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This book contains the full papers presented at the MICCAI 2013 workshop Computational Methods and Clinical Applications for Spine Imaging. The workshop brought together researchers representing several fields, such as Biomechanics, Engineering, Medicine, Mathematics, Physics and Statistic. The works included in this book present and discuss new trends in those fields, using several methods and techniques in order to address more efficiently different and timely applications involving signal and image acquisition, image processing and analysis, image segmentation, image registration and fusion, computer simulation, image based modelling, simulation and surgical planning, image guided robot assisted surgical and image based diagnosis.
Recent advancements in nano/micro materials and related characterization approaches allow the design of a new type of ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) with enhanced multifunctional behaviour. This is chance is also supported by the recent achievements in modelling and signal processing. This book provides the state of art of the research activity of two successful European projects, TAMIRUT and SIGHT, addressing an integrated system, encompassing the contrast agent, the hardware equipment and the processing strategies, as a key tool for a combined diagnostic and therapeutic approaches (theranostics) in medical ultrasound. The work provides a highlight of the state of art in the research of novel ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). Main progresses on the multifunctional aspects of next-generation UCAs concern targeting and drug release properties, perfusion and biointerface behaviour, ultrasound scattering performance, signal processing, electronic equipment.
This book summarizes the properties and applications of conventional and commercially available fiber-forming, bioresorbable polymers, as well as those currently under study, for use as biotextiles. Factors affecting the performance of these biomaterials are presented, and precautionary measures to reduce premature, hydrolytic degradation during manufacturing and processing are discussed. Because of the structural requirements of medical devices and the technological advancements in synthetic fibers and textile technology, the new field of "Biotextiles" has evolved to exploit the potential of various woven, knitted, braided and non-woven textile structures for biomedical applications. Textile substrates provide certain unique mechanical properties to the medical device and because of an inherently high level of porosity, they can encourage cell growth and promote migration and proliferation. Bioresorbable devices that assist in the repair and regeneration of damaged tissues have in recent years replaced many of the permanent prosthetic devices. Thus, the topic of "Bioresorbable Biomaterials" generates much interest and research activity in the field of biomaterials science today. For this reason, the use of bioresorbable polymers as fibers is currently dominating the field of resorbable biomaterials for applications from sutures to tissue engineering scaffolds.
The book is the proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on NeuroRehabilitation (ICNR 2014), held 24th-26th June 2014 in Aalborg, Denmark. The conference featured the latest highlights in the emerging and interdisciplinary field of neural rehabilitation engineering and identified important healthcare challenges the scientific community will be faced with in the coming years. Edited and written by leading experts in the field, the book includes keynote papers, regular conference papers, and contributions to special and innovation sessions, covering the following main topics: neuro-rehabilitation applications and solutions for restoring impaired neurological functions; cutting-edge technologies and methods in neuro-rehabilitation; and translational challenges in neuro-rehabilitation. Thanks to its highly interdisciplinary approach, the book will not only be a highly relevant reference guide for academic researchers, engineers, neurophysiologists, neuroscientists, physicians and physiotherapists working at the forefront of their field, but will also help to act as bridge between the scientific, engineering and medical communities.
Novel Optical Nanoprobes for Chemical and Biological Analysis starts with a brief introduction to several kinds of versatile nanomaterials with novel optical properties, such as gold/silver nanoparticles, quantum dots, upconversion nanoparticles and graphene. It mainly focuses on the latest sensor design strategies, which apply the optical properties of nanomaterials to various detection techniques including colorimetry, fluorescence, and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). These sensors are attractive owing to their high sensitivity, high specificity, and potential for easy quantification of targets in many applications, such as conventional chemical and biological analysis, clinical diagnosis, and intracellular system sensing as well as single-molecule detection. The challenges and future perspectives for optical nanoprobes are also presented, such as the increase in sensitivity for real environmental and clinical samples, the design and application of multifunctional nanoplatforms, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials.
Water and moisture undermine strong adhesion to polar surfaces. Marine mussels, however, achieve durable underwater adhesion using a suite of proteins that are peculiar in having high levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa). Mussel adhesion has inspired numerous studies on developing the next generation of wet adhesives. This thesis presents recent progress in understanding the basic surface and intermolecular interactions employed by mussels to achieve strong and durable wet adhesion. The surface forces apparatus (SFA) and various other techniques were applied to measure the interactions between mussel foot protein-3 "fast" (Mfp-3 "fast") and the model substrate, mica, as well as the interactions between various mussel adhesive proteins.The results in this thesis show that Dopa plays an essential role in mussel adhesion and that mussels delicately control the interfacial redox environment to achieve strong and durable Dopa mediated adhesion. The interplay between Dopa and hydrophobic interactions is also evident in mussel adhesion."
This volume describes new frontiers in medical and service robotics in the light of recent developments in technology to advance robot design and implementation. In particular, the work looks at advances in design, development and implementation of contemporary surgical, rehabilitation and biorobots. Surgical robots allow surgeons greater access to areas under operation using more precise and less invasive methods. Rehabilitation robots facilitate and support the lives of the infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy. Biorobots are designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals. The need to substitute humans working on delicate, tiresome and monotonous tasks, or working with potentially health-damaging toxic materials, requires intelligent, high-performance service robots with the ability to cooperate, advanced communication and sophisticated perception and cognitive capabilities. Progress in this field is fast and results need to be disseminated to stimulate both practical applications and further research. Thus, these papers are a valuable addition to existing literature.
Yulia Levakhina gives an introduction to the major challenges of image reconstruction in Digital Tomosynthesis (DT), particularly to the connection of the reconstruction problem with the incompleteness of the DT dataset. The author discusses the factors which cause the formation of limited angle artifacts and proposes how to account for them in order to improve image quality and axial resolution of modern DT. The addressed methods include a weighted non-linear back projection scheme for algebraic reconstruction andnovel dual-axis acquisition geometry. All discussed algorithms and methods are supplemented by detailed illustrations, hints for practical implementation, pseudo-code, simulation results and real patient case examples."
Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world PDE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving partial differential equations (PDEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-world PDE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce and extend the computed numerical solutions and is a valuable resource for dealing with a broad class of linear and nonlinear partial differential equations. The author s primary focus is on models expressed as systems of PDEs, which generally result from including spatial effects so that the PDE dependent variables are functions of both space and time, unlike ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems that pertain to time only. As such, the book emphasizes details of the numerical algorithms and how the solutions were computed. Featuring computer-based mathematical models for solving real-world problems in the biological and biomedical sciences and engineering, the book also includes: * R routines to facilitate the immediate use of computation for solving differential equation problems without having to first learn the basic concepts of numerical analysis and programming for PDEs * Models as systems of PDEs and associated initial and boundary conditions with explanations of the associated chemistry, physics, biology, and physiology * Numerical solutions of the presented model equations with a discussion of the important features of the solutions * Aspects of general PDE computation through various biomedical science and engineering applications Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Partial Differential Equation Applications with R is an excellent reference for researchers, scientists, clinicians, medical researchers, engineers, statisticians, epidemiologists, and pharmacokineticists who are interested in both clinical applications and interpretation of experimental data with mathematical models in order to efficiently solve the associated differential equations. The book is also useful as a textbook for graduate-level courses in mathematics, biomedical science and engineering, biology, biophysics, biochemistry, medicine, and engineering.
This proceedings volume explores a range of sports-related topics, including sports science, exercise, sports engineering and technology, in contributions prepared by respected experts and presented at the 3rd International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology (ICoSSEET2016). The goal of the conference was to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to address current challenges in various sports-related areas, and to establish vital new collaborations. The topics covered can be primarily divided into (1) Sports Science and Exercise, (2) Sports Engineering and Technology Application, and (3) Sports Industry and Management.
Marlitt Erbe provides a detailed introduction into the young research field of Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) and field free line (FFL) imaging in particular. She derives a mathematical description of magnetic field generation for FFL imaging in MPI. To substantiate the simulation studies on magnetic FFL generation with a proof-of-concept, the author introduces the FFL field demonstrator, which provides the world s first experimentally generated rotated and translated magnetic FFL field complying with the requirements for FFL reconstruction. Furthermore, she proposes a scanner design of considerably enhanced magnetic field quality and efficiency. The author discusses the influence of magnetic field quality optimization on the image quality achieved using efficient Radon-based reconstruction methods, which arise for a line detection scheme and based on this optimized design, presents a dynamic FFL scanner assembly."
This book first describes medical devices in relation to regenerative medicine before turning to a more specific topic: artificial heart technologies. Not only the pump mechanisms but also the bearing, motor mechanisms, and materials are described, including expert information. Design methods are described to enhance hemocompatibility: main concerns are reduction of blood cell damage and protein break, as well as prevention of blood clotting. Regulatory science from R&D to clinical trials is also discussed to verify the safety and efficacy of the devices.
This book offers a new, practical approach to healthcare reform. Departing from the priorities applied in traditional approaches, it instead assesses - both theoretically and practically - the successful lessons learned in other safety-critical industries, and applies them to healthcare settings. The authors focus on the importance of human factors and performance measures to establish proactive, systematic methods for healthcare system design. This approach helps to identify potential hazards before accidents occur, enhancing patient safety. In addition, the book details the new approach on the basis of real-world applications in the NHS and insights from NHS staff. Case studies and results are presented, demonstrating the significant improvements that can be achieved in risk reduction and safety culture. Lastly, the book outlines what steps healthcare organisations need to take in order to successfully adopt this new approach. The approach and experiential learning is brought together through the development of a new holistic patient safety education syllabus.
This book provides an overview of biomedical applications in sports, including reviews of the current state-of-the art methodologies and research areas. Basic principles with specific case studies from different types of sports and suggested student activities or homework type problems are included. Equipment design and manufacturing, quantitative evaluation methods, and sports medicine are given special focus. It can be used as a textbook in a sports technology or sports engineering program, and is also ideal for graduate students and researchers in biomedical engineering, physics, and sports physiology, as well as professional athletes and coaches interested in gaining a deeper understanding of biomechanics and exercise physiology to improve athletic performance.
For physicians and therapists working with paraplegic patients, this work outlines a FES rehabilitation programme for limited unbraced walking with a walker. Based on 12 years of development and testing, it provides patient data, acceptance criteria, medical observations and training outcomes.
The Use of Mass Spectrometry Technology (MALDI-TOF) in Clinical Microbiology presents the state-of the-art for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It is a key reference defining how MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry is used in clinical settings as a diagnostic tool of microbial identification and characterization that is based on the detection of a mass of molecules. The book provides updated applications of MALDI-TOF techniques in clinical microbiology, presenting the latest information available on a technology that is now used for rapid microbial identification at relatively low cost, thus offering an alternative to conventional laboratory diagnosis and proteomic identification systems. Although the main use of the technology has, until now, been identification or typing of bacteria from a positive culture, applications in the field of virology, mycology, microbacteriology and resistances are opening up new opportunities.
Nanobiomaterials in Soft Tissue Engineering brings together recent developments and the latest approaches in the field of soft tissue engineering at the nanoscale, offering a new perspective on the evolution of current and future applications. Leading researchers from around the world present the latest research and share new insights. This book covers the major conventional and unconventional fabrication methods of typical three-dimensional scaffolds used in regenerative medicine. Surface modification and spatial properties are included in an up-to-date overview, with the latest in vivo applications of engineered 3D scaffolds discussed. The book also considers the impact, advantages and future scope of the various methods. This book will be of interest to postdoctoral researchers, professors and students engaged in the fields of materials science, biotechnology and applied chemistry. It will also be highly valuable to those working in industry, including pharmaceutics and biotechnology companies, medical researchers, biomedical engineers and advanced clinicians.
This handbook describes several current trends in the development of bioceramics and biocomposites for clinical use in the repair, remodelling, and regeneration of bone tissue. Comprehensive coverage of these materials allows fundamental aspects of the science and engineering to be seen in close relation to the clinical performance of dental and orthopaedic implants. Bioceramics and biocomposites appear to be the most dynamic area of materials development for both tissue engineering and implantable medical devices. Almost all medical specialties will continue to benefit from these developments, but especially dentistry and orthopaedics. In this Handbook, leading researchers describe the use of bionanomaterials to create new functionalities when interfaced with biological molecules or structures. Also described are technologies for bioceramics and biocomposites processing in order to fabricate medical devices for clinical use. Another important section of the book is dedicated to tissue regeneration with development of new matrices. A targeted or personalized treatment device reduces drug consumption and treatment expenses, resulting in benefits to the patient and cost reductions for public health systems. This authoritative reference on the state-of-the-art in the development and use of bioceramics and biocomposites can also serve as the basis of instructional course lectures for audiences ranging from advanced undergraduate students to post-graduates in materials science and engineering and biomedical engineering.
Numerical PDE Analysis of Retinal Neovascularization Mathematical Model Computer Implementation in R provides a methodology for the analysis of neovascularization (formation of blood capillaries) in the retina. It describes the starting point-a system of three partial differential equations (PDEs)-that define the evolution of (1) capillary tip density, (2) blood capillary density and (3) concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the retina as a function of space (distance along the retina), x, and time, t, the three PDE dependent variables for (1), (2) and (3), and designated as u1(x, t), u2(x, t), u3(x, t), amongst other topics.
The Social Validity Manual: Subjective Evaluation of Interventions, Second Edition, provides background on the development of social validity, an overview of current research in social validity, and guidelines for expanding the practice of social validation within numerous specialized fields of expertise. The book offers detailed information on scales and methods for measuring social validity across the goals, procedures and effects of treatments utilized in various fields. This second edition incorporates recent research findings and offers two new chapters on the use of social validity in the health sciences and how social validity plays an important role in increasing cultural awareness. Information included in this book has far reaching value as research and application of ABA contribute to a wide range of practical areas, including AIDS prevention, education, gerontology, language acquisition and parenting.
This book discusses the methods synthesizing various carbon materials, like graphite, carbon blacks, carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. It also details different functionalization and modification processes used to improve the properties of these materials and composites. From a geometrical-structural point of view, it examines different properties of the composites, such as mechanical, electrical, dielectric, thermal, rheological, morphological, spectroscopic, electronic, optical, and toxic, and describes the effects of carbon types and their geometrical structure on the properties and applications of composites.
This practical book introduces many signal analysis techniques with an emphasis on biomedical applications. An essential guide for engineers, computer scientists, information technologists, medical physicists, and data-processing specialists, the book illustrates problems with real-life case studies, then follows with both simple and sophisticated signal processing, modeling, or analysis techniques. Coverage includes methods for monitoring sleep apnea, infant crying, and analysis of breath, lung, and swallowing sounds, and speech/vocal pathology. Methods and examples for pattern classification are also included.
Functional Polysaccharides for Biomedical Applications examines the fundamentals and properties of these natural materials and their potential biomedical applications. With an emphasis on therapeutic and sensing applications, the book also reviews how polysaccharides can be modified for tissue engineering applications. Sections discuss the basics of polysaccharides, give an overview of the potential applications, look at novel materials and technologies for use in tissue regeneration and therapeutics, and detail current biomedical applications. With a strong focus on materials, engineering and applications, this book is a valuable resource for those with an interest in harnessing the biomedical potential of natural polymers.
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