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Cardiovascular diseases have a major impact in Western countries. Mathematical models and numerical simulations can help the understanding of physiological and pathological processes, complementing the information provided to medical doctors by medical imaging and other non-invasive means, and opening the possibility of a better diagnosis and more in-depth surgical planning. This book offers a mathematical update of the state of the art of the research in the field, and serves as a useful reference for the development of mathematical models and numerical simulation codes. It is structured into different chapters, written by outstanding experts in the field. Many fundamental issues are considered, such as: the mathematical representation of vascular geometries extracted from medical images, modelling blood rheology and the complex multilayer structure of the vascular tissue, and its possible pathologies, the mechanical and chemical interaction between blood and vascular walls; the different scales coupling local and systemic dynamics. All of these topics introduce challenging mathematical and numerical problems, demanding for advanced analysis and efficient simulation techniques. This book is addressed to graduate students and researchers in the field of bioengineering, applied mathematics and medicine, wishing to engage themselves in the fascinating task of modeling the cardiovascular system or, more broadly, physiological flows
Personalized health care to manage diseases and optimized treatment is crucial for everyone to maintain health quality. Significant efforts have been made to design and develop novel nano-enabling therapeutic strategies to cure and monitor diseases for personalized health care. As state-of-the-art, various strategies have been reported to develop personalized nanomedicine to combat against target diseases with no side effects. In this book proposal, we are trying to describe fundamentals of personalized nanomedicine, novel nanomaterials for drug delivery, role of nanotechnology for efficient therapeutics approach, nano-pharmacology, targeted CNS drug delivery, stimuli responsive drug release and nanotechnology for diseases management. This book would serve as a platform for new scholars to understand state-of-the-art of nanotechnology for therapeutics and designing their future research to develop effective personalized nanomedicine against targeted diseases. As of now, various studies have been reported to design and develop nanomedicines of higher efficacy but unfortunately, such products are up to laboratory research only and need to be well-tested using pre-clinical or human models. Our book would be a call for experts to explore multidisciplinary research for developing novel and efficient approaches to explore smart efficient nanocarriers for site-specific on-demand controlled drug delivery to combat against targeted diseases to personalized health care.
This book reviews the emerging studies of synthetic immunology, including the development and regeneration of immune cells, immune organ development and artificial regeneration, and the synthetic approach towards understanding human immune system. Immunology has developed rapidly over the last 50 years through the incorporation of new methods and concepts in cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. This progress is the result of works by many excellent researchers all over the world. Currently, immunological research has accumulated detailed knowledge on basic mechanisms of immunity and is in the process to change medical practices. Yet, due to the enormous complexity of the immune system, many aspects on the regulation and function of this system remain unknown. Synthetic biology uses gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function approaches. The goals of synthetic biology can be described in a simple phrase "rebuild, alter, and understand," namely, to rebuild minimal functional systems using well-defined parts from nature and then to perturb the system to understand its working principles. Given the richness of accumulated knowledge in molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system, we now begin adapting the concepts of synthetic biology to immunology. An immune response is a spatiotemporal phenomenon occurring at a given time and at a specialized place in the body. One goal of synthetic immunology is to reconstruct artificial microenvironments for better understanding of an immune response. We hope this yet-to-be-experimental approach of synthetic immunology and the compilation of this book will aid our further understanding of the immune system and future devising the tools to manipulate the immune system for therapy and prevention of the diseases.
This book is an ensemble of six major chapters, an introduction, and a closure on modeling transport phenomena in porous media with applications. Two of the six chapters explain the underlying theories, whereas the rest focus on new applications. Porous media transport is essentially a multi-scale process. Accordingly, the related theory described in the second and third chapters covers both continuum- and meso-scale phenomena. Examining the continuum formulation imparts rigor to the empirical porous media models, while the mesoscopic model focuses on the physical processes within the pores. Porous media models are discussed in the context of a few important engineering applications. These include biomedical problems, gas hydrate reservoirs, regenerators, and fuel cells. The discussion reveals the strengths and weaknesses of existing models as well as future research directions.
This thesis mainly focuses on the design and synthesis of novel multifunctional nanoprobes, investigating their feasibility for applications involving sensing, molecular imaging, and the simultaneous diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Above all, it discusses the development of innovative nanomaterials to address the issues limiting the effectiveness of currently available nanoprobes such as the synthesis shortcoming and poor performance in sensing, imaging and therapeutic applications. One of the strengths of this thesis is its integration of knowledge from chemistry, materials science and biomedicine. Further, it presents the theoretical fundamentals in the design of nanoprobes, which can offer guidance for future studies on the development of novel multifunctional nanomaterials with significantly enhanced performance.
This thesis documents the development of a multifunctional nanoparticle system to enhance the chemotherapeutic efficiency of anti-cancer drugs, and contributes to research that helps decrease the side-effects in cancer patients while simultaneously increasing their survival rates. The work begins with an introduction to nanomedicine and cancer therapy, and contains a literature review on magnetic, gold, and core-shell nanoparticles. It also covers synthesis techniques, properties, various surface modifications, and the importance of magnetic and gold nanoparticles. The author dedicates a chapter to characterization techniques, experimental setup, and cell cultivation techniques for in-vitro studies. Further chapters describe the background, characterizations, and applications of multifunctional magnetite coated gold core-shell nanoparticles, and the doping of cobalt to magnetite and manganese to magnetite nanoparticles. The important highlight of this research was the control of the size, shape, composition, and surface chemistry of nanoparticles.
This step-by-step guide to medical technology innovation, now in full color, has been rewritten to reflect recent trends of industry globalization and value-conscious healthcare. Written by a team of medical, engineering, and business experts, the authors provide a comprehensive resource that leads students, researchers, and entrepreneurs through a proven process for the identification, invention, and implementation of new solutions. Case studies on innovative products from around the world, successes and failures, practical advice, and end-of-chapter 'Getting Started' sections encourage readers to learn from real projects and apply important lessons to their own work. A wealth of additional material supports the book, including a collection of nearly one hundred videos created for the second edition, active links to external websites, supplementary appendices, and timely updates on the companion website at ebiodesign.org. Readers can access this material quickly, easily, and at the most relevant point in the text from within the ebook.
This open access book provides a comprehensive overview of the application of the newest laser and microscope/ophthalmoscope technology in the field of high resolution imaging in microscopy and ophthalmology. Starting by describing High-Resolution 3D Light Microscopy with STED and RESOLFT, the book goes on to cover retinal and anterior segment imaging and image-guided treatment and also discusses the development of adaptive optics in vision science and ophthalmology. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the reader will learn about the latest developments and most up to date technology in the field and how these translate to a medical setting. High Resolution Imaging in Microscopy and Ophthalmology - New Frontiers in Biomedical Optics has been written by leading experts in the field and offers insights on engineering, biology, and medicine, thus being a valuable addition for scientists, engineers, and clinicians with technical and medical interest who would like to understand the equipment, the applications and the medical/biological background. Lastly, this book is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Gerhard Zinser, co-founder of Heidelberg Engineering GmbH, a scientist, a husband, a brother, a colleague, and a friend.
This book covers diverse areas in which nanoscience and nanotechnology have led to significant technological advances and practical applications, with special emphasis on novel types of nanomaterials and their applicability into a new generation of nano- and micro-devices. Different nanomaterials are reviewed with a focus on several practical application areas and their commercial utilization. Production technologies of nanomaterials are presented as one of the challenges today. Sectors where nanotechnology has already significantly contributed are presented, along with specific nanotechnology solutions: energy related sectors, NEMS/MEMS, micro power generators, spintronics and healthcare. The basic properties and applications of nanostructured thermoelectric materials, ferroelectric and piezoelectric nanomaterials are reviewed. Examples of several developed thin-film thermogenerators are shown. A review of existing solutions and developing challenges are given regarding sustainable energy production, photovoltaics, solar cells, hydrogen economy and improved classes of batteries as contributions to green products and circular economy. Novel, highly promising areas in nanotechnology, are shown, such as voltage-driven nano-spintronics. Recent advances in friction characterisation at the nano level are described. Several proven nanomaterials have been reviewed pertaining to biomedicine. The use of nanomaterials in ophthalmology and cosmetic industry are reviewed, and the potential for silver nanoparticles and iron-based nanomaterials in biomedicine, also with recognised challenges and possible threats of non-controlled use of nanomaterials. This work is the result of joint efforts of different companies, academic, and research institutions participating in WIMB Tempus project, 543898-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-ES-TEMPUS-JPHES, "Development of Sustainable Interrelations between Education, Research and Innovation at WBC Universities in Nanotechnologies and Advanced Materials where Innovation Means Business", co-funded by the Tempus Programme of the European Union.
The International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics, and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX) took place in Algarve, Portugal in September of 2013. The congress provided a meeting point of academics and clinical and engineering professionals, promoting translational discussions on how research and technology can meet the needs of clinical practitioners and patients. NEUROTECHNIX emphasized research and application of neurotechnologies to various neurological disorders, including neuromuscular diseases, Parkinson's disease, developmental disorders, dementia, epilepsy, sleep disorders, Multiple Sclerosis, neuroinfections, brain tumors, stroke, traumatic brain injuries, Cerebral Palsy, spinal cord injury and vision and hearing disorders. Authors were invited to submit innovative research work that highlighted new advancements of neurotechnology. Papers describing case studies, advanced prototypes, systems, tools and techniques and general survey papers indicating future directions were encouraged. This book contains a limited selection of extended and revised versions of the best papers presented at the congress, by regular and keynote speakers.
Master the design and operation of perfusion cell cultures with this authoritative reference. Discover the current state-of-the-art in the design and operation of continuous bioreactors, with emphasis on mammalian cell cultures for producing therapeutic proteins. Topics include the current market for recombinant therapeutic proteins, current industry challenges and the potential contribution of continuous manufacturing. Provides coverage of every step of process development and reactor operation, including small scale screening to lab-scale and scale-up to manufacturing scale. Illustrated through real-life case studies, this is a perfect resource for groups active in the cell culture field, as well as graduate students in areas such as chemical engineering, biotechnology, chemistry and biology, and to those in the pharmaceutical industry, particularly biopharma, biotechnology and food or agro industry.
Although many radiation protection scientists and engineers use dose coefficients, few know the origin of those dose coefficients. This is the first book in over 40 years to address the topic of radiation protection dosimetry in intimate detail. Advanced Radiation Protection Dosimetry covers all methods used in radiation protection dosimetry, including advanced external and internal radiation dosimetry concepts and regulatory applications. This book is an ideal reference for both scientists and practitioners in radiation protection and students in graduate health physics and medical physics courses. Features: A much-needed book filling a gap in the market in a rapidly expanding area Contains the history, evolution, and the most up-to-date computational dosimetry models Authored and edited by internationally recognized authorities and subject area specialists Interrogates both the origins and methodologies of dose coefficient calculation Incorporates the latest international guidance for radiation dosimetry and protection
The process of matching a person who has a disability with the most appropriate assistive technology requires a series of assessments, typically administered by multidisciplinary teams at specialized centers for technical aid. Assistive Technology Assessment Handbook fills the need for a reference that helps assistive technology experts perform assessments that more effectively connect the person and the technology. Emphasizing the well-being of the individual with a disability, the book proposes an ideal model of the assistive technology assessment process and outlines how this model can be applied in practice internationally. Organized into three parts, the handbook: Gives readers a toolkit for performing assessments Describes the roles of the assessment team members, among them the new profession of the psychotechnologist, who is skilled in understanding individuals and their psychosocial and technological needs and preferences Reviews cutting-edge technologies for rehabilitation and independent living, including brain-computer interfaces and microswitches The book synthesizes information scattered throughout the international literature, focusing on aspects that are particularly representative or innovative. It also addresses the challenges posed by the variety of health and social care systems and the different ways that individuals who need aid are defined-are they users, patients, clients, or consumers, and how does that affect the assessment? Edited by Stefano Federici and Marcia J. Scherer, internationally renowned leaders in the field of assistive technology assessment, this cross-cultural handbook includes contributions from leading experts across five continents. Guiding readers in matching the person and the appropriate assistive technology, it offers a framework for future practice and research. Listen to Stefano Federici talk about the handbook.
Phycobiliproteins are water soluble, brilliantly colored accessory light-harvesting macromolecules organized in a supramolecular complexes on photosynthetic apparatus in cyanobacteria, red algae and cryptomonads. The objective of this book is to provide state of the art knowledge and highlight the recent developments and future biotechnological and biomedical applications of phycobiliproteins. This book will be highly useful for students, researchers, professionals and experts in the field of Life Sciences and Biomedical Sciences as well as industries for potential applications of phycobiliproteins.
Focusing on mathematical methods in computer tomography, Image Processing: Tensor Transform and Discrete Tomography with MATLAB (R) introduces novel approaches to help in solving the problem of image reconstruction on the Cartesian lattice. Specifically, it discusses methods of image processing along parallel rays to more quickly and accurately reconstruct images from a finite number of projections, thereby avoiding overradiation of the body during a computed tomography (CT) scan. The book presents several new ideas, concepts, and methods, many of which have not been published elsewhere. New concepts include methods of transferring the geometry of rays from the plane to the Cartesian lattice, the point map of projections, the particle and its field function, and the statistical model of averaging. The authors supply numerous examples, MATLAB (R)-based programs, end-of-chapter problems, and experimental results of implementation. The main approach for image reconstruction proposed by the authors differs from existing methods of back-projection, iterative reconstruction, and Fourier and Radon filtering. In this book, the authors explain how to process each projection by a system of linear equations, or linear convolutions, to calculate the corresponding part of the 2-D tensor or paired transform of the discrete image. They then describe how to calculate the inverse transform to obtain the reconstruction. The proposed models for image reconstruction from projections are simple and result in more accurate reconstructions. Introducing a new theory and methods of image reconstruction, this book provides a solid grounding for those interested in further research and in obtaining new results. It encourages readers to develop effective applications of these methods in CT.
This book discusses the importance of oxidative stress, related biomarkers, and its diagnostic methods including bio-analytical and advanced detection systems. Oxidative stress is associated with diminished capacity of a biological system to overcome the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Since oxidative stress has been suggested as a causative factor in many diseases, its prevention is vital, and there is an urgent need for oxidative stress monitoring using in vitro and in vivo models. Interdisciplinary approaches have lead to the development of various oxidative stress monitoring models for real-world clinical and biomedical applications. The development of such methods requires a broad understanding of biology, chemistry, molecular biology, immunology and microbiology. As such, the book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and clinicians interested in the fundamental as well as applied aspects of oxidative stress associated diseases.
Biopolymers found in marine animals and plants offer tremendous, largely untapped pharmaceutical potential. Research shows that these biopolymers can be used to combat various infectious as well as inflammatory, oxidative, and carcinogenic factors. Chitin, Chitosan, Oligosaccharides and Their Derivatives: Biological Activities and Applications covers the key aspects of these therapeutically valuable biopolymers and their derivatives, namely, their properties, sources, production, and applications in food science and technology as well as biological, biomedical, industrial, and agricultural fields.
Contains more than 100 Tables & Figures and more than 800
With their wide range of applications, the world is looking to biopolymers to serve as the basis for functional food- and drug development. This book is an important resource for those leading this effort.
This book provides a comprehensive review of the chemistry and research illustrating the benefits of polyurethane for immobilizing cells, with dozens of case studies in medical devices and environmental engineering. Offers an essential resource for medical and environmental scientists Provides a multidisciplinary and lucid writing style that uses little or no jargon Extrapolates current technology into advanced areas, especially environmental remediation and medical devices Fills the gap between immobilization research and practical applications
Photoacoustics promises to revolutionize medical imaging and may well make as dramatic a contribution to modern medicine as the discovery of the x-ray itself once did. Combining electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves synergistically, photoacoustics can provide deep speckle-free imaging with high electromagnetic contrast at high ultrasonic resolution and without any health risk. While photoacoustic imaging is probably the fastest growing biomedical imaging technology, this book is the first comprehensive volume in this emerging field covering both the physics and the remarkable noninvasive applications that are changing diagnostic medicine. Bringing together the leading pioneers in this field to write about their own work, Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy is the first to provide a full account of the latest research and developing applications in the area of biomedical photoacoustics. Photoacoustics can provide functional sensing of physiological parameters such as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. It can also provide high-contrast functional imaging of angiogenesis and hypermetabolism in tumors in vivo. Discussing these remarkable noninvasive applications and so much more, this reference is essential reading for all researchers in medical imaging and those clinicians working at the cutting-edge of modern biotechnology to develop diagnostic techniques that can save many lives and just as importantly do no harm.
Body area networks (BANs) are networks of wireless sensors and medical devices embedded in clothing, worn on or implanted in the body, and have the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling pervasive healthcare. However, due to their critical applications affecting human health, challenges arise when designing them to ensure they are safe for the user, sustainable without requiring frequent battery replacements and secure from interference and malicious attacks. This book lays the foundations of how BANs can be redesigned from a cyber-physical systems perspective (CPS) to overcome these issues. Introducing cutting-edge theoretical and practical techniques and taking into account the unique environment-coupled characteristics of BANs, the book examines how we can re-imagine the design of safe, secure and sustainable BANs. It features real-world case studies, suggestions for further investigation and project ideas, making it invaluable for anyone involved in pervasive and mobile healthcare, telemedicine, medical apps and other cyber-physical systems.
The present book provides recent developments in various in vivo imaging and sensing techniques such as photo acoustics (PA) imaging and microscopy, ultrasound-PA combined modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and micro OCT, Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) techniques and nanoparticle enabled endoscopy etc. There is also a contributing chapter from leading medical instrumentation company on their view of optical imaging techniques in clinical laparoscopic surgery. The UN proclaimed 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, emphasizing achievements in the optical sciences and their importance to human beings. In this context, this book focusses on the recent advances in biophotonics techniques primarily focused towards translational medicine contributed by thought leaders who have made cutting edge developments in various photonics techniques.
This introductory text explains both the basic science and the applications of biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, with special emphasis on their clinical use. It serves as a complete one-stop source for undergraduate/graduate pharmacists, pharmaceutical science students, and for those in the pharmaceutical industry. The Fifth Edition completely updates the previous edition, and also includes additional coverage on the newer approaches such as oligonucleotides, siRNA, gene therapy and nanotech and enzyme replacement therapy.
This volume deals with topics such as mechanism and machine design, biomechanics and medical engineering, gears, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, micromechanisms and microactuators, and history of mechanisms and transmissions. Following MeTrApp 2011 and 2013, held under the auspices of the IFToMM, these proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications offer a platform for original research presentations for researchers, scientists, industry experts and students in the fields of mechanisms and transmissions with special emphasis on industrial applications in order to stimulate the exchange of new and innovative ideas.
The second edition of this popular introductory undergraduate textbook uses examples, applications, and profiles of biomedical engineers to show students the relevance of the theory and how it can be used to solve real problems in human medicine. The essential molecular biology, cellular biology, and human physiology background is included for students to understand the context in which biomedical engineers work. Updates throughout highlight important advances made over recent years, including iPS cells, microRNA, nanomedicine, imaging technology, biosensors, and drug delivery systems, giving students a modern description of the various subfields of biomedical engineering. Over two hundred quantitative and qualitative exercises, many new to this edition, help consolidate learning, whilst a solutions manual, password-protected for instructors, is available online. Finally, students can enjoy an expanded set of leader profiles in biomedical engineering within the book, showcasing the broad range of career paths open to students who make biomedical engineering their calling.
Mathematical modelling of physiological systems promises to advance our understanding of complex biological phenomena and pathophysiology of diseases. In this book, the authors adopt a mathematical approach to characterize and explain the functioning of the gastrointestinal system. Using the mathematical foundations of thin shell theory, the authors patiently and comprehensively guide the reader through the fundamental theoretical concepts, via step-by-step derivations and mathematical exercises, from basic theory to complex physiological models. Applications to nonlinear problems related to the biomechanics of abdominal viscera and the theoretical limitations are discussed. Special attention is given to questions of complex geometry of organs, effects of boundary conditions on pellet propulsion, as well as to clinical conditions, e.g. functional dyspepsia, intestinal dysrhythmias and the effect of drugs to treat motility disorders. With end of chapter problems, this book is ideal for bioengineers and applied mathematicians.
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