial pancreas which is the focus of the brief, as their presence is indicated before they have an apparent effect on the glucose concentration and so can be more easily compensated. The adaptive controller is based on generalized predictive control techniques and also includes rules for changing controller parameters or structure based on the values of physiological variables. Simulation studies and clinical studies are reported to illustrate the performance of the techniques presented.
This book reviews the latest biotechnological advances with pluripotent stem cells, exploring their application in tissue engineering and medicinal chemistry. Chapters from expert contributors cover topics such as the production of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), expansion, controlled differentiation and programming of pluripotent stem cells, and their genetic instability. Particular attention is given to the application of the pluripotent stem cells for vascularision of engineered tissue and for drug screening. This book will appeal to researchers working in regenerative medicine and drug discovery, and to bioengineers and professionals interested in stem cell research.
During the last years computational methods lead to new approaches that can be applied within medical practice. Based on the tremendous advances in medical imaging and high-performance computing, virtual testing is able to help in medical decision processes or implant designs. Current challenges in medicine and engineering are related to the application of computational methods to clinical medicine and the study of biological systems at different scales. Additionally manufacturers will be able to use computational tools and methods to predict the performance of their medical devices in virtual patients. The physical and animal testing procedures could be reduced by virtual prototyping of medical devices. Here simulations can enhance the performance of alternate device designs for a range of virtual patients. This will lead to a refinement of designs and to safer products. This book summarizes different aspects of approaches to enhance function, production, initialization and complications of different types of implants and related topics.
Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatomical structures, together with thorough evaluations of segmentation accuracy on clinical image data. As compared to related work, these fully automatic pipelines allow for highly accurate segmentation of benchmark image data.
This book presents the design, development and field trials of radio frequency based wireless monitoring system for sleep apnoea patients. It contains 4 major areas including general background of wireless monitoring technology and MIMO in wireless body area network (WBAN), microwave hardware designs, virtual MIMO in WBAN and hardware system level implementation and field trials. At components level, this book presents the design theory, process and examples of bandpass filters, lowpass filters, low profile patch antennas, power amplifiers and oscillators which are the key elements in transducer designs in the body area network and cooperative communication wireless sensor network system. At system level, this book features the hardware integration, field trial and network coding techniques. This book also gives a presentation of virtual MIMO applications, e.g. MIMO implementation using FPGA, correlation coefficient measurement. The book will create impact in the fields of wireless monitoring technology in biomedical engineering, which have been growing exponentially.
This book discusses various aspects of bioactive natural products employed in the agrochemical and agriculture sectors. It covers the use of plants, microorganisms, and microbial metabolites as eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable alternatives to chemicals in the field of agriculture. Written by active researchers and academics, the book highlights state-of-art products in the field, as well as the gaps, challenges, and obstacles associated with the use of plants, microbes and their products. Given its scope, it is a valuable resource for the scientific community and professionals in enterprises wanting insights into the latest developments and advances in the context of biological products, including their applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and strategies to harness their full potential.
This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the use of nanoscale materials for biomedical applications, with a particular focus on drug delivery, theragnosis and tissue regeneration. It also describes in detail the methods used in the preparation of nanoparticles. Response of nanoparticles in biological systems are also explored. Nanotechnology has led to the advent of a new field, nanomedicine, which focuses on the use of nanomaterials as drug-delivery vehicles to develop highly selective and effective drugs. The combination of molecular imaging and nanotechnology has produced theragnostic nanoparticles, which allow the simultaneous detection and monitoring of diseases. Nanotechnology can also be combined with biomaterials to create scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Further, significant advances have been made in the areas of drug delivery, theragnostic nanoparticles and tissue regeneration materials. Some nanomedicines and tissue regeneration materials are already commercially available, while others are undergoing clinical trials, and promising results have been documented. Despite the rapid advances in nanomedicine, there is a relative dearth of literature on the biomedical applications of nanoscale materials.
This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface design and interaction (accessibility, acceptance); social policies to encourage and support active aging; business models, market analysis and development of sustainable financing and business and ethics, privacy and data protection. Many experimental validations based on user trials and usability testing are presented and discussed. The knowledge and insights provided in this book will help researchers and others involved in AAL to understand relevant societal trends, novel technological developments and pressing challenges.
New computerized approaches to various problems have become critically important in healthcare. Computer assisted diagnosis has been extended towards a support of the clinical treatment. Mathematical information analysis, computer applications have become standard tools underpinning the current rapid progress with developing Computational Intelligence. A computerized support in the analysis of patient information and implementation of a computer aided diagnosis and treatment systems, increases the objectivity of the analysis and speeds up the response to pathological changes.
This book presents a variety of state-of-the-art information technology and its applications to the networked environment to allow robust computerized approaches to be introduced throughout the healthcare enterprise. Image analysis and its application is the traditional part that deals with the problem of data processing, recognition and classification. Bioinformatics has become a dynamically developed field of computer assisted biological data analysis.
This book is a great reference tool for scientists who deal with problems of designing and implementing processing tools employed in systems that assist the radiologists and biologists in patient data analysis.
In the past decades, interdisciplinary investigations overlapping biology, medicine, information science, and engineering have formed a very exciting and active field that attracts scientists, medical doctors, and engineers with knowledge in different domains. A few examples of such investigations include neural prosthetic implants that aim to improve the quality of life for patients suffering from neurologic disease and injury; brain machine interfaces that sense, analyze, and translate electrical signals from the brain to build closed-loop, biofeedback systems; and fundamental studies of intelligence, cognitive functions, and psychological behaviors correlated to their neurological basis. Although this interdisciplinary area is still in its infancy, it can potentially create some of the most significant impact: treating diseases that are considered untreatable, interpretation and communication of neuron ensembles, or even a revolutionary perception and understanding of life different from philosophical or immaterial approaches. Fortunately, several academic societies recognize the value and impact of this growing field, firmly supporting related research. Such support will drive a booming future in the next twenty or thirty years.
Research in this areais frequently project-driven, and the
generated knowledge has been scattered in different fields of
neuroscience, computation, material and technology, circuits and
system, clinical reports, and psychology the scope considerably
across the boundary of traditionally defined disciplines. "Neural
Computation, Neural Devices, and Neural Prosthesis" is intended to
assemble such knowledge, from there suggesting a systematic
approach guiding future educational and research activities. The
targeted audience includes both students and researchers.
This volume describes new frontiers in medical and service robotics in the light of recent developments in technology to advance robot design and implementation. In particular, the work looks at advances in design, development and implementation of contemporary surgical, rehabilitation and biorobots. Surgical robots allow surgeons greater access to areas under operation using more precise and less invasive methods. Rehabilitation robots facilitate and support the lives of the infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy. Biorobots are designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals. The need to substitute humans working on delicate, tiresome and monotonous tasks, or working with potentially health-damaging toxic materials, requires intelligent, high-performance service robots with the ability to cooperate, advanced communication and sophisticated perception and cognitive capabilities. Progress in this field is fast and results need to be disseminated to stimulate both practical applications and further research. Thus, these papers are a valuable addition to existing literature.
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