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This book will serve as the preeminent text book on the topic of 'base excision repair', a key DNA repair pathway that protects cells from most spontaneous forms of DNA damage, including oxidative lesions that arise both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The book, which includes contributions from many of the world leaders in the field, provides a detailed description of the molecular mechanisms of base excision repair, as well as its emerging relationship to epigenetic regulation, the aging process and human disease, such as cancer susceptibility, immunological defects and neurological disorders. The book will also cover the state-of-the-art technologies being developed to assess base excision repair capacity among individuals in the population, in addition to the strategies being employed to target base excision repair as part of therapeutic paradigms to eradicate disease, namely cancer.This book represents one of the most extensive efforts to date to cover the topic of 'base excision repair'. It includes chapters by many of the most established investigators in the field, from all over the world.
This book examines the state of the art in diverse areas of haptics (touch)-related research, including the psychophysics and neurophysiology of haptics, development of haptics displays and sensors, and applications to a wide variety of fields such as industry, education, therapy, medicine, and welfare for the visually impaired. It also discusses the potential of future haptics interaction, such as haptics for emotional control and remote haptics communication. The book offers a valuable resource not only for haptics and human interface researchers, but also for developers and designers at manufacturing corporations and in the entertainment industries.
The book set develops a bridge between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. While the first volume is focused on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and the resultant biosignals, this second volume is devoted to the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. That is, in the first volume, the physiologic mechanisms determining biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level. This second volume, considers the genesis of acoustic and optic biosignals and the associated sensing technology from a strategic point of view. As a novelty, this book discusses heterogeneous biosignals within a common frame. This frame comprises both the biosignal formation path from the biosignal source at the physiological level to biosignal propagation in the body, and the biosignal sensing path from the biosignal transmission in the sensor applied on the body up to its conversion to a, usually electric, signal. Some biosignals arise in the course of the body's vital functions while others map these functions that convey physiological data to an observer. It is highly instructive how sound and light beams interact with biological tissues, yielding acoustic and optic biosignals, respectively. Discussed phenomena teach a lot about the physics of sound and physics of light (as engineering sciences), and, on the other hand, biology and physiology (as live sciences). The highly interdisciplinary nature of biosignals and biomedical sensors is obviously a challenge. However, it is a rewarding challenge after it has been coped with in a strategic way, as offered here. The book is intended to have the presence to answer intriguing "Aha!" questions.
This Brief introduces SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs), the different synthesis approaches, their applications in the field of diagnostics and treatment and finally as theranostic agents in cancer.
This brief summarizes different types of organic and inorganic nanomaterials for drug delivery in cancer therapy. It highlights that precisely designed nanomaterials will be the next-generation therapeutic agents for cancer treatment.
This book offers readers a comprehensive biomaterials-based approach to achieving clinically successful, functionally integrated vasculogenesis and myogenesis in the heart. Coverage is multidisciplinary, including the role of extracellular matrices in cardiac development, whole-heart tissue engineering, imaging the mechanisms and effects of biomaterial-based cardiac regeneration, and autologous bioengineered heart valves. Bringing current knowledge together into a single volume, this book provides a compendium to students and new researchers in the field and constitutes a platform to allow for future developments and collaborative approaches in biomaterials-based regenerative medicine, even beyond cardiac applications.
Stress induced electrical charges, action potential and electret behavior of bone, muscles, skin and nerve cells have been known for some time. Electrically Active Materials for Medical Devices builds on this knowledge and encourages readers to understand and exploit electrical activity in biomaterials from native, derived, or completely synthetic origin, or a combination thereof. It presents data and insights from both historic and contemporary research that spans over six decades with a view to generate convergence of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills.Divided into four parts, this book first introduces the reader to a general overview of electrically active materials in biology and biomedical science and describes important concepts and pioneering discoveries. The second part discusses common types of materials that are known to generate electrical activity and lays the foundation for these materials for use in medical devices. The third part gives examples of where electrically active materials have been examined for device application. The final part looks for upcoming and emerging concepts, tools and methodologies that are expected to shape the future profile of this field of converging science.Written by specialists in their respective fields, it has been specifically targeted at a readership of professionals, graduate students and researchers in the fields of biomedical engineering, physics, chemistry biology and clinical medicine.
This book compiles various methodologies used in understanding interactions within the rhizosphere. An in-depth understanding of the rhizosphere is essential to developing successful strategies for future sustainable agriculture. The book summarizes methods and techniques used to study the mechanisms involved in mutualistic symbioses and pathogenic interactions of plants with various microbial organisms including fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes. Each chapter discusses different methodologies used in rhizosphere biology, while also providing real-world experimental data and trouble-shooting tips. Interested researchers will also find a wealth of literature references for further research. As the first comprehensive manual and compilation of methods and techniques used in rhizosphere biology, the book represents an essential resource for all researchers who are newcomers to soil microbiology experimentation.
Biomechanics applies the laws and techniques of mechanics in the study of biological systems and related phenomena. Biomechanics uses mathematical and computational tools such as model construction of musclo-skeletal system, body fluid circulation, to aid medical diagnosis, therapeutics and surgery planning, designing of prostheses and implants or in tissue engineering. Present book targets specific topics pertaining to the biomechanics of soft tissues. Subjects addressed includes solids and multi-species mixtures as open systems: a continuum mechanics perspective; electro-chemo-mechanical couplings: tissues with a fixed electric charge and growth of biological tissues.
This book covers two most important applications of smart sensors, namely bio-health sensing and environmental monitoring. The approach taken is holistic and covers the complete scope of the subject matter from the principles of the sensing mechanism, through device physics, circuit and system implementation techniques, and energy issues to wireless connectivity solutions. It is written at a level suitable mainly for post-graduate level researchers interested in practical applications. The chapters are independent but complementary to each other, and the book works within the wider perspective of essential smart sensors for the Internet of Things (IoT). This is the second of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies. The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering significant improvements in information processing speed, energy usage, and size. This book contains substantial reference lists and over 150 figures, introducing the reader to the subject in a tutorial style whilst also addressing state-of-the-art research results, allowing it to be used as a guide for starting researchers.
The use of micro / nanotechnology in cell and tissue engineering, and especially for cell and tissue preservation, is at the peak of its activity now, with scientific output expected to continue growing in the coming years.Micro and nanotechnologies have induced paradigm shifts in many scientific fields, and as featured in this edited volume, they are having important impact in the field of cryomedicine. The book gives an overview of the recent progress in implementing multiscale (micro and nanoscale) technologies to improve the outcome of various cryomedical applications including cryosurgery, cryopreservation, lyopreservation and to understand the fundamental engineering and science underpinning the applications.This is the first book that will provide both an introductory and in-depth account of applying the multiscale technologies in cryomedicine.
Through millions of years' natural selection, sharkskin has developed into a kind of drag-reducing surface. This book shows how to investigate, model, fabricate and apply sharkskin's unique surface properties, creating a flexible platform for surface and materials engineers and scientists to readily adopt or adapt for their own bio-inspired materials.Rather than inundate the reader with too many examples of materials inspired by nature, sharkskin has been chosen as the center-piece to illustrate accurate 3D digital modeling of surfaces, complete numerical simulation of micro flow field, different fabrication methods, and application to natural gas pipelining. This is a must-read for any researcher or engineer involved in bio-inspired surfaces and materials studies.
This book is aimed to summarise the key aspects of the role of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in breast cancer, with special attention to their contribution to tumour progression and establishment of metastatic disease. We aim to give a clear overview of the knowledge about CTCs, framed in the context of breast cancer, by analysing basic and clinical research carried out so far. In a broader sense, we will address what are the main clinical needs of this disease based on its molecular heterogeneity (subtypes) and lay out the knowledge and understanding that CTCs are giving about it and how they are contributing and can still improve the better monitoring and management of breast cancer patients. We will discuss the evidences of the use of CTCs as a tool to monitor cancer progression and therapy response, based on the prognostic and predictive value they have, as well as a tool to unravel mechanisms of resistance to therapy and to identify new biomarkers allowing to predict therapy success. Moreover, we will analyse the main aspects of ongoing clinical trials and how they can contribute to determine the clinical utility of CTCs as a breast cancer biomarker. We will also touch upon general knowledge or basic notions of the biology of the metastatic process in epithelial cancers, in order to understand the origin and biology of CTCs. In this sense, we will pay special attention to EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition), dormancy and minimal residual disease, three key aspects that determine the outcome of the disease. We will also cover general aspects on the isolation and characterization techniques applies to the study of CTCs, and also the possibilities that the study of CTCs, as a biomarker with biological function, is opening in terms of understanding the biology of metastatic cells and the identification of therapeutic targets based on the functional and molecular characterization of CTCs. Lastly, we will try to foresee the future of CTCs in terms of clinical application and implementation in the clinical routine.
This book presents a wealth of insights and new conceptualizations for the development of "Assistive Technologies for the Interaction of the Elderly." The book arranges the chaptersaccording to important aspects of maximizing the use value in innovation projects. Every chapter will include an executive summary reporting the main results, a storyline using everyday language, and scientific excursions, wherever useful.
The book shows how an innovation project should be structured towards maximum use value and how a project should be structured in order to make a difference. It describes the useful categorization of the large group of the elderly to maximize the focus of the innovation and demonstrates the user involvement into innovation activities. Of course, the assessment of such innovative projects is discussed as well as the lessons learned . The book also explores the business opportunities and the financial evaluation of aspects of assistive technology.
Modern acoustics has blossomed rapidly in the past decades. Beginning as a branch off from the classical physics, modern acoustics has become an interdisciplinary science that has exceeded the boundaries of its origins. As a result, the demand for graduate students, professionals and specialists who need to master the knowledge of acoustics is growing quickly. The primary goal of this publication is to meet this urgent need by providing an updated, comprehensive reference book that educates readers on both fundamental concepts as well as their broader applications in the fast-moving technological world. The Handbook of Contemporary Acoustics and Its Applications systematically covers the theoretical principle and analytical methodology of generation, propagation and reception of acoustic waves in an ideal (inviscid) and non-ideal fluid media. The topics include the transduction, radiation, scattering, diffraction and reception of the acoustic wave. It also discusses the acoustic field in a duct/pipe, waveguide and cavity, the wave propagation in the multi-layers, nonlinear finite amplitude wave propagation and the mechanisms of physical and biological effects and their broad modern applications such as sonoporation, targeted drug delivery, acoustic tweezers, noninvasive high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) surgery, as well as sonoluminscence. Readers are also provided with the fundamental mathematic background and relevant references necessary for their creative inventions and applications.This handbook is intended for senior undergraduate and graduate students, as well as specialists working in relevant fields, and may be used as a textbook in courses covering acoustics.
This manual describes the procedures required to make dentures and
removable partial dentures. The book outlines each step in detail,
including some clinical procedures, and emphasizes the relationship
between clinical dentistry and dental laboratory technology.
A network is a mathematical object consisting of a set of pointsthat are connected to each other in somefashion by lines. It turns out thissimple descriptioncorresponds to a bewildering array of systems in the real world, ranging from technological ones such as the Internet and WorldWide Web, biological networks such as that of connections of thenervous systems, food webs or protein interactions, infrastructural systems such as networks of roads, airports or the power-grid, to patterns of social and professional relationships such as friendship, sex partners, network ofHollywood actors, co-authorship networks and many more.
Recent years have witnessed a substantial amount of interest within thescientific community in the properties of these networks. The emergenceof the internet in particular, coupled with the widespread availability ofinexpensive computing resources has facilitated studies ranging fromlarge scale empirical analysis of networks in the real world, to the developmentof theoretical models and tools to explore the various properties of these systems.The study of networks is broadly interdisciplinary and central developments haveoccurred in many fields, including mathematics, physics, computer and informationsciences, biology and the social sciences.
This book brings together a collectionof cutting-edge research in the field from adiversearray of researchers ranging fromphysicists to social scientists and presents them in acoherent fashion, highlighting thestrong interconnections between the different areas. Topicsincluded are social networks and social media, opinion and innovation diffusion, biological and health-related networks, language networks, as well as network theory, community detection, or growth models for Complex Networks."
Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) can generate a voltage when physically deformed. Conversely, an applied small voltage or electrical field can induce an array of spectacular large deformation or actuation behaviours in IPMCs, such as bending, twisting, rolling, twirling, steering and undulating. An important smart material, IPMCs have applications in energy harvesting and as self-powered strain or deformation sensors, especially suitable for monitoring the shape of dynamic structures. Other uses include soft actuation applications and as a material for biomimetic robotic soft artificial muscles in industrial and medical contexts. This comprehensive set on ionic polymer metal composites provides a broad coverage of the state of the art and recent advances in the field written by some of the world's leading experts on various characterizations and modeling of IPMCs. The first two chapters cover the fundamentals of IPMCs and methodologies for their manufacture, followed by specific chapters looking at different aspects of actuation and sensing of IPMCs. These include uses in electrochemically active electrodes, electric energy storage devices, soft biomimetic robotics artificial muscles, multiphysics modeling of IPMCs, biomedical applications, IPMCs as dexterous manipulators and tactile sensors for minimally invasive robotic surgery, self-sensing, miniature pumps for drug delivery, IPMC snake-like robots, IPMC microgrippers for microorganisms manipulations, Graphene-based IPMCs and cellulose-based IPMCs or electroactive paper actuators (EAPap). Edited by the leading authority on IMPCs, the broad coverage of this book will appeal to researchers from chemistry, materials, engineering, physics and medical communities interested in both the material and its applications.
This contributed volume reviews the latest advances on relevant 3D tissue engineered in vitro models of disease making use of biomaterials and microfluidics. The main focus of this book is on advanced biomaterials and microfluidics technologies that have been used in in vitro mimetic 3D models of human diseases and show great promise in revolutionizing personalized medicine. Readers will discover important topics involving biomaterials and microfluidics design, advanced processing techniques, and development and validation of organ- and body-on-a-chip models for bone, liver, and cancer research. An in depth discussion of microfabrication methods for microfluidics development is also provided. This work is edited by two truly multidisciplinary scientists and includes important contributions from well-known experts in their fields. The work is written for both early stage and experienced researchers, and well-established scientists enrolled in the fields of biomaterials, microfluidics, and tissue engineering, and is especially suited to those who wish to become acquainted with the principles and latest developments of in vitro models of diseases, such as professionals working in pharma, medicine, and engineering.
This thesis lays the groundwork for the automatic supervision of the laser incision process, which aims to complement surgeons' perception of the state of tissues and enhance their control over laser incisions. The research problem is formulated as the estimation of variables that are representative of the state of tissues during laser cutting. Prior research in this area leveraged numerical computation methods that bear a high computational cost and are not straightforward to use in a surgical setting. This book proposes a novel solution to this problem, using models inspired by the ability of experienced surgeons to perform precise and clean laser cutting. It shows that these new models, which were extracted from experimental data using statistical learning techniques, are straightforward to use in a surgical setup, allowing greater precision in laser-based surgical procedures.
Regenerative engineering, with its ability to foster novel therapeutic techniques and strategies, has emerged as the most versatile and innovative technology of the 21st century. The past few years have seen a significant interest in the development of injectable hydrogels as a delivery system to realize the dream of regenerative engineering. The book will explain synthetic approaches towards developing injectable hydrogels, and the clinical implications and applications of injectable hydrogels for engineering various tissues. Injectable Hydrogels for Regenerative Engineering is the first of its kind to bring together the fields of injectable hydrogels and regenerative engineering to give a perspective of the emerging therapeutic strategies for a wide audience.
This monograph presents the latest results related to bio-mechanical systems and materials. The bio-mechanical systems with which his book is concerned are prostheses, implants, medical operation robots and muscular re-training systems. To characterize and design such systems, a multi-disciplinary approach is required which involves the classical disciplines of mechanical/materials engineering and biology and medicine. The challenge in such an approach is that views, concepts or even language are sometimes different from discipline to discipline and the interaction and communication of the scientists must be first developed and adjusted. Within the context of materials' science, the book covers the interaction of materials with mechanical systems, their description as a mechanical system or their mechanical properties.
The replacement of a degenerated joint such as the hip and knee is one of the most outstanding interventions that allows the medical community to restore the patient's quality of life. However, today's patient is increasingly younger and more active and this presents a challenge for the orthopaedic community as a greater demand has been created for a longer lasting artificial joint that can allow the patient to maintain their lifestyle and thus new approaches in biotribology have been focused on this area of research.This invaluable book provides a broad introduction to the boundary conditions, developments and latest research activities already available to the surgeon and offers an insight into solutions being developed for new high performance bearings in joint replacements. The contributors are leading experts in their field and this is the first complete volume to bring together such unique insights. Orthopaedic engineers, surgeons and researchers concerned with new biomaterials would find this a vital reference volume to evaluate the latest state of research in the area.
This book is a timely report on current neurotechnology research. It presents a snapshot of the state of the art in the field, discusses current challenges and identifies new directions. The book includes a selection of extended and revised contributions presented at the 2nd International Congress on Neurotechnology, Electronics and Informatics (NEUROTECHNIX 2014), held October 25-26 in Rome, Italy. The chapters are varied: some report on novel theoretical methods for studying neuronal connectivity or neural system behaviour; others report on advanced technologies developed for similar purposes; while further contributions concern new engineering methods and technological tools supporting medical diagnosis and neurorehabilitation. All in all, this book provides graduate students, researchers and practitioners dealing with different aspects of neurotechnologies with a unified view of the field, thus fostering new ideas and research collaborations among groups from different disciplines.
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