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This book explains how the biological systems and their functions are driven by genetic information stored in the DNA, and their expression driven by different factors. The soft computing approach recognizes the different patterns in DNA sequence and try to assign the biological relevance with available information.The book also focuses on using the soft-computing approach to predict protein-protein interactions, gene expression and networks. The insights from these studies can be used in metagenomic data analysis and predicting artificial neural networks.
Enhanced, more reliable, and better understood than in the past, artificial intelligence (AI) systems can make providing healthcare more accurate, affordable, accessible, consistent, and efficient. However, AI technologies have not been as well integrated into medicine as predicted. In order to succeed, medical and computational scientists must develop hybrid systems that can effectively and efficiently integrate the experience of medical care professionals with capabilities of AI systems. After providing a general overview of artificial intelligence concepts, tools, and techniques, Medical Applications of Artificial Intelligence reviews the research, focusing on state-of-the-art projects in the field. The book captures the breadth and depth of the medical applications of artificial intelligence, exploring new developments and persistent challenges.
This book provides an expert view into the current technologies that are revolutionizing the field of solid organ transplantation. This unique book provides insight into progress made in areas spanning robotic surgery to tissue engineering and also gives a glimpse into what may lie ahead for this innovative specialty. Topics covered include nanotherapy, machine perfusion, artificial organ development, robotics in transplant surgery, mobile health technology, stem cell therapy, and ex vivo repair of organs. This is an ideal book for biomedical engineers, physicians and surgeons, general and transplant surgeons, medical students, medical and surgical trainees, and transplant procurement technicians.
This book discusses vegetable oil based biolubricants and their applications in the power distribution industry. Vegetable oil based lubricants offer significant advantages over petroleum-based lubricants, including biodegradability, cost-effectiveness, renewability, and lower environmental effects. This book provides a detailed literature survey of modified vegetable oils. It discusses the physical and chemical properties of vegetable oil, and their effects on its applications in tribology. The book discusses additives and enhancements to make vegetable oils suitable for use as lubricating oils and transformer oils in power plants and power distribution grids. The contents of the book will be useful to researchers and professionals as well as policy makers and standards agencies.
This book covers the fundamentals of sensor technologies as well as the recent research for the development of environmental, chemical and medical sensor technologies. Chapters include current research on microflow cytometry, microfluidic devices, colorimetric sensors, and the development of low-cost optical densitometric sensors and paper based analytical devices for environmental and biomedical applications. Special focus has been given to nanotechnology and nanostructures- their fabrication, uses and utility in different fields of research such as for the design of tools for medical diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as for detection and estimation of pollutant levels in water and air quality monitoring. This book is intended as a resource for researchers working in the field of sensor development across the world.
This book presents a state-of-the-art review of the latest advances in developing calcium- phosphate bone cements and their applications. It covers the synthesis methods, characterization approaches, material modification and novel binders, as well as the fabrication technologies of calcium-phosphate-based biomaterials in regenerative medicine and their clinical applications. It also highlights methodologies for fabricating scaffolds, biofunctional surfaces/interfaces and subsequently modulating the host response to implantable/injectable materials, and integrates a series of discussions and insights into calcium-phosphate cements and constructs in bone regenerative medicine. As such, the book not only covers the fundamentals but also opens new avenues for meeting future challenges in research and clinical applications.
This edited book, is a collection of 25 chapters describing the recent advancements in the application of microbial technology in the food and pharmacology sector. The main focus of this book is application of microbes, food preservation techniques utilizing microbes, probiotics, seaweeds, algae, enzymatic abatement of urethane in fermentation of beverages, bioethanol production, pesticides, probiotic biosurfactants, drought tolerance, synthesis of application of oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment, microbe based metallic nanoparticles, agro chemicals, endophytes, metabolites, antibiotics etc. This book highlighted the significant aspects of the vast subject area of microbial biotechnology and their potential applications in food and pharmacology with various topics from eminent experts around the World. This book would serve as an excellent reference book for researchers and students in the Food Science, Food Biotechnology, Microbiology and Pharmaceutical fields.
Importance of herbs (medicinal plants) can hardly be overemphasized. They are exploited for manyfold applications, ranging from phytopharmaceuticals, to nutraceuticals, to cosmetics and many others. Keeping in view the richness of herbs and their vast potential, this book collates the most up-to-date knowledge of important herbs and herbals. The book also gives an overview of some issues causing hindrance in the promotion of herbals. This book attempts to compile the rich experience of experts working on various herbs. New age single plant species, having multiple medicinal traits worth exploiting i.e. Hippophae rhamnoides (seabuckthorn), and Morinda citrifolia (noni) also find place as full chapters in the book.
This book describes the principles and applications of the spherical crystallization technique, from the standpoint of its inventor. After an introduction on the history of particle design engineering and nanotechnology, the concept of spherical crystallization itself is clearly explained. Attention then turns to the application of spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical processes. It is explained how the technique can provide physicochemical properties suitable for direct tableting of active pharmaceutical ingredients and how it has enabled the development of a novel particulate design platform from single to complex system. Subsequent chapters describe the roles of polymeric spherical crystallization in the preparation of novel microspheres, microballoons for drug delivery systems (DDS) and the development of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres. The various applications of PLGA nanospheres composite within oral-, pulmonary-, transdermal DDS and cosmetics are fully discussed. Finally, future perspectives are presented on use of the technology in the design and industrial-scale manufacture of new drug delivery systems, highlighting how a continuous pharmaceutical process that meets US Food and Drug Administration quality requirements should soon be introduced.
This book covers the latest advances, applications, and challenges in orthopedic biomaterials. Topics covered include materials for orthopedic applications, including nanomaterials, biomimetic materials, calcium phosphates, polymers, biodegradable metals, bone grafts/implants, and biomaterial-mediated drug delivery. Absorbable orthopedic biomaterials and challenges related to orthopedic biomaterials are covered in detail. This is an ideal book for graduate and undergraduate students, researchers, and professionals working with orthopedic biomaterials and tissue engineering. This book also: Describes biodegradable metals for orthopedic applications, such as Zn-based medical implants Thoroughly covers various materials for orthopedic applications, including absorbable orthopedic biomaterials with a focus on polymers Details the state-of-the-art research on orthopedic nanomaterials and nanotechnology
Known as the bible of biomedical engineering, The Biomedical Engineering Handbook, Fourth Edition, sets the standard against which all other references of this nature are measured. As such, it has served as a major resource for both skilled professionals and novices to biomedical engineering. Medical Devices and Human Engineering, the second volume of the handbook, presents material from respected scientists with diverse backgrounds in biomedical sensors, medical instrumentation and devices, human performance engineering, rehabilitation engineering, and clinical engineering. More than three dozen specific topics are examined, including optical sensors, implantable cardiac pacemakers, electrosurgical devices, blood glucose monitoring, human-computer interaction design, orthopedic prosthetics, clinical engineering program indicators, and virtual instruments in health care. The material is presented in a systematic manner and has been updated to reflect the latest applications and research findings.
Engineering 3D Tissue Test Systems provides an introduction to, and unique coverage of, a rapidly evolving area in biomaterials engineering. It reveals the current and future research responses, the current and future diagnostic applications, and provides a comprehensive overview to foster innovation. It offers insight into the importance of 3D systems and their use as benchtop models, spanning applications from basic scientific research to clinical diagnostics. Methods and limitations of building 3D tissue structures are evaluated, with attention given to the cellular, polymeric, and fabrication instrumentation components. The book covers the important aspects of polymeric tissue test systems, highlighting the needs and constraints of the industry, and includes a chapter on regulatory and pricing issues.
There has been enormous growth in the use of medical implants. However, in the case of hip replacement, loosening of metallic prosthesis fixed with polymethylmethylacrylate bone cement has resulted in painstaking revision surgery, which is a major problem for the patient, surgeon, and biomedical technology itself. In fact, global recognition of this problem led to the development of cementless fixation through the novel introduction of a bioactive hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating on biomedical-grade metallic implants. Since then, a wide variety of coating methods have evolved to make the HAp coatings on metallic implants more reliable. Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings discusses plasma spraying and other related HAp coating techniques, focusing on the pros and cons of macroplasma sprayed (MAPS)- and microplasma sprayed (MIPS)-HAp coatings. The book begins by explaining what a biomaterial really is, what the frequently used term biocompatibility stands for, and why it is so important for biomaterials to be biocompatible. It then: Examines the structural, chemical, macromechanical, micro/nanomechanical, and tribological properties and residual stress of HAp coatings Evaluates the efficacies under simulated body fluid immersion for MAPS- and MIPS-HAp coatings developed on biomedical implant-grade SS316L substrates Offers a comprehensive survey of state-of-the-art in vivo studies of MIPS-HAp coatings, presenting the results of pioneering research related to bone defect fixation Shedding light on the future scope and possibilities of MIPS-HAp coatings, Microplasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings provides a valuable reference for students, researchers, and practitioners of biomedical engineering and materials science.
This thesis advances the long-standing challenge of measuring oxidative stress and deciphering its underlying mechanisms, and also outlines the advantages and limitations of existing design strategies. It presents a range of approaches for the chemical synthesis of fluorescent probes that detect reversible changes in cellular oxidative stress. The ability to visualise cellular processes in real-time is crucial to understanding disease development and streamline treatment, and this can be achieved using fluorescent tools that can sense reversible disturbances in cellular environments during pathogenesis. The perturbations in cellular redox state are of particular current interest in medical research, since oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. The book investigates different strategies used to achieve ratiometric fluorescence output of the reversible redox probes, which nullify concentration effects associated with intensity-based probes. It also describes suitable approaches to target these probes to specific cellular organelles, thereby enabling medical researchers to visualise sub-cellular oxidative stress levels, and addressing the typically poor uptake of chemical tools into biological studies. In total it reports on four new probes that are now being used by over twenty research groups around the globe, and two of which have been commercialised. The final chapters of this thesis demonstrate successful applications of the sensors in a variety of biological systems ranging from prokaryotes to mammalian cells and whole organisms. The results described clearly indicate the immense value of collaborative, cross-disciplinary research.
This brief introduces recursive modeling techniques that take account of variations in blood glucose concentration within and between individuals. It describes their use in developing multivariable models in early-warning systems for hypo- and hyperglycemia; these models are more accurate than those solely reliant on glucose and insulin concentrations because they can accommodate other relevant influences like physical activity, stress and sleep. Such factors also contribute to the accuracy of the adaptive control systems present in the artificial pancreas which is the focus of the brief, as their presence is indicated before they have an apparent effect on the glucose concentration and so can be more easily compensated. The adaptive controller is based on generalized predictive control techniques and also includes rules for changing controller parameters or structure based on the values of physiological variables. Simulation studies and clinical studies are reported to illustrate the performance of the techniques presented.
This book provides a pioneering approach to modeling the human diabetic patient using a software agent. It is based on two MASc (Master of Applied Science) theses: one looking at the evolution of the patient agent in time, and another looking the interaction of the patient agent with the healthcare system. It shows that the software agent evolves in a manner analogous to the human patient and exhibits typical attributes of the illness such as reacting to food consumption, medications, and activity. This agent model can be used in a number of different ways, including as a prototype for a specific human patient with the purpose of helping to identify when that patient's condition deviates from normal variations. The software agent can also be used to study the interaction between the human patient and the health care system. This book is of interest to anyone involved in the management of diabetic patients or in societal research into the management of diabetes. The diabetic patient agent was developed using the Ackerman model for diabetes, but this model can be easily adapted for any other model subject with the necessary physiological data to support that model.
The new research field of Ambient/Active Assisted Living (AAL) is quickly evolving. Ambient Integrated Robotics provides an easy-to-understand medical perspective to architects, designers, and engineers, bridging the different disciplines and showing how they fuse together to create the future of AAL technology. Using robotics as an example, the book illustrates how embedding its subsystems results in unique ambient technology that can be used to help people, particularly in adapting to the needs of the unwell and elderly populations. You will be provided with the knowledge and tools to contribute to the future of AAL. The Cambridge Handbooks on Construction Robotics series gives professionals, researchers, lecturers, and students basic conceptual and technical skills and strategies to manage, research, or teach the implementation of advanced automation, and robot-technology-based processes and technologies in construction. Books discuss progress in robot systems theory and demonstrates their integration using real applications and projections.
Dosimetry refers to the calculation and assessment of the radiation dose received by the human body. The proposed book will place emphasis on the existence of physical and biophysical dosimetry. It will be discussed for the proper description and evaluation of the signal at the power generation system. It will cover in detail 10 different parameters of EMF (electromagnetism) exposure such as amplitude, frequency, vector, time of exposure, orientation, etc. In most published papers, these parameters are not well defined.
Nanotechnologies in Preventative and Regenerative Medicine demonstrates how control at the nanoscale can help achieve earlier diagnoses and create more effective treatments. Chapters take a logical approach, arranging materials by their area of application. Biomaterials are, by convention, divided according to the area of their application, with each chapter outlining current challenges before discussing how nanotechnology and nanomaterials can help solve these challenges This applications-orientated book is a valuable resource for researchers in biomedical science who want to gain a greater understanding on how nanotechnology can help create more effective vaccines and treatments, and to nanomaterials researchers seeking to gain a greater understanding of how these materials are applied in medicine.
This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the use of nanoscale materials for biomedical applications, with a particular focus on drug delivery, theragnosis and tissue regeneration. It also describes in detail the methods used in the preparation of nanoparticles. Response of nanoparticles in biological systems are also explored. Nanotechnology has led to the advent of a new field, nanomedicine, which focuses on the use of nanomaterials as drug-delivery vehicles to develop highly selective and effective drugs. The combination of molecular imaging and nanotechnology has produced theragnostic nanoparticles, which allow the simultaneous detection and monitoring of diseases. Nanotechnology can also be combined with biomaterials to create scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Further, significant advances have been made in the areas of drug delivery, theragnostic nanoparticles and tissue regeneration materials. Some nanomedicines and tissue regeneration materials are already commercially available, while others are undergoing clinical trials, and promising results have been documented. Despite the rapid advances in nanomedicine, there is a relative dearth of literature on the biomedical applications of nanoscale materials.
This book provides the latest information about hairy root culture and its several applications, with special emphasis on potential of hairy roots for the production of bioactive compounds. Due to high growth rate as well as biochemical and genetic stability, it is possible to study the metabolic pathways related to production of bioactive compounds using hairy root culture. Chapters discuss the feasibility of hairy roots for plant derived natural compounds. Advantages and difficulties of hairy roots for up-scaling studies in bioreactors are included as well as successful examples of hairy root culture of plant species producing bioactive compounds used in food, flavors and pharmaceutical industry. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and students working on the area of plant natural products, phytochemistry, plant tissue culture, medicines, and drug discovery.
This book portrays the commonality of tissue micro-structure that dictates physiological function in various organs (microstructure-function relation). Tissue and organ models are used to illustrate physiological functions based on microstructure. Fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp are described in detail. Structurally-based constitutive models are given throughout the book, not only to avoid ambiguities in material characterization, but also to offer insights into the function, structure, and mechanics of tissue components. A statement of future directions of the field is also given, including how advancements, such as state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures, are taking structure-based modeling to the next level. This book also: Provides a comprehensive view of tissue modeling across multiple systems Broadens readers' understanding of state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures Describes in detail fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp
This book primarily focuses on the study of various neurological disorders, including Parkinson's (PD), Huntington (HD), Epilepsy, Alzheimer's and Motor Neuron Diseases (MND) from a new perspective by analyzing the physiological signals associated with them using non-linear dynamics. The development of nonlinear methods has significantly helped to study complex nonlinear systems in detail by providing accurate and reliable information. The book provides a brief introduction to the central nervous system and its various disorders, their effects on health and quality of life, and their respective courses of treatment, followed by different bioelectrical signals like those detected by Electroencephalography (EEG), Electrocardiography (ECG), and Electromyography (EMG). In turn, the book discusses a range of nonlinear techniques, fractals, multifractals, and Higuchi's Fractal Dimension (HFD), with mathematical examples and procedures. A review of studies conducted to date on neurological disorders like epilepsy, dementia, Parkinson's, Huntington, Alzheimer's, and Motor Neuron Diseases, which incorporate linear and nonlinear techniques, is also provided. The book subsequently presents new findings on neurological disorders of the central nervous system, namely Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease, by analyzing their gait characteristics using a nonlinear fractal based technique: Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (MFDFA). In closing, the book elaborates on several parameters that can be obtained from cross-correlation studies of ECG and blood pressure, and can be used as markers for neurological disorders.
This ground-breaking title begins with an introductory overview of the Lower Extremity Gait Systems (LEGS) project, identifying concerns and observations as context for the reader to consider topics and challenges detailed in later chapters. Next are chapters that explore relevant military and civilian needs, and an essential historical context of the capabilities and limitations of contemporary prosthetics. The section concludes with an overview of essential components used in passive and active lower limb prosthetics, including sockets, foot, ankle, and knee systems, as well as emerging bionic systems. A second section considers research and development in orthotics, synthetic and biological materials, volitional control, and wearable robotics (also known as exoskeletons). Finally, expert authors explore advanced science and emerging medical perspectives in research related to limb salvage, osseointegration, limb transplantation, and tissue engineering. Designed for medical practitioners, engineers, students, and researchers who use or develop prosthetic technology for civilian or military amputees, Full Stride: Advancing the State of the Art in Lower Extremity Gait Systems will be of great interest to trauma specialists, orthopedists, rehabilitation specialists, nursing staff and physical therapists, as well as researchers and scientists who specialize in fields that shape and inform advanced prosthetic device development such as materials sciences, engineering (electrical, mechanical, biomedical), robotics, and human physiology.
Medical and Service Robotics integrate the most recent achievements in mechanics, mechatronics, computer science, haptic and teleoperation devices together with adaptive control algorithms. The book includes topics such as surgery robotics, assist devices, rehabilitation technology, surgical instrumentation and Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) as examples for medical robotics. Autonomous cleaning, tending, logistics, surveying and rescue robots, and elderly and healthcare robots are typical examples of topics from service robotics. This is the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Medical and Service Robots, held in Lausanne, Switzerland in 2014. It presents an overview of current research directions and fields of interest. It is divided into three sections, namely 1) assistive and rehabilitation devices; 2) surgical robotics; and 3) educational and service robotics. Most contributions are strongly anchored on collaborations between technical and medical actors, engineers, surgeons and clinicians. Biomedical robotics and the rapidly growing service automation fields have clearly overtaken the "classical" industrial robotics and automatic control centered activity familiar to the older generation of roboticists.
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