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There has been great progress and increase in demand for medical imaging. The aim of this book is to capture all major developments in all aspects of medical imaging. As such, this book consists of three major parts: medical physics which includes 3D reconstructions, image processing and segmentation in medical imaging, and medical imaging instruments and systems. As the field is very broad and growing exponentially, this book will cover major activities with chapters prepared by leaders in the field.This book takes a balanced approach in providing coverage of all major work done in the field, and thus provides readers a clear view of the frontier activities in the field. Other books may only focus on instrumentation, physics or computer algorithms. In contrast, this book contains all components so that the readers will obtain a full picture of the field. At the same time, readers can gain some deep insights into certain special topics such as 3D reconstruction and image enhancement software systems involving MRI, ultrasound, X-ray and other medical imaging modalities.
This book reviews the latest biotechnological advances with pluripotent stem cells, exploring their application in tissue engineering and medicinal chemistry. Chapters from expert contributors cover topics such as the production of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), expansion, controlled differentiation and programming of pluripotent stem cells, and their genetic instability. Particular attention is given to the application of the pluripotent stem cells for vascularision of engineered tissue and for drug screening. This book will appeal to researchers working in regenerative medicine and drug discovery, and to bioengineers and professionals interested in stem cell research.
Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical image data is an essential task in clinical practice. Dagmar Kainmueller introduces methods for accurate fully automatic segmentation of anatomical structures in 3D medical image data. The author's core methodological contribution is a novel deformation model that overcomes limitations of state-of-the-art Deformable Surface approaches, hence allowing for accurate segmentation of tip- and ridge-shaped features of anatomical structures. As for practical contributions, she proposes application-specific segmentation pipelines for a range of anatomical structures, together with thorough evaluations of segmentation accuracy on clinical image data. As compared to related work, these fully automatic pipelines allow for highly accurate segmentation of benchmark image data.
This book presents the design, development and field trials of radio frequency based wireless monitoring system for sleep apnoea patients. It contains 4 major areas including general background of wireless monitoring technology and MIMO in wireless body area network (WBAN), microwave hardware designs, virtual MIMO in WBAN and hardware system level implementation and field trials. At components level, this book presents the design theory, process and examples of bandpass filters, lowpass filters, low profile patch antennas, power amplifiers and oscillators which are the key elements in transducer designs in the body area network and cooperative communication wireless sensor network system. At system level, this book features the hardware integration, field trial and network coding techniques. This book also gives a presentation of virtual MIMO applications, e.g. MIMO implementation using FPGA, correlation coefficient measurement. The book will create impact in the fields of wireless monitoring technology in biomedical engineering, which have been growing exponentially.
This book presents the refereed proceedings of the Fourth Italian Forum on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), held in Ancona, Italy, in October 2013. A wide range of issues are covered and new technological developments are described which will support the autonomy and independence of individuals with special needs through an innovative and integrated approach, designed to respond to the socio-economic challenges of an aging population. Topics addressed include: health and well-being, prevention and rehabilitation and support for care providers; active aging and its social implications; services for the frail elderly with health problems and their families; nutrition; ICT platforms/technologies for the benefit of the elderly; home automation and control technologies (autonomy, safety and energy saving); smart cities and smart communities; telemedicine, telerehabilitation, and telecare; mobility, participation and social inclusion; games and fun for the elderly; building design; social housing; interface design and interaction (accessibility, acceptance); social policies to encourage and support active aging; business models, market analysis and development of sustainable financing and business and ethics, privacy and data protection. Many experimental validations based on user trials and usability testing are presented and discussed. The knowledge and insights provided in this book will help researchers and others involved in AAL to understand relevant societal trends, novel technological developments and pressing challenges.
New computerized approaches to various problems have become critically important in healthcare. Computer assisted diagnosis has been extended towards a support of the clinical treatment. Mathematical information analysis, computer applications have become standard tools underpinning the current rapid progress with developing Computational Intelligence. A computerized support in the analysis of patient information and implementation of a computer aided diagnosis and treatment systems, increases the objectivity of the analysis and speeds up the response to pathological changes.
This book presents a variety of state-of-the-art information technology and its applications to the networked environment to allow robust computerized approaches to be introduced throughout the healthcare enterprise. Image analysis and its application is the traditional part that deals with the problem of data processing, recognition and classification. Bioinformatics has become a dynamically developed field of computer assisted biological data analysis.
This book is a great reference tool for scientists who deal with problems of designing and implementing processing tools employed in systems that assist the radiologists and biologists in patient data analysis.
In the past decades, interdisciplinary investigations overlapping biology, medicine, information science, and engineering have formed a very exciting and active field that attracts scientists, medical doctors, and engineers with knowledge in different domains. A few examples of such investigations include neural prosthetic implants that aim to improve the quality of life for patients suffering from neurologic disease and injury; brain machine interfaces that sense, analyze, and translate electrical signals from the brain to build closed-loop, biofeedback systems; and fundamental studies of intelligence, cognitive functions, and psychological behaviors correlated to their neurological basis. Although this interdisciplinary area is still in its infancy, it can potentially create some of the most significant impact: treating diseases that are considered untreatable, interpretation and communication of neuron ensembles, or even a revolutionary perception and understanding of life different from philosophical or immaterial approaches. Fortunately, several academic societies recognize the value and impact of this growing field, firmly supporting related research. Such support will drive a booming future in the next twenty or thirty years.
Research in this areais frequently project-driven, and the
generated knowledge has been scattered in different fields of
neuroscience, computation, material and technology, circuits and
system, clinical reports, and psychology the scope considerably
across the boundary of traditionally defined disciplines. "Neural
Computation, Neural Devices, and Neural Prosthesis" is intended to
assemble such knowledge, from there suggesting a systematic
approach guiding future educational and research activities. The
targeted audience includes both students and researchers.
This volume describes new frontiers in medical and service robotics in the light of recent developments in technology to advance robot design and implementation. In particular, the work looks at advances in design, development and implementation of contemporary surgical, rehabilitation and biorobots. Surgical robots allow surgeons greater access to areas under operation using more precise and less invasive methods. Rehabilitation robots facilitate and support the lives of the infirm, elderly people, or those with dysfunction of body parts affecting movement. These robots are also used for rehabilitation and related procedures, such as training and therapy. Biorobots are designed to imitate the cognition of humans and animals. The need to substitute humans working on delicate, tiresome and monotonous tasks, or working with potentially health-damaging toxic materials, requires intelligent, high-performance service robots with the ability to cooperate, advanced communication and sophisticated perception and cognitive capabilities. Progress in this field is fast and results need to be disseminated to stimulate both practical applications and further research. Thus, these papers are a valuable addition to existing literature.
Man lubricates mostly with oil. Nature lubricates exclusively with water. Pure water is a poor lubricant, but the addition of proteins, especially glycoproteins, can modify surfaces to make them far more lubricating at slow speeds. Understanding how nature does this, and the physical structures involved, is not only important for the understanding of diseases such as osteoarthritis, but also essential for the successful application of articulating implants, such as hips and knees, as well as the development of medical devices such as catheters and contact lenses. A host of important applications of water-based lubrication are already in place in the personal care and food industries, and further industrial applications of water-based lubrication could have a significant positive impact on the environment.This book is the first of its kind. It brings together the latest research in biological and biomimetic, water-based lubrication and is authored by the world's experts in the field.
The field of nanoceramics for biomedical applications has experienced important advances in the last five years. These advances are mainly focused in the field of new nanostructured bioceramics able to mimic almost the same biomineralization processes. In addition, there has also been significant advances in nanoceramics as vehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapy. Building on the success of Biomimetic Nanoceramics in Clinical Use, this second edition has been revised and updated to reflect the recent developments in the field. Nanoceramics in Clinical Use includes additional material on bone mineralization processes, new synthesis strategies and applications of nanostructured bioceramics to manufacture 3D macroporous scaffolds and as nanovehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapies, to provide the reader with a complete overview of the topic, from fundamental principles to the latest advances. Written by World leading experts in bioceramics, this title will appeal to a broad audience, from academic researchers to those working within the commercial industry. Materials and chemical engineers, chemists, biologists, physicists and those working in medicine, im particular with medical implants, will appreciate the comprehensive coverage of this fast-developing area.
Lasers are progressively more used as versatile tools for fabrication purposes. The wide range of available powers, wavelengths, operation modes, repetition rates etc. facilitate the processing of a large spectrum of materials at exceptional precision and quality. Hence, manifold methods were established in the past and novel methods are continuously under development. Biomimetics, the translation from nature-inspired principles to technical applications, is strongly multidisciplinary. This field offers intrinsically a wide scope of applications for laser based methods regarding structuring and modification of materials. This book is dedicated to laser fabrication methods in biomimetics. It introduces both, a laser technology as well as an application focused approach. The book covers the most important laser lithographic methods and various biomimetics application scenarios ranging from coatings and biotechnology to construction, medical applications and photonics.
This pocket-sized manual serves as a concise and ideal reference work for therapeutic approaches using apheresis, Covering both basic theory and clinical details to facilitate improved treatment and patient outcomes, the text considers a variety of diseases, including myasthenia gravis, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, nephrotic syndrome, TTP/TMA, dilated cardiomyopathy, and many other conditions. The books also reviews the growing trend towards adopting this unique therapy for a wide range of health management issues such as morbid obesity and/or type 2 diabetes, and for lowering LDL-cholesterol (cholesterol apheresis) in patients unresponsive to medication or lifestyle modification.
Nanorobots represent a nanoscale device where proteins such as DNA, carbon nanotubes could act as motors, mechanical joints, transmission elements, or sensors. When these different components were assembled together they can form nanorobots with multi-degree-of-freedom, able to apply forces and manipulate objects in the nanoscale world. Design, Modeling and Characterization of Bio-Nanorobotic Systems investigates the design, assembly, simulation, and prototyping of biological and artificial molecular structures with the goal of implementing their internal nanoscale movements within nanorobotic systems in an optimized manner.
This book discusses various aspects of bioactive natural products employed in the agrochemical and agriculture sectors. It covers the use of plants, microorganisms, and microbial metabolites as eco-friendly, cost-effective, and sustainable alternatives to chemicals in the field of agriculture. Written by active researchers and academics, the book highlights state-of-art products in the field, as well as the gaps, challenges, and obstacles associated with the use of plants, microbes and their products. Given its scope, it is a valuable resource for the scientific community and professionals in enterprises wanting insights into the latest developments and advances in the context of biological products, including their applications, traditional uses, modern practices, and strategies to harness their full potential.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. CRISPR-Cas9 is a rapid, efficient, versatile and relatively cheap method for dissecting the molecular pathways that are the basis of life, as well as for investigating and potentially rectifying faults in these pathways that result in disease. This book reviews how CRISPR-Cas9 and other genome editing techniques are advancing our understanding of development and function in the nervous system, uncovering the molecular causes of neurological disorders and providing tools for gene therapy.
This thesis reports on the development of a fully integrated and automated microsystem consisting of low-cost, disposable plastic chips for DNA extraction and PCR amplification, combined with a reusable glass capillary array electrophoresis chip, which can be employed in a modular-based format for genetic analysis. In the thesis, DNA extraction is performed by adopting a filter paper-based method, followed by an "in-situ" PCR carried out directly in the same reaction chamber of the chip without elution. PCR products are then co-injected with sizing standards into separation channels for detection using a novel injection electrode. The entire process is automatically carried out by a custom-made compact control and detection instrument. The author thoroughly tests the system's performance and reliability by conducting rapid genetic screening of mutations on congenital hearing loss and pharmacogenetic typing of multiple warfarin-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The successful development and operation of this microsystem establishes the feasibility of rapid "sample-in-answer-out" testing in routine clinical practice.
Biomimetic Robotic Artificial Muscles presents a comprehensive up- to-date overview of several types of electroactive materials with a view of using them as biomimetic artificial muscles. The purpose of the book is to provide a focused, in-depth, yet self-contained treatment of recent advances made in several promising EAP materials. In particular, ionic polymer-metal composites, conjugated polymers, and dielectric elastomers are considered. Manufacturing, physical characterization, modeling, and control of the materials are presented. Namely, the book adopts a systems perspective to integrate recent developments in material processing, actuator design, control-oriented modeling, and device and robotic applications. While the main focus is on the new developments in these subjects, an effort has been made throughout the book to provide the reader with general, basic information about the materials before going into more advanced topics. As a result, the book is very much self-contained and expected to be accessible for a reader who does not have background in EAPs. Based on the good fundamental knowledge and the versatility of the materials, several promising biomimetic and robotic applications such robotic fish propelled by an IPMC tail, an IPMC energy harvester, an IPMC-based valveless pump, a conjugated polymer petal-driven micropump, and a synthetic elastomer actuator-enabled robotic finger are demonstrated.
Read an exclusive interview with Dr. Jerry Battista here. A critical element of radiation treatment planning for cancer is the accurate prediction and delivery of a tailored radiation dose distribution inside the patient. Megavoltage x-ray beams are aimed at the tumour, while collateral damage to nearby healthy tissue and organs is minimized. The key to optimal treatment therefore lies in adopting a trustworthy three-dimensional (3D) dose computation algorithm, which simulates the passage of both primary and secondary radiation throughout the exposed tissue. Edited by an award-winning university educator and pioneer in the field of voxel-based radiation dose computation, this book explores the physics and mathematics that underlie algorithms encountered in contemporary radiation oncology. It is an invaluable reference for clinical physicists who commission, develop, or test treatment planning software. This book also covers a core topic in the syllabus for educating graduate students and residents entering the field of clinical physics. This book starts with a historical perspective gradually building up to the three most important algorithms used for today's clinical applications. These algorithms can solve the same general radiation transport problem from three vantages: firstly, applying convolution-superposition principles (i.e. Green's method); secondly, the stochastic simulation of radiation particle interactions with tissue atoms (i.e. the Monte Carlo method); and thirdly, the deterministic solution of the fundamental equations for radiation fields of x-rays and their secondary particles (i.e. the Boltzmann method). It contains clear, original illustrations of key concepts and quantities thoughout, supplemented by metaphors and analogies to facilitate comprehension and retention of knowledge. Features: Edited by an authority in the field, enhanced with chapter contributions from physicists with clinical experience in the fields of computational dosimetry and dose optimization Contains examples of test phantom results and clinical cases, illustrating pitfalls to avoid in clinical applications to radiation oncology Introduces four-dimensional (4D) dose computation, on-line dose reconstruction, and dose accumulation that accounts for tissue displacements and motion throughout a course of radiation therapy
This book discusses the design of the new mobility assistive information and communication technologies (ICT) devices for the visually impaired. The book begins with a definition of the space concept, followed by the concept of interaction with a space during mobility and this interaction characteristics. The contributors will then examine the neuro-cognitive basis of space perception for mobility and different theories of space perception. The text presents the existing technologies for space perception (sense recovery with stem and iPS cells, implants, brain plasticity, sensory substitution devices, multi modal technologies, etc.), the newest technologies for mobility assistance design, the way the feedback on environment is conveyed to the end-user. Methods for formative and summative evaluations of the mobility devices will also be discussed. The book concludes with a look to the future trends in research and technology development for mobility assistive information and communication technologies.
This manual offers a stand-alone reading companion, unique in simplifying the practical components of Bioinformatics in a unique and user-friendly manner. It covers the practical component of syllabi used at most leading universities and discusses the most extensively used tools and methodologies in Bioinformatics. Research in the biological sciences has made tremendous strides in recent years due in part to the increased automation in data generation. At the same time, storing, managing and interpreting huge volumes of data has become one of the most challenging tasks for scientists. These two aspects have ultimately necessitated the application of computers, giving rise to a highly interdisciplinary discipline-Bioinformatics. Despite the richness of bioinformatics resources and methods, the exposure of life sciences undergraduates and postgraduates to bioinformatics is extremely limited. Though the internet offers various tools for free, and provides guides for using them, it fails to help users interpret the processed data. Moreover, most sites fail to update their help pages to accommodate software upgrades. Though the market is flooded with books discussing the theoretical concepts in Bioinformatics, a manual of this kind is rarely found. The content developed to meet the needs of readers from diverse background and to incorporate the syllabi of undergraduate and postgraduate courses at various universities.
This tutorial book offers an in-depth overview of the fundamental principles of micro/nano technologies and devices related to sensing, actuation and diagnosis in fluidics and biosystems. Research in the MEMS/NEMS and lab-on-chip fields has seen rapid growth in both academic and industrial domains, as these biodevices and systems are increasingly replacing traditional large size diagnostic tools. This book is unique in describing not only the devices and technologies but also the basic principles of their operation. The comprehensive description of the fabrication, packaging and principles of micro/nano biosystems presented in this book offers guidance for researchers designing and implementing these biosystems across diverse fields including medical, pharmaceutical and biological sciences. The book provides a detailed overview of the fundamental mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic principles involved, together with the technologies required for the design, fabrication and characterization of micro/nano fluidic systems and bio-devices. Written by a collaborative team from France and Korea, the book is suitable for academics, researchers, advanced level students and industrial manufacturers.
The emerging paradigm of incorporating images and biomechanical properties of soft tissues has proven to be an integral part of the advancement of several medical applications, including image guided radiotherapy and surgery, brachytherapy, and diagnostics. This expansion has resulted in a growing community of medical, science, and engineering professionals applying mechanical principles to address medical concerns. This book is tailored to cover a range of mechanical principles, properties, and applications of soft tissues that have previously been addressed in various journals and "anatomical site-specific" books. Biomechanics of Soft Tissues follows a different approach by offering a simplified overview of widely used mechanical models and measuring techniques of soft tissue parameters. This is followed by an investigation of different medical applications, including: biomechanical aspects of cancerous tumor progressions, radiotherapy treatment, and image guided ultrasound guided interventions. Written by leading scholars and professionals in the field, Biomechanics of Soft Tissues combines engineering and medical expertise, thereby producing an excellent source of information for professionals interested in the theoretical and technological advancements related to soft tissues. The book provides medical professionals with an insight on various modeling approaches, testing techniques, and mechanical characteristics that are frequently used by engineers. Conversely, the presented medical applications provide engineers with a glimpse of amazing medical practices and encourage them to expand their roles in the medical field. Provides a simplified overview of mechanics of soft tissues. Highlights different techniques to measure tissues properties for engineering and medical applications. Contains novel ideas to address roles of mechanics in disease progression and treatment. Presents innovative applications of biomechanics in medical procedures.
Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer is the key for transforming cancer medicine. A substantial proportion of human genes show alternative splicing and mis-regulation of Pre-mRNA splicing is seen in several cancers. This book further investigates these matters. The first few chapters provide an update on the role of genomics in understanding alternative splicing, and targets in cancer pathogenesis. Advances and prospects in applications of nanotechnology for cancer prevention, detection and treatment are a promising field of research. The subsequent chapters provide insights on how nanotechnology-based therapeutics are moving towards revolutionizing cancer and infectious disease treatment by minimizing toxicity and facilitating targeted delivery of drugs. Technical topics discussed in the book include: * Alternative splicing and cancer * Cancer imaging * Nanomaterials in infectious diseases * Nanomedicine in oxidative stress and cancer * Nanoparticle based drug delivery systems
Metabolic and Cellular Engineering (MCE) is more than an exciting scientific enterprise. It has become the cornerstone for coping with the challenges ahead of mankind. Continuous developments, new concepts, and technological innovations will enable us to deal with emerging challenges, and solve problems once thought impossible ten years ago. Challenges in MCE are broad- from unraveling fundamental aspects of cellular function to meeting unsatiated energy and food demands that are rising in parallel with population growth.In charting the progress of MCE during the last decade, we could not help but feel in awe of the enormous strides of progress made from the nascent Metabolic Engineering to the Systems Bioengineering of today. The burgeoning availability of genomic sequences from diverse species has been spectacular. It has become the engine that drives the genetic means for the modification of existing organisms and the generation of synthetic, man-made ones. From the initial attempts at purposeful genetic modification of a cell for the production of valuable compounds, we have now moved on to changing microbes genetically or metabolically.The arsenal of experimental and theoretical tools available for Metabolic and Cellular Engineering has expanded enormously, driven by the re-emergence of Physiology as Systems Biology. The revival of the concept of networks fueled by new developments has become central to Systems Biology. Networks represent an integrative vision of how processes of disparate nature relate to each other, and as such is becoming a key analytical and conceptual tool for MCE. This book reflects and addresses all these ongoing changes while providing the essential conceptual and analytical tools needed to understand and work in the MCE research field.
A comprehensive overview of the latest achievements, trends, and the current state of the art of this important and rapidly expanding field. Clearly and logically structured, the first part of the book explores the fundamentals of tissue engineering, providing a separate chapter on each of the basic topics, including biomaterials stem cells, biosensors and bioreactors. The second part then follows a more applied approach, discussing various applications of tissue engineering, such as the replacement or repairing of skins, cartilages, livers and blood vessels, to trachea, lungs and cardiac tissues, to musculoskeletal tissue engineering used for bones and ligaments as well as pancreas, kidney and neural tissue engineering for the brain. The book concludes with a look at future technological advances. An invaluable reading for entrants to the field in biomedical engineering as well as expert researchers and developers in industry.
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