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The field of nanoceramics for biomedical applications has experienced important advances in the last five years. These advances are mainly focused in the field of new nanostructured bioceramics able to mimic almost the same biomineralization processes. In addition, there has also been significant advances in nanoceramics as vehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapy. Building on the success of Biomimetic Nanoceramics in Clinical Use, this second edition has been revised and updated to reflect the recent developments in the field. Nanoceramics in Clinical Use includes additional material on bone mineralization processes, new synthesis strategies and applications of nanostructured bioceramics to manufacture 3D macroporous scaffolds and as nanovehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapies, to provide the reader with a complete overview of the topic, from fundamental principles to the latest advances. Written by World leading experts in bioceramics, this title will appeal to a broad audience, from academic researchers to those working within the commercial industry. Materials and chemical engineers, chemists, biologists, physicists and those working in medicine, im particular with medical implants, will appreciate the comprehensive coverage of this fast-developing area.
Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach. The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.
This pocket-sized manual serves as a concise and ideal reference work for therapeutic approaches using apheresis, Covering both basic theory and clinical details to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, the text considers a variety of diseases, including myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, nephrotic syndrome, TTP/TMA, dilated cardiomyopathy, and many other conditions. The books also reviews the growing trend towards adopting this unique therapy for a wide range of health management issues such as morbid obesity and/or type 2 diabetes, and for lowering LDL-cholesterol (cholesterol apheresis) in patients unresponsive to medication or lifestyle modification.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. CRISPR-Cas9 is a rapid, efficient, versatile and relatively cheap method for dissecting the molecular pathways that are the basis of life, as well as for investigating and potentially rectifying faults in these pathways that result in disease. This book reviews how CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques are advancing our understanding of development and function in the nervous system, uncovering the molecular causes of neurological disorders and providing tools for gene therapy.
Presents a comprehensive description of the theory and practical implementation of Doppler radar-based physiological monitoring This book includes an overview of current physiological monitoring techniques and explains the fundamental technology used in remote non-contact monitoring methods. Basic radio wave propagation and radar principles are introduced along with the fundamentals of physiological motion and measurement. Specific design and implementation considerations for physiological monitoring radar systems are then discussed in detail. The authors address current research and commercial development of Doppler radar based physiological monitoring for healthcare and other applications. * Explains pros and cons of different Doppler radar architectures, including CW, FMCW, and pulsed Doppler radar * Discusses nonlinear demodulation methods, explaining dc offset, dc information, center tracking, and demodulation enabled by dc cancellation * Reviews advanced system architectures that address issues of dc offset, spectrum folding, motion interference, and range resolution * Covers Doppler radar physiological measurements demonstrated to date, from basic cardiopulmonary rate extractions to more involved volume assessments Doppler Radar Physiological Sensing serves as a fundamental reference for radar, biomedical, and microwave engineers as well as healthcare professionals interested in remote physiological monitoring methods. Olga Boric-Lubecke, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, and an IEEE Fellow. She is widely recognized as a pioneer and leader in microwave radar technologies for non-contact cardiopulmonary monitoring, and in the design of integrated circuits for biomedical applications. Victor M. Lubecke, PhD, is a Professor of Electrical Engineering at the University of Hawaii at Manoa. He is an emeritus IEEE Distinguished Microwave Lecturer and has over 25 years of experience in research and development of devices and methods for radio-based remote sensing systems. Amy Droitcour, PhD, has spent ten years developing radar-based vital signs measurement technology through her dissertation research and leading product development as CTO of Kai Medical. She currently serves as Senior Vice President of R&D at Wave 80 Biosciences. Byung-Kwon-Park, PhD, is a senior research engineer at the Mechatronics R&D Center in Korea. Aditya Singh, PhD, is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the University of Hawaii Neuroscience and MRI research Program.
This thesis reports on the development of a fully integrated and automated microsystem consisting of low-cost, disposable plastic chips for DNA extraction and PCR amplification, combined with a reusable glass capillary array electrophoresis chip, which can be employed in a modular-based format for genetic analysis. In the thesis, DNA extraction is performed by adopting a filter paper-based method, followed by an "in-situ" PCR carried out directly in the same reaction chamber of the chip without elution. PCR products are then co-injected with sizing standards into separation channels for detection using a novel injection electrode. The entire process is automatically carried out by a custom-made compact control and detection instrument. The author thoroughly tests the system's performance and reliability by conducting rapid genetic screening of mutations on congenital hearing loss and pharmacogenetic typing of multiple warfarin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The successful development and operation of this microsystem establishes the feasibility of rapid "sample-in-answer-out" testing in routine clinical practice.
This volume outlines the current status in the field of biomimetic medical materials and illustrates research into their applications in tissue engineering. The book is divided into six parts, focusing on nano biomaterials, stem cells, tissue engineering, 3D printing, immune responses and intellectual property. Each chapter has its own introduction and outlines current research trends in a variety of applications of biomimetic medical materials. The biomimetic medical materials that are covered include functional hydrogels, nanoparticles for drug delivery and medicine, the 3D bioprinting of biomaterials, sensor materials, stem cell interactions with biomaterials, immune responses to biomaterials, biodegradable hard scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as other important topics, like intellectual property. Each chapter is written by a team of experts. This volume attempts to introduce the biomimetic properties of biomedical materials within the context of our current understanding of the nanotechnology of nanoparticles and fibres and the macroscopic aspects of 3D bioprinting.
This brief highlights recent research advances in the area of nano-therapeutics. Nanotechnology holds immense potential for application in a wide range of biological and engineering applications such as molecular sensors for disease diagnosis, therapeutic agents for the treatment of diseases, a vehicle for delivering therapeutics and imaging agents for theranostic applications, both in-vitro and in-vivo. The brief is grouped into the following sections namely, A) Discrete Nanosystems ; B) Anisotropic Nanoparticles; C) Nano-films/coated/layered and D) Nano-composites.
This book discusses the design of the new mobility assistive information and communication technologies (ICT) devices for the visually impaired. The book begins with a definition of the space concept, followed by the concept of interaction with a space during mobility and this interaction characteristics. The contributors will then examine the neuro-cognitive basis of space perception for mobility and different theories of space perception. The text presents the existing technologies for space perception (sense recovery with stem and iPS cells, implants, brain plasticity, sensory substitution devices, multi modal technologies, etc.), the newest technologies for mobility assistance design, the way the feedback on environment is conveyed to the end-user. Methods for formative and summative evaluations of the mobility devices will also be discussed. The book concludes with a look to the future trends in research and technology development for mobility assistive information and communication technologies.
Read an exclusive interview with Dr. Jerry Battista here. A critical element of radiation treatment planning for cancer is the accurate prediction and delivery of a tailored radiation dose distribution inside the patient. Megavoltage x-ray beams are aimed at the tumour, while collateral damage to nearby healthy tissue and organs is minimized. The key to optimal treatment therefore lies in adopting a trustworthy three-dimensional (3D) dose computation algorithm, which simulates the passage of both primary and secondary radiation throughout the exposed tissue. Edited by an award-winning university educator and pioneer in the field of voxel-based radiation dose computation, this book explores the physics and mathematics that underlie algorithms encountered in contemporary radiation oncology. It is an invaluable reference for clinical physicists who commission, develop, or test treatment planning software. This book also covers a core topic in the syllabus for educating graduate students and residents entering the field of clinical physics. This book starts with a historical perspective gradually building up to the three most important algorithms used for today's clinical applications. These algorithms can solve the same general radiation transport problem from three vantages: firstly, applying convolution-superposition principles (i.e. Green's method); secondly, the stochastic simulation of radiation particle interactions with tissue atoms (i.e. the Monte Carlo method); and thirdly, the deterministic solution of the fundamental equations for radiation fields of x-rays and their secondary particles (i.e. the Boltzmann method). It contains clear, original illustrations of key concepts and quantities thoughout, supplemented by metaphors and analogies to facilitate comprehension and retention of knowledge. Features: Edited by an authority in the field, enhanced with chapter contributions from physicists with clinical experience in the fields of computational dosimetry and dose optimization Contains examples of test phantom results and clinical cases, illustrating pitfalls to avoid in clinical applications to radiation oncology Introduces four-dimensional (4D) dose computation, on-line dose reconstruction, and dose accumulation that accounts for tissue displacements and motion throughout a course of radiation therapy
This textbook introduces marine biotechnology by collecting the key knowledge on genetics, fish breeding, genetic diversity, seaweed production and microalgae biotechnology, and explores marine biomaterials and how they can benefit human health. Covering the latest applications of marine biotechnology in natural product development, genomics, transgenic technology, cosmeceuticals, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceutical development, it particularly focuses on future biological resources, developing functional materials from marine life, production of marine bioenergy and marine microbial resources and biotechnology. The author explains the structure of the book in an introductory note, and each chapter offers a detailed overview and conclusion to help readers better grasp the acquired knowledge. Lastly, the final part provides a comprehensive glossary with brief explanations of the key concepts in marine biotechnology. Written by a leading expert in the field with more than 30 years of teaching experience, this book broadens students' understanding of the basics and recent developments in marine biotechnology.
This manual offers a stand-alone reading companion, unique in simplifying the practical components of Bioinformatics in a unique and user-friendly manner. It covers the practical component of syllabi used at most leading universities and discusses the most extensively used tools and methodologies in Bioinformatics. Research in the biological sciences has made tremendous strides in recent years due in part to the increased automation in data generation. At the same time, storing, managing and interpreting huge volumes of data has become one of the most challenging tasks for scientists. These two aspects have ultimately necessitated the application of computers, giving rise to a highly interdisciplinary discipline-Bioinformatics. Despite the richness of bioinformatics resources and methods, the exposure of life sciences undergraduates and postgraduates to bioinformatics is extremely limited. Though the internet offers various tools for free, and provides guides for using them, it fails to help users interpret the processed data. Moreover, most sites fail to update their help pages to accommodate software upgrades. Though the market is flooded with books discussing the theoretical concepts in Bioinformatics, a manual of this kind is rarely found. The content developed to meet the needs of readers from diverse background and to incorporate the syllabi of undergraduate and postgraduate courses at various universities.
This textbook for graduate students in statistics, data science, and public health deals with the practical challenges that come with big, complex, and dynamic data. It presents a scientific roadmap to translate real-world data science applications into formal statistical estimation problems by using the general template of targeted maximum likelihood estimators. These targeted machine learning algorithms estimate quantities of interest while still providing valid inference. Targeted learning methods within data science area critical component for solving scientific problems in the modern age. The techniques can answer complex questions including optimal rules for assigning treatment based on longitudinal data with time-dependent confounding, as well as other estimands in dependent data structures, such as networks. Included in Targeted Learning in Data Science are demonstrations with soft ware packages and real data sets that present a case that targeted learning is crucial for the next generation of statisticians and data scientists. Th is book is a sequel to the first textbook on machine learning for causal inference, Targeted Learning, published in 2011. Mark van der Laan, PhD, is Jiann-Ping Hsu/Karl E. Peace Professor of Biostatistics and Statistics at UC Berkeley. His research interests include statistical methods in genomics, survival analysis, censored data, machine learning, semiparametric models, causal inference, and targeted learning. Dr. van der Laan received the 2004 Mortimer Spiegelman Award, the 2005 Van Dantzig Award, the 2005 COPSS Snedecor Award, the 2005 COPSS Presidential Award, and has graduated over 40 PhD students in biostatistics and statistics. Sherri Rose, PhD, is Associate Professor of Health Care Policy (Biostatistics) at Harvard Medical School. Her work is centered on developing and integrating innovative statistical approaches to advance human health. Dr. Rose's methodological research focuses on nonparametric machine learning for causal inference and prediction. She co-leads the Health Policy Data Science Lab and currently serves as an associate editor for the Journal of the American Statistical Association and Biostatistics.
The emerging paradigm of incorporating images and biomechanical properties of soft tissues has proven to be an integral part of the advancement of several medical applications, including image guided radiotherapy and surgery, brachytherapy, and diagnostics. This expansion has resulted in a growing community of medical, science, and engineering professionals applying mechanical principles to address medical concerns. This book is tailored to cover a range of mechanical principles, properties, and applications of soft tissues that have previously been addressed in various journals and "anatomical site-specific" books. Biomechanics of Soft Tissues follows a different approach by offering a simplified overview of widely used mechanical models and measuring techniques of soft tissue parameters. This is followed by an investigation of different medical applications, including: biomechanical aspects of cancerous tumor progressions, radiotherapy treatment, and image guided ultrasound guided interventions. Written by leading scholars and professionals in the field, Biomechanics of Soft Tissues combines engineering and medical expertise, thereby producing an excellent source of information for professionals interested in the theoretical and technological advancements related to soft tissues. The book provides medical professionals with an insight on various modeling approaches, testing techniques, and mechanical characteristics that are frequently used by engineers. Conversely, the presented medical applications provide engineers with a glimpse of amazing medical practices and encourage them to expand their roles in the medical field. Provides a simplified overview of mechanics of soft tissues. Highlights different techniques to measure tissues properties for engineering and medical applications. Contains novel ideas to address roles of mechanics in disease progression and treatment. Presents innovative applications of biomechanics in medical procedures.
A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
This book highlights the recent advances of thermodynamics and biophysics in drug delivery nanosystems and in biomedical nanodevices. The up-to-date book provides an in-depth knowledge of bio-inspired nanotechnological systems for pharmaceutical applications. Biophysics and thermodynamics, supported by mathematics, are the locomotive by which the drug transportation and the targeting processes will be achieved under the light of the modern pharmacotherapy. They are considered as scientific tools that promote the understanding of physicochemical and thermotropic functionality and behavior of artificial cell membranes and structures like nanoparticulate systems. Therefore, this book focusses on new aspects of biophysics and thermodynamics as important elements for evaluating biomedical nanosystems, and it correlates their physicochemical, biophysical and thermodynamical behaviour with those of a living organism. In 2018, Prof. Demetzos was honored with an award by the Order of Sciences of the Academy of Athens for his scientific contribution in Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology.
The purpose of this book is to summarize key strategies and recent accomplishments in the area of developing cell/biomaterial constructs for regenerative medicine. The first section is a review of the state-of-the-art of biomaterial carriers and is divided into synthetic and natural materials. A subset of the latter are decellularized organs which retain the structure and some of the biological activities of the target organ. The bulk of the book is devoted to unique problems associated with key tissue and organ targets. Key selling features: Describes developing cell/biomaterial constructs for regenerative medicine Reviews state-of-the-art of biomaterial carriers Summarizes the unique problems associated with key tissue and organ targets Discusses issues associated with clinical translation including quality control, manufacturing practices, nondestructive imaging, and animal models
This book summarizes the latest research on drug and gene delivery to the central nervous system (CNS). The chapters address safety concerns regarding the nanotechnology that is needed to develop nanomedicine for clinical practice. Particular focus is given to new technologies that have emerged in recent years to deliver therapeutic materials, such as genes, drugs, and other agents using nanotechnologies of diverse origin. This is an ideal book for students, teachers, researchers, and clinicians interested in a deeper understanding of nanotechnological advances in therapeutic medicine. This book also: Broadens readers' understanding of viral vector gene delivery to the brain for treating neurogenetic diseases as well as targeted gene delivery into the brain using microbubble-facilitated focused ultrasound Covers in detail the latest developments in delivering therapeutic materials, such as siRNA delivery to the brain for treating neurological diseases, neuroprotective effects of gelatin nanoparticles in stroke, and nanowired drug delivery for brain diseases, heat stroke, and CNS injury Enriches understanding of new technologies for delivering therapeutic materials treating Alzheimer's Disease, including targeted nanodrug delivery through the blood-brain barrier and the superior neuroprotective effects of nanowired drug delivery in Alzheimer's Disease
This book offers readers an introduction to the current status of nanoparticles and other nanomaterials that have potential applications in theranostics. Above all, it highlights the diagnostic and therapeutic applications of metallic (e.g. Au, Ag), semiconducting quantum dots (e.g. CdSe, CdTe), magnetic (e.g. Fe3O4, FePt, Co), and multifunctional (combination of two or three) nanoparticles.
White biotechnology, or industrial biotechnology as it is also known, refers to the use of living cells and/or their enzymes to create industrial products that are more easily degradable, require less energy, create less waste during production and sometimes perform better than products created using traditional chemical processes. Over the last decade considerable progress has been made in white biotechnology research, and further major scientific and technological breakthroughs are expected in the future. Fungi are ubiquitous in nature and have been sorted out from different habitats, including extreme environments (high temperature, low temperature, salinity and pH), and may be associated with plants (epiphytic, endophytic and rhizospheric). The fungal strains are beneficial as well as harmful for human beings. The beneficial fungal strains may play important roles in the agricultural, industrial, and medical sectors. The fungal strains and their products (enzymes, bioactive compounds, and secondary metabolites) are very useful for industry (e.g., the discovery of penicillin from Penicillium chrysogenum). This discovery was a milestone in the development of white biotechnology as the industrial production of penicillin and antibiotics using fungi moved industrial biotechnology into the modern era, transforming it into a global industrial technology. Since then, white biotechnology has steadily developed and now plays a key role in several industrial sectors, providing both high value nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products. The fungal strains and bioactive compounds also play an important role in environmental cleaning. This volume covers the latest developments and research in white biotechnology with a focus on diversity and enzymes.
This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.
Biosensors are devices that detect the presence of microbials such as bacteria, viruses or a range biomolecules, including proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA. For example, they are routinely applied for monitoring the glucose concentration in blood, quality analysis of fresh and waste water and for food control. Nanomaterials are ideal candidates for building sensor devces: where in just a few molecules can alter the properties so drastically that these changes may be easily detected by optical, electrical or chemical means. Recent advantages have radically increased the sensitivity of nanomaterial-based biosensors, making it possible to detect one particular molecule against a background of billions of others. Focusing on the materials suitable for biosensor applications, such as nanoparticles, quantum dots, meso- and nanoporous materials and nanotbues, this text enables the reader to prepare the respective nanomaterials for use in actual devices by appropriate functionalization, surface processing or directed self-assembly. The emphasis throughout is on electrochemical, optical and mechancial detection methods, leading to solutions for today's most challenging tasks. The result is a reference for researchers and developers, disseminating first-hand information on which nanomaterial is best suited to a particular application - and why.
This book explores the role of cancer stem cells in the diagnosis, treatment, and cure of cancers. This book also tackles novel methodology for cancer stem cell marker identification, cancer stem cell respiration and metabolism, genetic and epigenetic mechanisms including DNA methylation, and mi-RNA assemble. It also emphasizes the role of Bioinformatics techniques, which provide a novel methodology for modeling cancer outcomes. The authors investigate the difference between cancer stem cells and normal stem cells, along with the concept of targeted cancer stem cell therapy. Although the theoretical explanations of cancer stem cell involvement in leukemia and solid cancers are controversial, there is now little doubt that cancer stem cells exist within otherwise heterogeneous cancer cell population. The brief examines the two leading theories, hierarchical and the stochastic/cancer stem cell model. Researchers, professors and advanced-level students focused on bioengineering and computer science will find this book to be a valuable resource. It is a very good source of critical references for understanding of this problem, and a useful tool for professionals in related fields.
Plant endophytes are a potential source for the production of bioactive compounds that can fight against devastating diseases in both plants and humans. Among these endophytic microorganisms, endophytic fungi are one of the dominant group of microorganisms with a potential role in plant growth promotion and the discovery of noble bioactive natural products. Endophytic fungi possess several bioactivities like anticancer, antimicrobial, insecticidal, plant growth stimulants, crop protection, phytoremediation, etc. Presence of modular biosynthetic genes clusters like PKS and NRPS in several endophytic fungi underscores the need to understand and explore such organisms. This volume presents and demonstrates the applied aspects of endophytic fungi. Practical applications of such endophytes are discussed in detail, including studies in pharmaceutical development and agricultural management of important microbial diseases. The beneficial effects that endophytic fungi provide to host plants-enhancing growth, increasing fitness, strengthening tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses through secondary metabolites-are also discussed. The reader is provided with a comprehensive and detailed understanding of such relationships between endophytic fungi and their host.
* Tom Kenny, one of the best-known and well-respected educators in EP brings his signature style to this new primer * Practical, accessible, highly illustrated approach makes learning easy * Provides an overview of the algorithms and devices offered by the world s five pacemaker manufacturers * Offers clinicians learning objectives, test questions and essential points in bulleted lists * Perfect introductory guide to the topic, assumes little baseline knowledge and appropriate for residents, fellows, EP nurses, general clinical cardiologists, EP fellows and industry professionals
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