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This book is dedicated to the field of conductive polymers, focusing on electrical interactions with biological systems. It addresses the use of conductive polymers as the conducting interface for electrical communications with the biological system, both in vitro and in vivo. It provides an overview on the chemistry and physics of conductive polymers, their useful characteristics as well as limitations, and technologies that apply conductive polymers for medical purposes. This groundbreaking resource addresses cytotoxicity and tissue compatibility of conductive polymers, the basics on electromagnetic fields, and commonly used experimental methods. Readers will also learn how cells are cultured in vitro with conductive polymers, and how conductive polymers and living tissues interact electrically. Throughout the contents, chapter authors emphasize the importance of conductive polymers in biomedical engineering and their potential applications in medicine.
One of the biggest challenges faced in medical research had been to create accurate and relevant models of human disease. A number of good animal models have been developed to understand the pathophysiology. However, not all of them reflect the human disorder, a classic case being Usher's syndrome where the mutant mice do not have the same visual and auditory defects that patients face. There are others which have been even more difficult to model due to the multi-factorial nature of the condition and due to lack of discovery of a single causative gene such as age-related macular degeneration or Alzheimer's syndrome. Thus a more relevant and accurate system will allow us to make better predictions on relevant therapeutic approaches. The discovery of human pluripotent stem cells in 1998 followed by the technological advances to reprogram somatic cells to pluripotent-stem cell-like cells in 2006 has completely revolutionized the way we can now think about modelling human development and disease. This now coupled with genome editing technologies such as TALENS and CRISPRs have now set us up to develop in vitro models both 2D as well as 3D organoids, which can more precisely reflect the disease in the patients. These combinatorial technologies are already providing us with better tools and therapeutics in drug discovery or gene therapy. This book summarizes both the technological advances in the field of generation of patient specific lines as well as various gene editing approaches followed by its applicability in various systems. The book will serve as a reference for the current state of the field as it: -Provides a comprehensive overview of the status of the field of patients derived induced pluripotent stem cells. -Describes the use of cardiac cells as a main featured component within the book. -Examines drug toxicity analysis as a working example throughout the book.
The global ageing society has significantly increased the need for implant materials, which not only replace damaged or lost tissue but are also able to regenerate it. The field of bioactive glasses has been expanding continuously over recent years as they have been shown to bond with hard and soft tissue, release therapeutically active ions, and be capable of enhancing bone formation and regeneration. In addition, they are successfully being used to re-mineralise teeth, thereby making bioactive glasses highly attractive materials in both dentistry and medicine. Understanding the multidisciplinary requirements set by the human body's environment and the special characteristics of the different families of bioactive glasses is a key in developing new compositions to novel clinical applications. Bioactive Glasses aims to bridge the different scientific communities associated with the field of bioactive glasses with focus on the materials science point of view. Emerging applications covered include soft tissue regeneration, wound healing, vascularisation, cancer treatment and drug delivery devices. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the latest applications of bioactive glasses for material scientists.
This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.
Highlighting dynamic developments in polymer synthesis, this book focuses on the chemical techniques to synthesize and characterize biomedically relevant polymers and macromolecules. Aids researchers developing polymers and materials for biomedical applications Describes biopolymers from a synthetic perspective, which other similar books do not do Covers areas that include: cationically-charged macromolecules, pseudo-peptides, polydrugs and prodrugs, controlled radical polymerization, self-assembly, polycondensates, and polymers for surface modification
This textbook for graduate students in statistics, data science, and public health deals with the practical challenges that come with big, complex, and dynamic data. It presents a scientific roadmap to translate real-world data science applications into formal statistical estimation problems by using the general template of targeted maximum likelihood estimators. These targeted machine learning algorithms estimate quantities of interest while still providing valid inference. Targeted learning methods within data science area critical component for solving scientific problems in the modern age. The techniques can answer complex questions including optimal rules for assigning treatment based on longitudinal data with time-dependent confounding, as well as other estimands in dependent data structures, such as networks. Included in Targeted Learning in Data Science are demonstrations with soft ware packages and real data sets that present a case that targeted learning is crucial for the next generation of statisticians and data scientists. Th is book is a sequel to the first textbook on machine learning for causal inference, Targeted Learning, published in 2011. Mark van der Laan, PhD, is Jiann-Ping Hsu/Karl E. Peace Professor of Biostatistics and Statistics at UC Berkeley. His research interests include statistical methods in genomics, survival analysis, censored data, machine learning, semiparametric models, causal inference, and targeted learning. Dr. van der Laan received the 2004 Mortimer Spiegelman Award, the 2005 Van Dantzig Award, the 2005 COPSS Snedecor Award, the 2005 COPSS Presidential Award, and has graduated over 40 PhD students in biostatistics and statistics. Sherri Rose, PhD, is Associate Professor of Health Care Policy (Biostatistics) at Harvard Medical School. Her work is centered on developing and integrating innovative statistical approaches to advance human health. Dr. Rose's methodological research focuses on nonparametric machine learning for causal inference and prediction. She co-leads the Health Policy Data Science Lab and currently serves as an associate editor for the Journal of the American Statistical Association and Biostatistics.
This volume provides an in-depth introduction to 3D printing and biofabrication and covers the recent advances in additive manufacturing for tissue engineering. The book is divided into two parts, the first part on 3D printing discusses conventional approaches in additive manufacturing aimed at fabrication of structures, which are seeded with cells in a subsequent step. The second part on biofabrication presents processes which integrate living cells into the fabrication process.
This volume outlines the current status in the field of biomimetic medical materials and illustrates research into their applications in tissue engineering. The book is divided into six parts, focusing on nano biomaterials, stem cells, tissue engineering, 3D printing, immune responses and intellectual property. Each chapter has its own introduction and outlines current research trends in a variety of applications of biomimetic medical materials. The biomimetic medical materials that are covered include functional hydrogels, nanoparticles for drug delivery and medicine, the 3D bioprinting of biomaterials, sensor materials, stem cell interactions with biomaterials, immune responses to biomaterials, biodegradable hard scaffolds for tissue engineering, as well as other important topics, like intellectual property. Each chapter is written by a team of experts. This volume attempts to introduce the biomimetic properties of biomedical materials within the context of our current understanding of the nanotechnology of nanoparticles and fibres and the macroscopic aspects of 3D bioprinting.
This book examines the biomedical research of Nobel Prize-winning bacteriologist Charles Nicolle during his tenure as director of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis. Using typhus as its lens, it demonstrates how the complexities of early twentieth century bacteriology, French imperial ideology, the "Pastorian mission," and conditions in colonial Tunisia blended to inform the triumphs and disappointments of Nicolle's fascinating career. It illuminates how these diverse elements shaped Nicolle's personal identity, the identity of his institute, and his innovative conception of the "birth, life, and death" -- or, the emergence and eradication -- of infectious disease. Kim Pelis blends exhaustive archival research with a close reading of Nicolle's written work -- scientific papers, philosophical treatises, and literary contributions -- to explore the complex relations between biomedical ideas and sociocultural context. The result is a study that will be of interest not only to students of French history, colonial medicine, and the history of the biomedical sciences but also to anyone seeking to understand how individuals have attempted to deal creatively with complex times and ambiguous knowledge. Kim Pelis, a medical historian by training, is a writer for the director of the National Institutes of Health.
Remarkable research has yielded whole genome data in plants, resulting in the documentation of an ever-increasing number of genes, without establishing their functions. The huge data resources available at the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome levels are of enormous value in the field of functional genomics. This book provides insights into interpreting the sea of data in order to understand basic and practical aspects of plant metabolic engineering. It discusses in detail ways to tap into this enormous pool of data to increase productivity, and offers information that is both interesting and necessary for exploring the manipulation of metabolic pathways. The interdisciplinary approaches presented here also serve as a source of ideas for practical applications.
Cardiovascular medicine is witnessing an explosion in capability for remote monitoring of implantable electronic devices, which provide great potential for improved clinical outcomes and enhanced device safety and efficacy, as well as more efficient and cost-effective care.
There are numerous devices now utilized in remote monitoring, including ambulatory ECG recorders, implanted loop recorders, pacemakers, cardiac defibrillators, and cardiac resynchronization systems. Cardiovascular physicians, allied health professionals, and office staff need to understand the merits and weaknesses of existing technology. They also need to become well-versed in management of the new wealth of data these devices provide, design and use of appropriate systems to support monitoring technology, and proper utilization of remotely acquired data in clinical decision making, as well as the demands for patient education and orientation to assure compliance.
"Remote Patient Monitoring in Cardiology" outlines the strengths and weaknesses of existing technology; provides a framework for incorporating existing technology into clinical practice with emphasis on professional society guidelines; illustrates, through a multitude of real-world clinical vignettes how data retrieved remotely can be used to drive clinical decision making to positively affect patient outcome; highlights existing barriers that limit the widespread implementation of remote patient monitoring into practice; and proposes areas for development.
"Remote Patient Monitoring in Cardiology" features Concise, practical, and current guide to appropriate use of these technologies Provides a framework for incorporating existing technology into clinical practice Case-based approach presents real-world examples of applications Highlights barriers that limit widespread implementation of remote patient monitoring
Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) can generate a voltage when physically deformed. Conversely, an applied small voltage or electrical field can induce an array of spectacular large deformation or actuation behaviours in IPMCs, such as bending, twisting, rolling, twirling, steering and undulating. An important smart material, IPMCs have applications in energy harvesting and as self-powered strain or deformation sensors, especially suitable for monitoring the shape of dynamic structures. Other uses include soft actuation applications and as a material for biomimetic robotic soft artificial muscles in industrial and medical contexts. This comprehensive set on ionic polymer metal composites provides a broad coverage of the state of the art and recent advances in the field written by some of the world's leading experts on various characterizations and modeling of IPMCs. The first two chapters cover the fundamentals of IPMCs and methodologies for their manufacture, followed by specific chapters looking at different aspects of actuation and sensing of IPMCs. These include uses in electrochemically active electrodes, electric energy storage devices, soft biomimetic robotics artificial muscles, multiphysics modeling of IPMCs, biomedical applications, IPMCs as dexterous manipulators and tactile sensors for minimally invasive robotic surgery, self-sensing, miniature pumps for drug delivery, IPMC snake-like robots, IPMC microgrippers for microorganisms manipulations, Graphene-based IPMCs and cellulose-based IPMCs or electroactive paper actuators (EAPap). Edited by the leading authority on IMPCs, the broad coverage of this book will appeal to researchers from chemistry, materials, engineering, physics and medical communities interested in both the material and its applications.
This book highlights the recent advances of thermodynamics and biophysics in drug delivery nanosystems and in biomedical nanodevices. The up-to-date book provides an in-depth knowledge of bio-inspired nanotechnological systems for pharmaceutical applications. Biophysics and thermodynamics, supported by mathematics, are the locomotive by which the drug transportation and the targeting processes will be achieved under the light of the modern pharmacotherapy. They are considered as scientific tools that promote the understanding of physicochemical and thermotropic functionality and behavior of artificial cell membranes and structures like nanoparticulate systems. Therefore, this book focusses on new aspects of biophysics and thermodynamics as important elements for evaluating biomedical nanosystems, and it correlates their physicochemical, biophysical and thermodynamical behaviour with those of a living organism. In 2018, Prof. Demetzos was honored with an award by the Order of Sciences of the Academy of Athens for his scientific contribution in Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology.
This introductory text covers in detail the technology and
applications of biosensors in their many forms. It provides an
extensive survey of the basic principles, functions and
applications of different categories of biosensors. The
pre-sentation is concise, systematic and well illustrated. Numerous
schematics illustrate design and function.
Integrating basic to applied science and technology in medicine, pharmaceutics, molecular biology, biomedical engineering, biophysics and irreversible thermodynamics, this book covers cutting-edge research of the structure and function of biomaterials at a molecular level. In addition, it examines for the first time studies performed at the nano- and micro scale. With innovative technologies and methodologies aiming to clarify the molecular mechanism and macroscopic relationship, Nano/Micro Science and Technology in Biorheology thoroughly covers the basic principles of these studies, with helpful step-by-step explanations of methodologies and insight into medical applications. Written by pioneering researchers, the book is a valuable resource for academics and industry scientists, as well as graduate students, working or studying in bio-related fields.
The present book provides recent developments in various in vivo imaging and sensing techniques such as photo acoustics (PA) imaging and microscopy, ultrasound-PA combined modalities, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and micro OCT, Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLI) techniques and nanoparticle enabled endoscopy etc. There is also a contributing chapter from leading medical instrumentation company on their view of optical imaging techniques in clinical laparoscopic surgery. The UN proclaimed 2015 as the International Year of Light and Light-based Technologies, emphasizing achievements in the optical sciences and their importance to human beings. In this context, this book focusses on the recent advances in biophotonics techniques primarily focused towards translational medicine contributed by thought leaders who have made cutting edge developments in various photonics techniques.
This brief introduces recursive modeling techniques that take account of variations in blood glucose concentration within and between individuals. It describes their use in developing multivariable models in early-warning systems for hypo- and hyperglycemia; these models are more accurate than those solely reliant on glucose and insulin concentrations because they can accommodate other relevant influences like physical activity, stress and sleep. Such factors also contribute to the accuracy of the adaptive control systems present in the artificial pancreas which is the focus of the brief, as their presence is indicated before they have an apparent effect on the glucose concentration and so can be more easily compensated. The adaptive controller is based on generalized predictive control techniques and also includes rules for changing controller parameters or structure based on the values of physiological variables. Simulation studies and clinical studies are reported to illustrate the performance of the techniques presented.
This book compiles various methodologies used in understanding interactions within the rhizosphere. An in-depth understanding of the rhizosphere is essential to developing successful strategies for future sustainable agriculture. The book summarizes methods and techniques used to study the mechanisms involved in mutualistic symbioses and pathogenic interactions of plants with various microbial organisms including fungi, bacteria, and oomycetes. Each chapter discusses different methodologies used in rhizosphere biology, while also providing real-world experimental data and trouble-shooting tips. Interested researchers will also find a wealth of literature references for further research. As the first comprehensive manual and compilation of methods and techniques used in rhizosphere biology, the book represents an essential resource for all researchers who are newcomers to soil microbiology experimentation.
This volume deals with topics such as mechanism and machine design, biomechanics and medical engineering, gears, mechanical transmissions, mechatronics, computational and experimental methods, dynamics of mechanisms and machines, micromechanisms and microactuators, and history of mechanisms and transmissions. Following MeTrApp 2011 and 2013, held under the auspices of the IFToMM, these proceedings of the 3rd Conference on Mechanisms, Transmissions and Applications offer a platform for original research presentations for researchers, scientists, industry experts and students in the fields of mechanisms and transmissions with special emphasis on industrial applications in order to stimulate the exchange of new and innovative ideas.
Value of Connected Things for Healthcare is based on feedback from members of the LLSA Forum, patients, healthcare professionals, Living Labs, industrialists, researchers and institutional actors confronted with the design, development, implementation and use of these types of tools that penetrate health and communicate data. The term connected object refers to devices that continuously collect data through these objects, providing the state of health of people wherever they are and whatever they do. These objects allow clinical researchers to study new phenomena that have hitherto escaped observations in institutions. However, the mobilization of these technologies in this context poses technical questions because the requirements of a remote, continuous operation are high. What is termed connected health emphasizes the human dimension of the subject, i.e., citizens, patients, health professionals, territorial communities, professional networks, institutions and associations. The questions of who benefits and ethical considerations are paramount to this discussion.
This book analyses the social and ethical implications of the globalization of emerging skin-whitening and anti-ageing biotechnology. Using an intersectional theoretical framework and a content analysis methodology drawn from cultural studies, the sociology of knowledge, the history of colonial medicine and critical race theory, it examines technical reports, as well as print and on-line advertisements from pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies for skin-whitening products. With close attention to the promises of `ageless beauty', `brightened', youthful skin and solutions to `pigmentation problems' for non-white women, the author reveals the dynamics of racialization and biomedicalization at work. A study of a significant sector of the globalised health and wellness industries - which requires the active participation of consumers in the biomedicalization of their own bodies - Wellness in Whiteness will appeal to social scientists with interests in gender, race and ethnicity, biotechnology and embodiment.
Synthetic Biology is already an object of intensive debate. However, to a great extent the discussion to date has been concerned with fundamental ethical, religious and philosophical questions. By contrast, based on an investigation of the field's scientific and technological character, this book focuses on new functionalities provided by synthetic biology and explores the associated opportunities and risks. Following an introduction to the subject and a discussion of the most central paradigms and methodologies, the book provides an overview of the structure of this field of science and technology. It informs the reader about the current stage of development, as well as topical problems and potential opportunities in important fields of application. But not only the science itself is in focus. In order to investigate its broader impact, ecological as well as ethical implications will be considered, paving the way for a discussion of responsibilities in the context of a field at a transitional crossroads between basic and applied science. In closing, the requirements for a suitable regulatory framework are discussed. The book is intended as a source of information and orientation for researchers, students and practitioners in the natural sciences and technology assessment; for members of scientific and technological, governmental and funding institutions; and for members of the general public interested in essential information on the current status, prospects and implications of synthetic biology.
Applied Human Factors in Medical Device Design describes the contents of a human factors toolbox with in-depth descriptions of both empirical and analytical methodologies. The book begins with an overview of the design control process, integrating human factors as directed by AAMI TIR 59 and experienced practice. It then explains each method, describing why each method is important, its potential impact, when it's ideal to use, and related challenges. Also discussed are other barriers, such as communication breakdowns between users and design teams. This book is an excellent reference for professionals working in human factors, design, engineering, marketing and regulation.
This edited volume explores the use of technology to enable us to visualise the life sciences in a more meaningful and engaging way. It will enable those interested in visualisation techniques to gain a better understanding of the applications that can be used in imaging and analysis, education, engagement and training. The reader will be able to explore the utilisation of technologies from a number of fields to enable an engaging and meaningful visual representation of the life sciences. This use of technology-enhanced learning will be of benefit for the learner, trainer, in patient care and the wider field of education and engagement. By examining a range of techniques in image capture (photogrammetery, stereophotogrammetry, microphotogrammetry and autostereoscopy), this book will showcase the wide range of tools we can use. Researchers in this field will be able to find something suitable to apply to their work to enhance user engagement through improved visual means using the technologies we have available to us today. It will highlight the uses of these technologies to examine many aspects of the human body, and enable improved ways to enhance visual and tactile learning, including 3D printing. By demonstrating co-design processes, working directly with the end-stage users (including patients), it will also highlight successes in adopting tools like hand motion tracking rehabilitation for patients with conditions like multiple sclerosis. The book will also discuss the applications of immersive environments including virtual, augmented and mixed reality. The ultimate aim is to show how, by using these tools, we can enhance communication, mobile applications, health literacy and illustration of both normal and pathological processes in the body. By applying a wide range of tools and technologies, this volume will highlight the wide range of applications in education, training and learning both for students and faculty, but also for patient care and education. Therefore, the work presented here can be accessed by a wide range of users from faculty and students involved in the design and development of these processes, by examining the pedagogy around these technologies. Importantly, it presents material, which will be of benefit for the patient, engaging them to become more involved with techniques like physiotherapy.
This contributed volume presents computational models of diabetes that quantify the dynamic interrelationships among key physiological variables implicated in the underlying physiology under a variety of metabolic and behavioral conditions. These variables comprise for example blood glucose concentration and various hormones such as insulin, glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine as well as cortisol. The presented models provide a powerful diagnostic tool but may also enable treatment via long-term glucose regulation in diabetics through closed-look model-reference control using frequent insulin infusions, which are administered by implanted programmable micro-pumps. This research volume aims at presenting state-of-the-art research on this subject and demonstrating the potential applications of modeling to the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The target audience primarily comprises research and experts in the field but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students.
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