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Transhumanism is widely misunderstood, in part because the media have exaggerated current technologies and branded the movement as dangerous, leading many to believe that hybrid humans may soon walk among us and that immortality, achieved by means of mind-uploading, is imminent. In this essential and clarifying volume, Stefan Lorenz Sorgner debunks widespread myths about transhumanism and tackles the most pressing ethical issues in the debate over technologically assisted human enhancement. On Transhumanism is a vital primer on the subject, written by a world-renowned expert. In this book, Sorgner presents an overview of the movement's history, capably summarizing the twelve pillars of transhumanist discourse and explaining the great diversity of transhumanist responses to each individual topic. He highlights the urgent ethical challenges related to the latest technological developments, inventions, and innovations and compares the unique cultural standing of transhumanism to other cultural movements, placing it within the broader context of the Enlightenment, modernity, postmodernity, and the philosophical writings of Nietzsche. Engagingly written and translated and featuring an introduction for North American readers, this comprehensive overview of the cultural and philosophical movement of transhumanism will be required reading for students of posthumanist philosophy and for general audiences interested in learning about the transhumanist movement.
This book presents the physical and technical foundation of the state of the art in applied scanning probe techniques. It constitutes a timely and comprehensive overview of SPM applications. The chapters in this volume relate to scanning probe microscopy techniques, characterization of various materials and structures and typical industrial applications, including topographic and dynamical surface studies of thin-film semiconductors, polymers, paper, ceramics, and magnetic and biological materials. The chapters are written by leading researchers and application scientists from all over the world and from various industries to provide a broader perspective.
Discusses the basic physical principles underlying Biomedical Photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy This volume discusses biomedical photonics, spectroscopy and microscopy, the basic physical principles underlying the technology and its applications. The topics discussed in this volume are: Biophotonics; Fluorescence and Phosphorescence; Medical Photonics; Microscopy; Nonlinear Optics; Ophthalmic Technology; Optical Tomography; Optofluidics; Photodynamic Therapy; Image Processing; Imaging Systems; Sensors; Single Molecule Detection; Futurology in Photonics. * Comprehensive and accessible coverage of the whole of modern photonics * Emphasizes processes and applications that specifically exploit photon attributes of light * Deals with the rapidly advancing area of modern optics * Chapters are written by top scientists in their field Written for the graduate level student in physical sciences; Industrial and academic researchers in photonics, graduate students in the area; College lecturers, educators, policymakers, consultants, Scientific and technical libraries, government laboratories, NIH.
This book provides in depths information on different microscopy approaches and supplies the reader with methods how to untangle highly complex processes involved in physiological and pathophysiological cardiac signaling. Microscopy approaches have established themselves as the quasi gold standard that enables us to appreciate the underlying mechanisms of physiological and pathophysiological cardiac signaling. This book presents the most important microscopy techniques from the level of individual molecule e.g. Foerster-Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), up to cellular and tissue imaging, e.g. electron microscopy (TEM) or light sheet microscopy. The book is intended for graduate students and postdocs in cardiovascular research, imaging and cell biology, pre-clinical and clinical researchers in cardiovascular sciences as well as decision makers of the pharmaceutical industry.
This edited book, is a collection of 25 chapters describing the recent advancements in the application of microbial technology in the food and pharmacology sector. The main focus of this book is application of microbes, food preservation techniques utilizing microbes, probiotics, seaweeds, algae, enzymatic abatement of urethane in fermentation of beverages, bioethanol production, pesticides, probiotic biosurfactants, drought tolerance, synthesis of application of oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment, microbe based metallic nanoparticles, agro chemicals, endophytes, metabolites, antibiotics etc. This book highlighted the significant aspects of the vast subject area of microbial biotechnology and their potential applications in food and pharmacology with various topics from eminent experts around the World. This book would serve as an excellent reference book for researchers and students in the Food Science, Food Biotechnology, Microbiology and Pharmaceutical fields.
This book develops and analyses computational wear simulations of the total ankle replacement for the stance phase of gait cycle. The emphasis is put on the relevant design parameters. The book presents a model consisting of three components; tibial, bearing and talar representing their physiological functions.
Rapid developments have taken place in biological/biomedical measurement and imaging technologies as well as in computer analysis and information technologies. The increase in data obtained with such technologies invites the reader into a virtual world that represents realistic biological tissue or organ structures in digital form and allows for simulation and what is called "in silico medicine." This volume is the third in a textbook series and covers both the basics of continuum mechanics of biosolids and biofluids and the theoretical core of computational methods for continuum mechanics analyses. Several biomechanics problems are provided for better understanding of computational modeling and analysis. Topics include the mechanics of solid and fluid bodies, fundamental characteristics of biosolids and biofluids, computational methods in biomechanics analysis/simulation, practical problems in orthopedic biomechanics, dental biomechanics, ophthalmic biomechanics, cardiovascular biomechanics, hemodynamics, cell mechanics, and model-, rule-, and image-based methods in computational biomechanics analysis and simulation. The book is an excellent resource for graduate school-level engineering students and young researchers in bioengineering and biomedicine.
This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders. The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality. This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.
Bio-inspired concepts for biomedical engineering are at the forefront of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Providing a comprehensive overview of the latest advances and techniques in the field, Bio-inspired Materials for Biomedical Engineering demonstrates the dramatic clinical breakthroughs that have been made in engineering all four of the major tissue types and modulating the immune system. Written by prominent leaders in the fields of materials engineering, chemical engineering, cell biology, and regenerative medicine, this groundbreaking text provides scientists, professors, postdocs, and graduate students with the dramatic clinical breakthroughs related to tissue engineering applications.
This book is written for the users and designers of joint replacements. In its second extended edition it conveys to the reader the knowledge accumulated by the authors during their forty year effort on the development of replacement devices for the lower limb for the purpose of aiding the reader in their design and evaluation of joint replacement devices. The early chapters describe the engineering, scientific and medical principles needed for replacement joint evaluation. One must understand the nature and performance of the materials involved and their characteristics in vivo, i.e. the response of the body to implant materials. It is also essential to understand the response of the implants to applied loading and motion, particularly in the hostile physiological environment. A chapter describes the design methodology now required for joint replacement in the USA and EU countries. The remaining chapters provide a history of joint replacement, an evaluation of earlier and current devices and sample case histories of some of the authors' devices. The present second edition includes various additional case reports as well as a new chapter devoted to the shoulder. Drs. Buechel, an orthopaedic surgeon, and Pappas, a professor of Mechanical Engineering, are the designers of several successful joint replacement systems. The most well-known of these is the pioneering LCS knee replacement.
This volume provides an in-depth introduction to 3D printing and biofabrication and covers the recent advances in additive manufacturing for tissue engineering. The book is divided into two parts, the first part on 3D printing discusses conventional approaches in additive manufacturing aimed at fabrication of structures, which are seeded with cells in a subsequent step. The second part on biofabrication presents processes which integrate living cells into the fabrication process.
The two volume set LNCS 9043 and 9044 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, IWBBIO 2015, held in Granada, Spain, in April 2015. The 135 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 268 submissions. The scope of the conference spans the following areas: bioinformatics for healthcare and diseases, biomedical engineering, biomedical image analysis, biomedical signal analysis, computational genomics, computational proteomics, computational systems for modelling biological processes, e Health, next generation sequencing and sequence analysis, quantitative and systems pharmacology, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for biological sequence modeling, advances in computational intelligence for bioinformatics and biomedicine, tools for next generation sequencing data analysis, dynamics networks in system medicine, interdisciplinary puzzles of measurements in biological systems, biological networks, high performance computing in bioinformatics, computational biology and computational chemistry, advances in drug discovery and ambient intelligence for bio emotional computing.
Recognition receptors play a key role in the successful implementation of chemical and biosensors. Molecular recognition refers to non-covalent speci?c binding between molecules, one of which is typically a macromolecule or a molecular assembly, and the other is the target molecule (ligand or analyte). Biomolecular recognition is typically driven by many weak interactions such as hydrogen bo- ing, metal coordination, hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces, pi-pi interactions and electrostatic interaction (due to permanent charges, dipoles, and quadrupoles) the polarization of charge distributions by the interaction partner leading to ind- tion and dispersion forces, and Pauli-exclusion-principle-derived inter-atomic repulsion, and a strong, "attractive" force arising largely from the entropy of the solvent and termed the hydrophobic effect. In recent years, there has been much progress in understanding the forces that drive the formation of such complexes, and how these forces are relate to the physical properties of the interacting molecules and their environment allows rational design of molecules and materials that interact in speci?c and desired ways. This book presents a signi?cant and up-to-date review of the various recognition elements, their immobilization, characterization techniques by a panel of dist- guished scientists. This work is a comprehensive approach to the recognition receptors area presenting a thorough knowledge of the subject and an effective integration of these receptors on sensor surfaces in order to appropriately convey the state-of the-art fundamentals and applications of the most innovative approaches.
This book intends to provide an up-to-date information in the field of nanobiomedicine. The focus of the book is on the basic concepts and recent developments in the field of nanotechnology. This book covers a broad spectrum of nanomaterials processing, structural characteristics, and related properties and will include bio-probes, medical imaging, drug delivery, and tumor diagnosis. Critical issues are addressed in a straightforward manner so those with no technical background and university students can benefit from the information. Furthermore, many novel concepts in nanomaterials are explained in light of current theories. An important aspect of the book lies on its wide coverage in practical biomedical applications. Not only are the cutting-edge technologies in modern medicine introduced, but also unique materials applications in many clinical areas.
Attachment of dissimilar materials in engineering and surgical practice is a perennial challenge. Bimaterial attachment sites are common locations for injury, repeated injury, and mechanical failure. Nature presents several highly effective solutions to the challenge of bimaterial attachment that differ from those found in engineering practice. Structural Interfaces and Attachments in Biology describes the attachment of dissimilar materials from multiple perspectives. The text will simultaneously elucidate natural bimaterial attachments and outline engineering principles underlying successful attachments to the communities of tissue engineers and surgeons. Included an in-depth analysis of the biology of attachments in the body and mechanisms by which robust attachments are formed, a review of current concepts of attaching dissimilar materials in surgical practice and a discussion of bioengineering approaches that are currently being developed.
The study of stem cell biology is under intensive investigations. Because stem cells have the unique capability to self-renew and differentiate into one or several cell types, they play a critical role in development, tissue homeostasis and regeneration. Stem cells also constitute promising cell candidates for cell therapy. The aim of this book is to provide an accurate knowledge on stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. This book will cover many topics in the field and is based on seminars given by recognized scientists involved the international master program on stem cell biology at the University Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC) in Paris.
This book highlights the latest advances in the use of graphene and bio-compatible-material-decorated graphene to detect various targets (e.g. DNA, RNA, amino acids, peptides, proteins, enzymes, antigens, glucose, DA, AA, UA, ATP, NADH, gas, ions, etc.). It focuses on the specific interaction of these substances with graphene (or modified graphene) and the efficient transduction of the target recognition event into detectable signals via various techniques. Particular emphasis is given to well-designed strategies for constructing graphene-based platforms and target determination. It also covers other bio-analytical applications including cellular imaging, drug delivery and bacteria inhibition, before turning to a discussion of future challenges and prospects of graphene in bio-analytical applications. This book is intended for researchers working in the fields of analytical chemistry, nanomaterials and biomedical engineering. Li Niu is a Professor at the State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
There has been great progress and increase in demand for medical imaging. The aim of this book is to capture all major developments in all aspects of medical imaging. As such, this book consists of three major parts: medical physics which includes 3D reconstructions, image processing and segmentation in medical imaging, and medical imaging instruments and systems. As the field is very broad and growing exponentially, this book will cover major activities with chapters prepared by leaders in the field.This book takes a balanced approach in providing coverage of all major work done in the field, and thus provides readers a clear view of the frontier activities in the field. Other books may only focus on instrumentation, physics or computer algorithms. In contrast, this book contains all components so that the readers will obtain a full picture of the field. At the same time, readers can gain some deep insights into certain special topics such as 3D reconstruction and image enhancement software systems involving MRI, ultrasound, X-ray and other medical imaging modalities.
This book explores the physics of CT dosimetry and provides practical guidance on best practice for medical researchers and practitioners. A rigorous description of the basic physics of CT dosimetry is presented and illustrates flaws of the current methodology. It also contains helpful (and rigorous) shortcuts to reduce the measurement workload for medical physicists. The mathematical rigor is accompanied by easily-understood physical explanations and numerous illustrative figures. Features: Authored by a recognised expert in the field and award-winning teacher Includes derivations for tube current modulation and variable pitch as well as stationary table techniques Explores abnormalities present in dose-tracking software based on CTDI and presents methods to correct them
"Clinical Engineering" is intended for professionals and students in the clinical engineering field who need to successfully deploy medical technologies. The book provides a broad reference to the core elements of the subject and draws from the expertise of a range of experienced authors.
In addition to engineering skills, clinical engineers must be
able to work with patients and with a range of professional staff,
including technicians and clinicians, and with equipment
manufacturers. They have to keep up-to-date with fast-moving
scientific and medical research in the field and be able to develop
laboratory, design, workshop, and management skills. This book is
the ideal companion in such studies, covering fundamentals such as
IT and software engineering as well as topics in rehabilitation and
Mathematical and numerical modelling of engineering problems in medicine is aimed at unveiling and understanding multidisciplinary interactions and processes and providing insights useful to clinical care and technology advances for better medical equipment and systems. When modelling medical problems, the engineer is confronted with multidisciplinary problems of electromagnetism, heat and mass transfer, and structural mechanics with, possibly, different time and space scales, which may raise concerns in formulating consistent, solvable mathematical models. Computational Medical Engineering presents a number of engineering for medicine problems that may be encountered in medical physics, procedures, diagnosis and monitoring techniques, including electrical activity of the heart, hemodynamic activity monitoring, magnetic drug targeting, bioheat models and thermography, RF and microwave hyperthermia, ablation, EMF dosimetry, and bioimpedance methods. The authors discuss the core approach methodology to pose and solve different problems of medical engineering, including essentials of mathematical modelling (e.g., criteria for well-posed problems); physics scaling (homogenization techniques); Constructal Law criteria in morphing shape and structure of systems with internal flows; computational domain construction (CAD and, or reconstruction techniques based on medical images); numerical modelling issues, and validation techniques used to ascertain numerical simulation results. In addition, new ideas and venues to investigate and understand finer scale models and merge them into continuous media medical physics are provided as case studies.
Water and moisture undermine strong adhesion to polar surfaces. Marine mussels, however, achieve durable underwater adhesion using a suite of proteins that are peculiar in having high levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (Dopa). Mussel adhesion has inspired numerous studies on developing the next generation of wet adhesives. This thesis presents recent progress in understanding the basic surface and intermolecular interactions employed by mussels to achieve strong and durable wet adhesion. The surface forces apparatus (SFA) and various other techniques were applied to measure the interactions between mussel foot protein-3 "fast" (Mfp-3 "fast") and the model substrate, mica, as well as the interactions between various mussel adhesive proteins.The results in this thesis show that Dopa plays an essential role in mussel adhesion and that mussels delicately control the interfacial redox environment to achieve strong and durable Dopa mediated adhesion. The interplay between Dopa and hydrophobic interactions is also evident in mussel adhesion."
Man lubricates mostly with oil. Nature lubricates exclusively with water. Pure water is a poor lubricant, but the addition of proteins, especially glycoproteins, can modify surfaces to make them far more lubricating at slow speeds. Understanding how nature does this, and the physical structures involved, is not only important for the understanding of diseases such as osteoarthritis, but also essential for the successful application of articulating implants, such as hips and knees, as well as the development of medical devices such as catheters and contact lenses. A host of important applications of water-based lubrication are already in place in the personal care and food industries, and further industrial applications of water-based lubrication could have a significant positive impact on the environment.This book is the first of its kind. It brings together the latest research in biological and biomimetic, water-based lubrication and is authored by the world's experts in the field.
Medical device regulation is complex, in part because of the wide variety of items that are categorized as medical devices. They may be simple tools used during medical examinations, such as tongue depressors and thermometers, or high-tech life-saving implants like heart valves and coronary stents. The medical device market has been characterized as including eight industry sectors: surgical and medical instrument manufacturing, surgical appliance and supplies, in vitro diagnostic products (IVDs, or laboratory tests), electromedical and electrotherapeutic apparatus, irradiation apparatus, dental equipment and supplies, ophthalmic goods, and dental laboratories. This book explores FDA regulation of medical devices with a focus on the user fee program and tort claims.
Bringing to life the fascinating structures and unique mechanics of natural and biomedical cellular materials, this book is an expert guide to the subject for graduates and researchers. Arranged in three parts, it begins with a review of the mechanical properties of nature's building blocks (structural proteins, polysaccharides and minerals) and the mechanics of cellular materials. Part II then describes a wide range of cellular materials in nature: honeycomb-like materials such as wood and cork; foam-like materials including trabecular bone, plant parenchyma, coral and sponge; and composites of cellular and dense materials such as iris leaves, skulls, palm, bamboo, animal quills and plant stems. Images convey the structural similarities of different materials, whilst color property charts provide mechanical data. Part III discusses biomedical applications of cellular materials: metal foams for orthopedic applications and porous scaffolds for regenerating tissues, including the effect of scaffold properties on cell behavior.
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