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This book brings together the most up-to-date information on the fabrication techniques, properties, and potential applications of low dimensional silicon carbide (SiC) nanostructures such as nanocrystallites, nanowires, nanotubes, and nanostructured films. It also summarizes the tremendous achievements acquired during the past three decades involving structural, electronic, and optical properties of bulk silicon carbide crystals. SiC nanostructures exhibit a range of fascinating and industrially important properties, such as diverse polytypes, stability of interband and defect-related green to blue luminescence, inertness to chemical surroundings, and good biocompatibility. These properties have generated an increasing interest in the materials, which have great potential in a variety of applications across the fields of nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, electron field emission, sensing, quantum information, energy conversion and storage, biomedical engineering, and medicine. SiC is also a most promising substitute for silicon in high power, high temperature, and high frequency microelectronic devices. Recent breakthrough pertaining to the synthesis of ultra-high quality SiC single-crystals will bring the materials closer to real applications. Silicon Carbide Nanostructures: Fabrication, Structure, and Properties provides a unique reference book for researchers and graduate students in this emerging field. It is intended for materials scientists, physicists, chemists, and engineers in microelectronics, optoelectronics, and biomedical engineering.
This book is a timely report on current neurotechnology research. It presents a snapshot of the state of the art in the field, discusses current challenges and identifies new directions. The book includes a selection of extended and revised contributions presented at the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), held October 25-26 in Rome, Italy. The chapters are varied: some report on novel theoretical methods for studying neuronal connectivity or neural system behaviour; others report on advanced technologies developed for similar purposes; while further contributions concern new engineering methods and technological tools supporting medical diagnosis and neurorehabilitation. All in all, this book provides graduate students, researchers and practitioners dealing with different aspects of neurotechnologies with a unified view of the field, thus fostering new ideas and research collaborations among groups from different disciplines.
This thesis reports on a novel system for extracellular recordings of the activity of excitable cells, which relies on an organic, charge-modulated field-effect transistor (FET) called OCMFET. The book shows how, thanks to the intrinsic biocompatibility, lightness, and inexpensiveness of the material used, this new system is able to overcome several problems typical of of "classic" electronic and bioelectronic. It provides a full description of the system, together with a comprehensive report of the successful experimental trials carried out on both cardiac and nerve cells, and a concise yet comprehensive overview of bioelectronic interfaces and organic sensors for electrophysiological applications.
This work represents an inventive attempt to apply recent advances in nanotechnology to identify and characterise novel polymer systems for drug delivery through the skin. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of the nanoscale mechanical properties of topical, drug-containing polymeric films enabled the author to identify optimal compositions, in terms of flexibility and substantivity, for application to the skin. To elucidate the enhanced drug release from polyacrylate films incorporating medium chain triglycerides, the author combined AFM studies with the complementary technique of Raman micro-spectroscopy. This experimental strategy revealed that the significant increase in the drug released from these films is the result of a nanoscale two-phase structure. Finally, in experiments examining the microporation of skin using femtosecond laser ablation, the author demonstrated that the threshold at which the skin's barrier function is undermined can be dramatically reduced by the pre-application of ink. The approach allows thermal damage at the pore edge to be minimised, suggesting a very real potential for substantially increasing drug delivery in a minimally invasive fashion.
This volume reports on recent mathematical and computational advances in optical, ultrasound, and opto-acoustic tomographies. It outlines the state-of-the-art and future directions in these fields and provides readers with the most recently developed mathematical and computational tools. It is particularly suitable for researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics and biomedical engineering.
This book covers the latest research work done in the area of interface mechanics of collagen and chitin-based biomaterials along with various techniques that can be used to understand mechanics of biological systems and materials. Topics covered include Raman spectroscopy of biological systems, scale dependence of the mechanical properties and microstructure of crustaceans thin films as biomimetic materials, as well as the role of molecular-level modeling. The use of nanomechanics to investigate interface thermomechanics of collagen and chitin-based biomaterials is also covered in detail. This book also: * Details spectroscope experiments as well as nanomechanic experiments * Reviews exhaustively phenomenological models and Raman spectroscopy of biological systems * Covers the latest in multiscaling for molecular models to predict lab-scale sample properties and investigates interface thermomechanics
Drug discovery and development is usually preformed by the pharmaceutical industry which leads to a lack of knowledge by the academic community on basic concepts and strategies to discover and develop new therapies. This volume will therefore elaborate on the drug discovery and development process. It will also provide a comprehensive overview on the biology behind the current treatment options for cancer patients, including cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy.
Through its scope and depth of coverage, this book addresses the needs of the vibrant and rapidly growing engineering fields, bioengineering and biomedical engineering, while implementing software that engineers are familiar with. The author integrates introductory statistics for engineers and introductory biostatistics as a single textbook heavily oriented to computation and hands on approaches. For example, topics ranging from the aspects of disease and device testing, Sensitivity, Specificity and ROC curves, Epidemiological Risk Theory, Survival Analysis, or Logistic and Poisson Regressions are covered. In addition to the synergy of engineering and biostatistical approaches, the novelty of this book is in the substantial coverage of Bayesian approaches to statistical inference. Many examples in this text are solved using both the traditional and Bayesian methods, and the results are compared and commented.
This book introduces readers to the basic concepts of Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and its most important analysis algorithms using a hands-on approach based on the open-source RHRV software. HRV refers to the variation over time of the intervals between consecutive heartbeats. Despite its apparent simplicity, HRV is one of the most important markers of the autonomic nervous system activity and it has been recognized as a useful predictor of several pathologies. The book discusses all the basic HRV topics, including the physiological contributions to HRV, clinical applications, HRV data acquisition, HRV data manipulation and HRV analysis using time-domain, frequency-domain, time-frequency, nonlinear and fractal techniques. Detailed examples based on real data sets are provided throughout the book to illustrate the algorithms and discuss the physiological implications of the results. Offering a comprehensive guide to analyzing beat information with RHRV, the book is intended for masters and Ph.D. students in various disciplines such as biomedical engineering, human and veterinary medicine, biology, and pharmacy, as well as researchers conducting heart rate variability analyses on both human and animal data.
This volume provides updated, in-depth material on the application of intelligent optimization in biology and medicine. The aim of the book is to present solutions to the challenges and problems facing biology and medicine applications. This Volume comprises of 13 chapters, including an overview chapter, providing an up-to-date and state-of-the research on the application of intelligent optimization for bioinformatics applications, DNA based Steganography, a modified Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm for Solving Capacitated Maximal Covering Location Problem in Healthcare Systems, Optimization Methods for Medical Image Super Resolution Reconstruction and breast cancer classification. Moreover, some chapters that describe several bio-inspired approaches in MEDLINE Text Mining, DNA-Binding Proteins and Classes, Optimized Tumor Breast Cancer Classification using Combining Random Subspace and Static Classifiers Selection Paradigms, and Dental Image Registration. The book will be a useful compendium for a broad range of readers-from students of undergraduate to postgraduate levels and also for researchers, professionals, etc.-who wish to enrich their knowledge on Intelligent Optimization in Biology and Medicine and applications with one single book.
This book covers multi-scale biomechanics for oncology, ranging from cells and tissues to whole organ. Topics covered include, but not limited to, biomaterials in mechano-oncology, non-invasive imaging techniques, mechanical models of cell migration, cancer cell mechanics, and platelet-based drug delivery for cancer applications. This is an ideal book for graduate students, biomedical engineers, and researchers in the field of mechanobiology and oncology. This book also: Describes how mechanical properties of cancer cells, the extracellular matrix, tumor microenvironment and immuno-editing, and fluid flow dynamics contribute to tumor progression and the metastatic process Provides the latest research on non-invasive imaging, including traction force microscopy and brillouin confocal microscopy Includes insight into NCIs' role in supporting biomechanics in oncology research Details how biomaterials in mechano-oncology can be used as a means to tune materials to study cancer
This book shows the advantages of using different perspectives and scientific backgrounds for developing support technologies that are integrated into daily life. It highlights the interaction between people and technology as a key factor for achieving this integration and discusses relevant methods, concepts, technologies, and applications suitable for interdisciplinary exchange and collaboration. The relationship between humans and technology has become much more inclusive and interdependent. This generates a number of technical, ethical, social, and practical issues. By gathering contributions from scholars from heterogeneous research fields, such as biomechanics, various branches of engineering, the social sciences, information science, psychology, and philosophy, this book is intended to provide answers to the main questions arising when support technologies such as assistance systems, wearable devices, augmented reality, and/or robot-based systems are constructed, implemented, interfaced and/or evaluated across different application contexts.
This authored monograph presents key aspects of signal processing analysis in the biomedical arena. Unlike wireless communication systems, biological entities produce signals with underlying nonlinear, chaotic nature that elude classification using the standard signal processing techniques, which have been developed over the past several decades for dealing primarily with standard communication systems. This book separates what is random from that which appears to be random and yet is truly deterministic with random appearance. At its core, this work gives the reader a perspective on biomedical signals and the means to classify and process such signals. In particular, a review of random processes along with means to assess the behavior of random signals is also provided. The book also includes a general discussion of biological signals in order to demonstrate the inefficacy of the well-known techniques to correctly extract meaningful information from such signals. Finally, a thorough discussion of recently proposed signal processing tools and methods for addressing biological signals is included. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and expert practitioners but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
Regenerative medicine is broadly defined as the repair or replacement of damaged cells, tissues, and organs. It is a multidisciplinary effort in which technologies derive from the fields of cell, developmental, and molecular biology; chemical and material sciences (i.e., nanotechnology); engineering; surgery; transplantation; immunology; molecular genetics; physiology; and pharmacology. As regenerative medicine technologies continue to evolve and expand across the boundaries of numerous scientific disciplines, they remain at the forefront of the translational research frontier with the potential to radically alter the treatment of a wide variety of disease and dysfunction. The goal of this book is to draw attention to the critical role that the pharmacological sciences will undeniably play in the advancement of these treatments. This book is invaluable for advanced students, postdoctoral fellows, researchers new to the field of regenerative medicine/tissue engineering, and experienced investigators looking for new research avenues. This is the first state-of-the-art book in this rapidly evolving field of research.
This book introduces senior-level and postgraduate students to the principles and applications of biophotonics. It also serves as a valuable reference resource or as a short-course textbook for practicing physicians, clinicians, biomedical researchers, healthcare professionals, and biomedical engineers and technicians dealing with the design, development, and application of photonics components and instrumentation to biophotonics issues. The topics include the fundamentals of optics and photonics, the optical properties of biological tissues, light-tissue interactions, microscopy for visualizing tissue components, spectroscopy for optically analyzing the properties of tissue, and optical biomedical imaging. It also describes tools and techniques such as laser and LED optical sources, photodetectors, optical fibers, bioluminescent probes for labeling cells, optical-based biosensors, surface plasmon resonance, and lab-on-a-chip technologies. Among the applications are optical coherence tomography (OCT), optical imaging modalities, photodynamic therapy (PDT), photobiostimulation or low-level light therapy (LLLT), diverse microscopic and spectroscopic techniques, tissue characterization, laser tissue ablation, optical trapping, and optogenetics. Worked examples further explain the material and how it can be applied to practical designs, and the homework problems help test readers' understanding of the text.
"Microsystems for Bioelectronics" is the ultimate guide in the
biomedical application industry. It provides a physics-based
assessment of the limitless potential of miniaturization
technologies. This book goes far beyond the complete design of the
final systems. It also discusses the developments of computation
and communication subsystems. The future of this technology lies in
understanding the scaling limits for the individual systems. This
includes all of its components and the fundamental energy source
that powers all autonomous microsystems. Rapid advances in
microfabrication technologies are offering new opportunities and
capabilities to develop systems for biomedical applications. These
applications include the diagnostics community and those that are
active in therapy services. "Microsystems for Bioelectronics" is
one of the only books on the market today that goes into the
comprehensive treatment of integrated microsystems.
Outlines the problems with miniaturization of energy sources
Perfect reference for those in both the Engineering and Medical Profession "
This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.
This book presents latest results and selected applications of Computational Intelligence in Biomedical Technologies. Most of contributions deal with problems of Biomedical and Medical Informatics, ranging from theoretical considerations to practical applications. Various aspects of development methods and algorithms in Biomedical and Medical Informatics as well as Algorithms for medical image processing, modeling methods are discussed. Individual contributions also cover medical decision making support, estimation of risks of treatments, reliability of medical systems, problems of practical clinical applications and many other topics. This book is intended for scientists interested in problems of Biomedical Technologies, for researchers and academic staff, for all dealing with Biomedical and Medical Informatics, as well as PhD students. Useful information is offered also to IT companies, developers of equipment and/or software for medicine and medical professionals.
This book is a collection of all the experimental results and analysis carried out on medical images of diabetic related causes. The experimental investigations have been carried out on images starting from very basic image processing techniques such as image enhancement to sophisticated image segmentation methods. This book is intended to create an awareness on diabetes and its related causes and image processing methods used to detect and forecast in a very simple way. This book is useful to researchers, Engineers, Medical Doctors and Bioinformatics researchers.
This short book presents an overview of different types of biomaterial such as bio ceramics, bio polymers, metals and bio composites, while especially focusing on nano biomaterials and their applications in different tissues. It provides a compact introduction to nano materials for drug delivery systems, tissue engineering and implants, while also reviewing essential trends in the biomaterial field over the last few decades and the latest developments.
This book focuses on the analysis and treatment of osteoporotic bone based on drug administration, tracking fatigue behavior and taking into consideration the mechanical interaction of implants with trabecular bone. Weak trabeculae are one of the most important clinical features that need to be addressed in order to prevent hip joint fractures.
This volume presents the proceedings of the first European Biomedical Engineering Conference for Young Investigators ENCY2015. It was in Budapest, from 28th to 30th May, 2015. The papers were assembled under the motto "Understanding complex living systems" and cover the topics sensors, image processing, bioinformatics, biomechanics, and modeling.
This book provides the state-of-the-art survey of green techniques in preparation of different classes of nanomaterials, with an emphasis on the use of renewable sources. Key topics covered include fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques as well as their properties and applications, the use of renewable sources to obtain nanomaterials of different classes, from simple metal and metal oxide nanoparticles to complex bioinspired nanomaterials, economic contributions of nanotechnology to green and sustainable growth, and more. This is an ideal book for students, lecturers, researchers and engineers dealing with versatile (mainly chemical, biological, and medical) aspects of nanotechnology, including fabrication of nanomaterials using green techniques and their properties and applications.
This book presents the latest research findings and reviews in the field of medical imaging technology, covering ultrasound diagnostics approaches for detecting osteoarthritis, breast carcinoma and cardiovascular conditions, image guided biopsy and segmentation techniques for detecting lung cancer, image fusion, and simulating fluid flows for cardiovascular applications. It offers a useful guide for students, lecturers and professional researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering and image processing.
The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly and refreshing manner, both theoretical concepts and practical techniques for the important and exciting field of Artificial Intelligence that can be directly applied to real-world healthcare problems. Healthcare - the final frontier. Lately, it seems like Pandora opened the box and evil was released into the world. Fortunately, there was one thing left in the box: hope. In recent decades, hope has been increasingly represented by Intelligent Decision Support Systems. Their continuing mission: to explore strange new diseases, to seek out new treatments and drugs, and to intelligently manage healthcare resources and patients. Hence, this book is designed for all those who wish to learn how to explore, analyze and find new solutions for the most challenging domain of all time: healthcare.
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