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Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach. The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.
This comprehensive guide, by pioneers in the field, brings together, for the first time, everything a new researcher, graduate student or industry practitioner needs to get started in molecular communication. Written with accessibility in mind, it requires little background knowledge, and provides a detailed introduction to the relevant aspects of biology and information theory, as well as coverage of practical systems. The authors start by describing biological nanomachines, the basics of biological molecular communication and the microorganisms that use it. They then proceed to engineered molecular communication and the molecular communication paradigm, with mathematical models of various types of molecular communication and a description of the information and communication theory of molecular communication. Finally, the practical aspects of designing molecular communication systems are presented, including a review of the key applications. Ideal for engineers and biologists looking to get up to speed on the current practice in this growing field.
This enzymology textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students covers the syllabi of most universities where this subject is regularly taught. It focuses on the synchrony between the two broad mechanistic facets of enzymology: the chemical and the kinetic, and also highlights the synergy between enzyme structure and mechanism. Designed for self-study, it explains how to plan enzyme experiments and subsequently analyze the data collected. The book is divided into five major sections: 1] Introduction to enzymes, 2] Practical aspects, 3] Kinetic Mechanisms, 4] Chemical Mechanisms, and 5] Enzymology Frontiers. Individual concepts are treated as stand-alone chapters; readers can explore any single concept with minimal cross-referencing to the rest of the book. Further, complex approaches requiring specialized techniques and involved experimentation (beyond the reach of an average laboratory) are covered in theory with suitable references to guide readers. The book provides students, researchers and academics in the broad area of biology with a sound theoretical and practical knowledge of enzymes. It also caters to those who do not have a practicing enzymologist to teach them the subject.
Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications. * Explains pros and cons of different Doppler radar architectures, including CW, FMCW, and pulsed Doppler radar * Discusses nonlinear demodulation methods, explaining dc offset, dc information, center tracking, and demodulation enabled by dc cancellation * Reviews advanced system architectures that address issues of dc offset, spectrum folding, motion interference, and range resolution * Covers Doppler radar physiological measurements demonstrated to date, from basic cardiopulmonary rate extractions to more involved volume assessments Doppler Radar Physiological Sensing serves as a fundamental reference for radar, biomedical, and microwave engineers as well as healthcare professionals interested in remote physiological monitoring methods. Olga Boric-Lubecke, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, and an IEEE Fellow. She is widely recognized as a pioneer and leader in microwave radar technologies for non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring, and in the design of integrated circuits for biomedical applications. Victor M. Lubecke, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He is an emeritus IEEE Distinguished Microwave Lecturer and has over 25 years of experience in research and development of devices and methods for radio-based remote sensing systems. Amy Droitcour, PhD, has spent ten years developing radar-based vital signs measurement technology through her dissertation research and leading product development as CTO of Kai Medical. She currently serves as Senior Vice President of R&D at Wave 80 Biosciences. Byung-Kwon-Park, PhD, is a senior research engineer at the Mechatronics R&D Center in Korea. Aditya Singh, PhD, is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Neuroscience and MRI research Program.
The book uses an integrated approach to predict the behavior of various biological interactions. It further discusses how synthetic biology gathers the information about various systems, in order to either devise an entirely new system, or, to modulate existing systems. The book also tackles the concept of modularity, where biological systems are visualized in terms of their parts. The chapters discuss how the principles of engineering are being used in biomedical sciences, to design biological circuits that can harbor multiple inputs and generate multiple outputs; to create genetic networks and control gene activity, in order to generate a desired response. The book aims to help the readers develop an array of biological parts, and to use these parts to develop synthetic circuits that can be assembled like electronic circuits. The ultimate aim of the book will be to serve as an amalgamation of key ideas of how judiciously synthetic biology could be exploited in therapeutic device and delivery mechanism.
* Tom Kenny, one of the best-known and well-respected educators in EP brings his signature style to this new primer * Practical, accessible, highly illustrated approach makes learning easy * Provides an overview of the algorithms and devices offered by the world s five pacemaker manufacturers * Offers clinicians learning objectives, test questions and essential points in bulleted lists * Perfect introductory guide to the topic, assumes little baseline knowledge and appropriate for residents, fellows, EP nurses, general clinical cardiologists, EP fellows and industry professionals
This book highlights recent technological advances, reviews and applications in the field of cardiovascular engineering, including medical imaging, signal processing and informatics, biomechanics, as well as biomaterials. It discusses the use of biomaterials and 3D printing for tissue-engineered heart valves, and also presents a unique combination of engineering and clinical approaches to solve cardiovascular problems. This book is a valuable resource for students, lecturers and researchers in the field of biomedical engineering.
This first book on nanocellulose and nanohydrogels for biomedical applications is unique in discussing recent advancements in the field, resulting in a comprehensive, well-structured overview of nanocellulose and nanohydrogel materials based nanocomposites. The book covers different types of nanocellulose materials and their recent developments in the drug delivery and nanomedicine sector, along with synthesis, characterization, as well as applications in the biotechnological and biomedical fields. The book also covers the current status and future perspectives of bacterial cellulose and polyester hydrogel matrices, their preparation, characterization, and tissue engineering applications of water soluble hydrogel matrices obtained from biodegradable sources. In addition, the chitosan-based hydrogel and nanogel matrices, their involvement in the current biofabrication technologies, and influencing factors towards the biomedical sector of biosensors, biopharmaceuticals, tissue engineering appliances, implant materials, diagnostic probes and surgical aids are very well documented. Further, the history of cellulose-based and conducting polymer-based nanohydrogels, their classification, synthesis methods and applicability to different sectors, the challenges associated with their use, recent advances on the inhibitors of apoptosis proteins are also included. The recent developments and applications in the drug delivery sector gives an overview of facts about the nanofibrillated cellulose and copoly(amino acid) hydrogel matrices in the biotechnology and biomedicine field. This book serves as an essential reference for researchers and academics in chemistry, pharmacy, microbiology, materials science and biomedical engineering.
This book describes the principles and applications of the spherical crystallization technique, from the standpoint of its inventor. After an introduction on the history of particle design engineering and nanotechnology, the concept of spherical crystallization itself is clearly explained. Attention then turns to the application of spherical crystallization in pharmaceutical processes. It is explained how the technique can provide physicochemical properties suitable for direct tableting of active pharmaceutical ingredients and how it has enabled the development of a novel particulate design platform from single to complex system. Subsequent chapters describe the roles of polymeric spherical crystallization in the preparation of novel microspheres, microballoons for drug delivery systems (DDS) and the development of biocompatible and biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanospheres. The various applications of PLGA nanospheres composite within oral-, pulmonary-, transdermal DDS and cosmetics are fully discussed. Finally, future perspectives are presented on use of the technology in the design and industrial-scale manufacture of new drug delivery systems, highlighting how a continuous pharmaceutical process that meets US Food and Drug Administration quality requirements should soon be introduced.
Global Air Pollution in Aging: Reading Smoke Signals is a complete reference connecting environmental pollution research to the human aging process. Since 1800, lifespans have more than doubled as infections declined and medicine improved. But the 20th century introduced a new global scourge of air pollution from fossil fuels with the potential to damage arteries, hearts and lungs that has been related to chronic exposure of air pollution from fossil fuels. Risk areas of study include childhood obesity, brain damage associated with air pollution, increased risk for autism in children and dementia in older adults. In humans and animals, air pollution stimulates chronic inflammation in different organs, and genetic vulnerability to air pollution is being recognized, particularly for carriers of the Alzheimer risk gene ApoE4.
This book collects new results, concepts and further developments of NMF. The open problems discussed include, e.g. in bioinformatics: NMF and its extensions applied to gene expression, sequence analysis, the functional characterization of genes, clustering and text mining etc. The research results previously scattered in different scientific journals and conference proceedings are methodically collected and presented in a unified form. While readers can read the book chapters sequentially, each chapter is also self-contained. This book can be a good reference work for researchers and engineers interested in NMF, and can also be used as a handbook for students and professionals seeking to gain a better understanding of the latest applications of NMF.
Ideal for classroom use and self-study, this book explains the implementation of the most effective modern methods in image analysis, covering segmentation, registration and visualisation, and focusing on the key theories, algorithms and applications that have emerged from recent progress in computer vision, imaging and computational biomedical science. Structured around five core building blocks - signals, systems, image formation and modality; stochastic models; computational geometry; level set methods; and tools and CAD models - it provides a solid overview of the field. Mathematical and statistical topics are presented in a straightforward manner, enabling the reader to gain a deep understanding of the subject without becoming entangled in mathematical complexities. Theory is connected to practical examples in x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, MRI and CT imaging, removing the abstract nature of the models and assisting reader understanding, whilst computer simulations, online course slides and a solution manual provide a complete instructor package.
This book discusses the field of bioinspired smell and taste sensors which includes many new areas: sensitive materials, physiological modelling and simulation, and more. Similar to biological chemical sensing systems, bioinspired smell and taste sensors are characterized with fast responsive, high specificity and sensitivity. One of the most important parts of the field is that of sensitive elements originated from biological components, which enable the detection of chemical signals by mimicking the biological mechanisms. This book detailed describes processing, devices, recognition principles of sensitive materials, and concrete realizations. It is written for researchers, engineers and biologists who engages in interdisciplinary research and applications. Dr. Ping Wang is a professor at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. Qingjun Liu is a professor at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. Chunsheng Wu is an associated professor at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. K. Jimmy Hsia is a professor at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, USA.
This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians, immunoengineers, immunologists and stem cell biologists, as it offers a review of the current cutting-edge cell engineering research at multiple length scale and will be valuable in developing new strategies for efficient scale-up and clinical translation.
Emerging Nanotechnologies for Diagnostics, Drug Delivery and Medical Devices covers the modern micro and nanotechnologies used for diagnosis, drug delivery, and theranostics using micro, nano, and implantable systems. In-depth coverage of all aspects of disease treatment is included. In addition, the book covers cutting-edge research and technology that will help readers gain knowledge of novel approaches and their applications to improve drug/agent specificity for diagnosis and efficient disease treatment. It is a comprehensive guide for medical specialists, the pharmaceutical-industry, and academic researchers discussing the impact of nanotechnology on diagnosis, drug delivery, and theranostics.
This book is intended as a reference guide for graduate students, postgraduate students and researchers with a basic knowledge of protein chemistry who would like to know more about the biomedical applications of natural proteins to promote healthier lives. The book is divided into ten chapters, each of which explains different natural proteins and their established biomedical applications. The first chapter extensively deals with protein based natural fibers and provides an overview of all protein based fibers currently available. In turn, chapter two mainly focuses on the biomedical applications of a special class of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins; the biomedical applications of silkworm pupae proteins are dealt in chapter three. Chapter four examines an interesting use of Eri silk fibroin as a biomaterial for Tissue Engineering, while chapter five discusses the key experimental details involved in converting Tasar silk sericin into self-assembled nanoparticles. Chapter six offers brief descriptions of bioactive proteins with respect to their sources, synthesis and applications. Chapter seven is dedicated to Interleukine-8 and its role in human life, while chapter eight addresses the importance of natural proteins in infectious diseases. Chapter nine explores the issue of excess intake of dietary proteins and its adverse effects, and finally, chapter ten discusses the efficiency of drug delivery systems made up of gelatin nanocomposites. The book is above all intended as a valuable resource for students and researchers alike, sparking their curiosity with regard to the applications of natural proteins and motivating them to focus their own energies on the discovery or identification of additional natural proteins for diverse biomedical uses.
This Handbook provides researchers, faculty, design engineers in industrial R&D, and practicing engineers in the field concise treatments of advanced and more-recently established topics in thermal science and engineering, with an important emphasis on micro- and nanosystems, not covered in earlier references on applied thermal science, heat transfer or relevant aspects of mechanical/chemical engineering. Major sections address new developments in heat transfer, transport phenomena, single- and multiphase flows with energy transfer, thermal-bioengineering, thermal radiation, combined mode heat transfer, coupled heat and mass transfer, and energy systems. Energy transport at the macro-scale and micro/nano-scales is also included. The internationally recognized team of authors adopt a consistent and systematic approach and writing style, including ample cross reference among topics, offering readers a user-friendly knowledgebase greater than the sum of its parts, perfect for frequent consultation. The Handbook of Thermal Science and Engineering is ideal for academic and professional readers in the traditional and emerging areas of mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, aerospace engineering, bioengineering, electronics fabrication, energy, and manufacturing concerned with the influence thermal phenomena.
This introductory text explains both the basic science and the applications of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on their clinical use. It serves as a complete one-stop source for undergraduate/graduate pharmacists, pharmaceutical science students, and for those in the pharmaceutical industry. The Fifth Edition completely updates the previous edition, and also includes additional coverage on the newer approaches such as oligonucleotides, siRNA, gene therapy and nanotech and enzyme replacement therapy.
Biomechanics of Tendons and Ligaments: Tissue Reconstruction looks at the structure and function of tendons and ligaments. Biological and synthetic biomaterials for their reconstruction and regeneration are reviewed, and their biomechanical performance is discussed. Regeneration tendons and ligaments are soft connective tissues which are essential for the biomechanical function of the skeletal system. These tissues are often prone to injuries which can range from repetition and overuse, to tears and ruptures. Understanding the biomechanical properties of ligaments and tendons is essential for their repair and regeneration.
This book provides a selection of essential knowledge on the image-based quantification of biophysical parameters for the purpose of clinical diagnosis. The authors regard clinical imaging scanners as physical measurement systems capable of quantifying intrinsic parameters for depiction of the constitution and biophysical properties of in vivo tissue. On the one hand, this approach supports the development of new methods of imaging highly reproducible, system-independent, and quantitative biomarkers, and these methods receive detailed attention in the book. On the other hand, the reader will also gain a deeper understanding of how physical tissue properties interact with the generation of signals in medical imaging, opening new windows on the intricate and fascinating relationship between the structure and function of living tissues. The book will be of interest to all who recognize the limitations of basing clinical diagnosis primarily on visual inspection of images and who wish to learn more about the diagnostic potential of quantitative and biophysics-based medical imaging markers and the challenges that the paucity of such markers poses for next-generation imaging technologies.
Technological advances have greatly increased the potential for, and practicability of, using medical neurotechnologies to revolutionize how a wide array of neurological and nervous system diseases and dysfunctions are treated. These technologies have the potential to help reduce the impact of symptoms in neurological disorders such as Parkinson s Disease and depression as well as help regain lost function caused by spinal cord damage or nerve damage. Medical Neurobionics is a concise overview of the biological underpinnings of neurotechnologies, the development process for these technologies, and the practical application of these advances in clinical settings. Medical Neurobionics is divided into three sections. The first section focuses specifically on providing a sound foundational understanding of the biological mechanisms that support the development of neurotechnologies. The second section looks at the efforts being carried out to develop new and exciting bioengineering advances. The book then closes with chapters that discuss practical clinical application and explore the ethical questions that surround neurobionics. A timely work that provides readers with a useful introduction to the field, Medical Neurobionics will be an essential book for neuroscientists, neuroengineers, biomedical researchers, and industry personnel.
This accessible yet in-depth textbook describes the step-by-step processes involved in biomedical device design. Integrating microfabrication techniques, sensors and digital signal processing with key clinical applications, it covers: the measurement, amplification and digitization of physiological signals, and the removal of interfering signals; the transmission of signals from implanted sensors through the body, and the issues surrounding the powering of these sensors; networks for transferring sensitive patient data to hospitals for continuous home-monitoring systems; tests for ensuring patient safety; the cost-benefit and technological trade-offs involved in device design; and current challenges in biomedical device design. With dedicated chapters on electrocardiography, digital hearing aids and mobile health, and including numerous end-of-chapter homework problems, online solutions and additional references for extended learning, it is the ideal resource for senior undergraduate students taking courses in biomedical instrumentation and clinical technology.
The Handbook of Human Motion is a large cross-disciplinary reference work which covers the many interlinked facets of the science and technology of human motion and its measurement. Individual chapters cover fundamental principles and technological developments, the state-of-the-art and consider applications across four broad and interconnected fields; medicine, sport, forensics and animation. The huge strides in technological advancement made over the past century make it possible to measure motion with unprecedented precision, but also lead to new challenges. This work introduces the many different approaches and systems used in motion capture, including IR and ultrasound, mechanical systems and video, plus some emerging techniques. The large variety of techniques used for the study of motion science in medicine can make analysis a complicated process, but extremely effective for the treatment of the patient when well utilised. The handbook descri bes how motion capture techniques are applied in medicine, and shows how the resulting analysis can help in diagnosis and treatment. A closely related field, sports science involves a combination of in-depth medical knowledge and detailed understanding of performance and training techniques, and motion capture can play an extremely important role in linking these disciplines. The handbook considers which technologies are most appropriate in specific circumstances, how they are applied and how this can help prevent injury and improve sporting performance. The application of motion capture in forensic science and security is reviewed, with chapters dedicated to specific areas including employment law, injury analysis, criminal activity and motion/facial recognition. And in the final area of application, the book describes how novel motion capture techniques have been designed specifically to aid the creation of increasingly realistic animation within films and v ideo games, with Lord of the Rings and Avatar just two examples. Chapters will provide an overview of the bespoke motion capture techniques developed for animation, how these have influenced advances in film and game design, and the links to behavioural studies, both in humans and in robotics. Comprising a cross-referenced compendium of different techniques and applications across a broad field, the Handbook of Human Motion provides the reader with a detailed reference and simultaneously a source of inspiration for future work. The book will be of use to students, researchers, engineers and others working in any field relevant to human motion capture.
This book covers the latest advances, applications, and challenges in orthopedic biomaterials. Topics covered include materials for orthopedic applications, including nanomaterials, biomimetic materials, calcium phosphates, polymers, biodegradable metals, bone grafts/implants, and biomaterial-mediated drug delivery. Absorbable orthopedic biomaterials and challenges related to orthopedic biomaterials are covered in detail. This is an ideal book for graduate and undergraduate students, researchers, and professionals working with orthopedic biomaterials and tissue engineering. This book also: Describes biodegradable metals for orthopedic applications, such as Zn-based medical implants Thoroughly covers various materials for orthopedic applications, including absorbable orthopedic biomaterials with a focus on polymers Details the state-of-the-art research on orthopedic nanomaterials and nanotechnology
This thesis presents the development of theranostic gold nanostars (GNS) for multimodality cancer imaging and therapy. Furthermore, it demonstrates that a novel two-pronged treatment, combining immune-checkpoint inhibition and GNS-mediated photothermal nanotherapy, can not only eradicate primary treated tumors but also trigger immune responses to treat distant untreated tumors in a mouse animal model. Cancer has become a significant threat to human health with more than eight million deaths each year, and novel methods for cancer management to improve patients' overall survival are urgently needed. The developed multifunctional GNS nanoprobe with tip-enhanced plasmonics in the near-infrared region can be combined with (1) surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), (2) two-photon photoluminescence (TPL), (3) X-ray computed tomography (CT), (4) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), (5) positron emission tomography (PET), and (6) photothermal therapy (PTT) for cancer imaging and treatment. The ability of the GNS nanoprobe to detect submillimeter intracranial brain tumors was demonstrated using PET scan - a superior non-invasive imaging modality - in a mouse animal model. In addition, delayed rechallenge with repeated cancer cell injection in cured mice did not lead to new tumor formation, indicating generation of a memorized immune response to cancer. The biocompatible gold nanostars with superior capabilities for cancer imaging and treatment have great potential for translational medicine applications.
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