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Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering is a unique source for rapidly evolving updates on topics that are at the interface of the biological sciences and engineering. Biomaterials, biomedical devices and techniques play a significant role in improving the quality of health care in the developed world. The book covers an extensive range of topics related to biomedical engineering, including biomaterials, sensors, medical devices, imaging modalities and imaging processing. In addition, applications of biomedical engineering, advances in cardiology, drug delivery, gene therapy, orthopedics, ophthalmology, sensing and tissue engineering are explored. This important reference work serves many groups working at the interface of the biological sciences and engineering, including engineering students, biological science students, clinicians, and industrial researchers.
This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians, immunoengineers, immunologists and stem cell biologists, as it offers a review of the current cutting-edge cell engineering research at multiple length scale and will be valuable in developing new strategies for efficient scale-up and clinical translation.
With the advances in image guided surgery for cancer treatment, the role of image segmentation and registration has become very critical. The central engine of any image guided surgery product is its ability to quantify the organ or segment the organ whether it is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), X-ray, PET, SPECT, Ultrasound, and Molecular imaging modality. Sophisticated segmentation algorithms can help the physicians delineate better the anatomical structures present in the input images, enhance the accuracy of medical diagnosis and facilitate the best treatment planning system designs. The focus of this book in towards the state of the art techniques in the area of image segmentation and registration.
MRI techniques have been recently introduced for non-invasive qualification of regional myocardial mechanics, which is not achievable with other imaging modalities. Covering more than twenty-three years of developments in MRI techniques for accessing heart mechanics, this book provides a plethora of techniques and concepts that assist readers choose the best technique for their purpose. It reviews research studies and clinical trials that implemented MRI techniques for studying heart mechanics.
Revolutionary advances in imaging technology that provide high resolution, 3-D, non-invasive imaging of biological subjects have made biomedical imaging an essential tool in clinical medicine and biomedical research. Key technological advances include MRI, positron emission tomography (PET) and multidetector X-ray CT scanners. Common to all contemporary imaging modalities is the creation of digital data and pictures. The evolution from analog to digital image data is driving the rapidly expanding field of digital image analysis. Scientists from numerous disciplines now require in-depth knowledge of these complex imaging modalities. Introduction to the Science of Medical Imaging presents scientific imaging principles, introduces the major biomedical imaging modalities, reviews the basics of human and computer image analysis and provides examples of major clinical and research applications. Written by one of the world's most innovative and highly respected neuroradiologists, Introduction to the Science of Medical Imaging is a landmark text on image acquisition and interpretation.
Global Health continues to provide readers with a comprehensive, up-to-date and thought-provoking outline and understanding of the constantly evolving global health landscape. In this new edition the authors have maintained the successful structure and organisation of the previous edition to examine and explain recent health changes and consider likely future patterns. New or expanded topics covered include: emerging and re-emerging infectious disease threats increasing awareness of, and interest in, antimicrobial resistance and superbugs terrorism, global conflict and health the new UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development the drive for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) the use of information technology in global health substance abuse palliative and end-of-life-care ethical issues in global health. Using clear and original explanations of complex issues, this text makes extensive use of boxed case studies and international examples, with discussion questions posed for readers at the end of each chapter. Readers will also be able to take advantage of the new website that was designed to complement this book. Global Health is essential reading for students and researchers of global health, public health and development studies.
Handbook of Vascular Motion provides a comprehensive review of the strategies and methods to quantify vascular motion and deformations relevant for cardiovascular device design and mechanical durability evaluation. It also explains the current state of knowledge of vascular beds that are particularly important for the medical device industry. Finally, it explores the application of vascular motion to computational simulations, benchtop testing and fatigue analysis, as well as further implications on clinical outcomes, product development and business.
Advances in the material sciences, 3D printing technology, functional electrical stimulation, smart devices and apps, FES technology, sensors and microprocessor technologies, and more have lately transformed the field of orthotics, making the prescription of these devices more complex than ever before. Atlas of Orthoses and Assistive Devices, 5th Edition, brings you completely up to date with these changes, helping physiatrists, orthopaedic surgeons, prosthetists, orthotists, and other rehabilitation specialists work together to select the appropriate orthotic device for optimal results in every patient. Provides an introduction to Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) systems relating to Assistive Technology (AT) systems and orthotics. Includes Key Points in every chapter so you can quickly access expert guidance. Maintains a valuable balance of content that is essential for both physiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons. Covers state-of-the-art topics in the areas of biomechanics, fabrication techniques, and construction of orthoses with advanced technologies. Incorporates an all-new, vibrant full-color design to enhance illustrations and make navigation fast and easy. Places greater emphasis on carbon fiber materials and lightweight thermoplastics. Includes content on 3D printing technology and how it has revolutionized fabrication strategies. Features a more in-depth discussion of sensors and microprocessor technologies, advances in FES technology with respect to orthotics, smart devices and relevant apps, and the use of scanner technology in orthotic fabrication. Explains new orthotic devices and their indications from acute traumatic situations through chronic rehabilitation needs. Expert ConsultT eBook version included with purchase. This enhanced eBook experience allows you to search all of the text, figures, and references from the book on a variety of devices.
Over the last decade, an unprecedented expansion in the field of nanomedicine has resulted in the development of new nanomaterials for diagnosis and therapy of various diseases such as cancer. This book covers the design, synthesis and applications of various functionally-hybridized nanomaterials for biomedical applications. It includes strategies for design and synthesis of hybrid nanomaterials, surface engineering of various nanoparticle-based hybrid nanosystems for cancer imaging and therapy, toxicity aspects of nanomaterials and the challenges in translation research of hybrid nanomaterials.
In recent years there has been tremendous progress in the area of tissue engineering research. This book focusses on the fundamental principles underpinning these recent advances in the materials science developed for tissue engineering purposes. Smart materials for tissue engineering are produced by modifying the physicochemical and biological properties of the scaffolds with response to external stimuli to enhance the tissue regeneration. The functions of living cells can be regulated by smart materials which respond to changes in the surrounding microenvironment. This book comprehensively documents the recent advancements in smart materials for tissue engineering and will provide an essential text for those working in materials science and materials engineering, in academia and industry.
A comprehensive guide to the art and science of bioimaging data acquisition, processing and analysis Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis gets newcomers to bioimage data analysis quickly up to speed on the mathematics, statistics, computing hardware and acquisition technologies required to correctly process and document data. The past quarter century has seen remarkable progress in the field of light microscopy for biomedical science, with new imaging technologies coming on the market at an almost annual basis. Most of the data generated by these systems is image-based, and there is a significant increase in the content and throughput of these imaging systems. This, in turn, has resulted in a shift in the literature on biomedical research from descriptive to highly-quantitative. Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis satisfies the demand among students and research scientists for introductory guides to the tools for parsing and processing image data. Extremely well illustrated and including numerous examples, it clearly and accessibly explains what image data is and how to process and document it, as well as the current resources and standards in the field. * A comprehensive guide to the tools for parsing and processing image data and the resources and industry standards for the biological and biomedical sciences * Takes a practical approach to image analysis to assist scientists in ensuring scientific data are robust and reliable * Covers fundamental principles in such a way as to give beginners a sound scientific base upon which to build * Ideally suited for advanced students having only limited knowledge of the mathematics, statistics and computing required for image data analysis An entry-level text written for students and practitioners in the bioscience community, Standard and Super-Resolution Bioimaging Data Analysis de-mythologises the vast array of image analysis modalities which have come online over the past decade while schooling beginners in bioimaging principles, mathematics, technologies and standards.
How does one deal with a moving control volume? What is the best way to make a complex biological transport problem tractable? Which principles need to be applied to solve a given problem? How do you know if your answer makes sense? This unique resource provides over two hundred well-tested biomedical engineering problems that can be used as classroom and homework assignments, quiz material and exam questions. Questions are drawn from a range of topics, covering fluid mechanics, mass transfer and heat transfer applications. Driven by the philosophy that mastery of biotransport is learned by practice, these problems aid students in developing the key skills of determining which principles to apply and how to apply them. Each chapter starts with basic problems and progresses to more difficult questions. Lists of material properties, governing equations and charts provided in the appendices make this a fully self-contained work. Solutions are provided online for instructors.
Robotic exoskeletons that allow stroke survivors to regain use of their limbs, 3D-printed replacement body parts, and dozens of other innovations still in schematic design are revolutionizing the treatment of debilitating injuries and nervous system disorders. What all these technologies have in common is that they are modeled after engineering strategies found in nature--strategies developed by a vast array of organisms over eons of evolutionary trial and error. Eugene Goldfield lays out many principles of engineering found in the natural world, with a focus on how evolutionary and developmental adaptations, such as sensory organs and spinal cords, function within complex organisms. He shows how the component parts of highly coordinated structures organize themselves into autonomous functional systems. For example, when people walk, spinal cord neurons generate coordinated signals that continuously reorganize patterns of muscle activations during the gait cycle. This self-organizing capacity is just one of many qualities that allow biological systems to be robust, adaptive, anticipatory, and self-repairing. To exploit the full potential of technologies designed to interact seamlessly with human bodies, properties like these must be better understood and harnessed at every level, from molecules to cells to organ systems. Bioinspired Devices brings together insights from a wide range of fields. A member of the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Goldfield offers an insider's view of cutting-edge research, and envisions a future in which synthetic and biological devices share energy sources and control, blurring the boundary between nature and medicine.
This new work is dedicated to glasses and their variants which can be used as biomaterials to repair diseased and damaged tissues. Bio-glasses are superior to other biomaterials in many applications, such as healing bone by signaling stem cells to become bone cells.
Key features: First book on biomaterials to focus on bio-glassesEdited by a leading authority on bio-glasses trained by one of its inventors, Dr Larry HenchSupported by the International Commission on Glass (ICG)Authored by members of the ICG Biomedical Glass Committee, with the goal of creating a seamless textbookWritten in an accessible style to facilitate rapid absorption of informationCovers all types of glasses, their properties and applications, and demonstrates how glass is an attractive improvement to current proceduresOf interest to the biomedical as well as the materials science community.
The book covers all types of glasses: traditional glasses, bioactive glasses, sol-gel glasses, phosphate glasses, glass-ceramics, composites and hybrids. Alongside discussion on how bio-glasses are made, their properties, and the reasons for their use, the authors also cover their applications in dentistry, bone regeneration and tissue engineering and cancer treatment. Its solid guidance describes the steps needed to take a new material from concept to clinic, covering the essentials of patenting, scale-up, quality assurance and FDA approval.
This book discusses the two different cellular approaches that are pursued in regenerative medicine: cell therapy and tissue engineering. It examines in detail the therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cells in marrow regeneration, multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells. The interest in MSCs can be seen in more than 150 clinical trials, some of which have progressed to Phase III, despite the cells' limited differentiation potential. The book also explores how embryonic stem (ES) cells, being pluripotent in nature, can resolve some of the problems associated with adult stem cells, yet entail other challenges like risks of teratoma formation and immune rejection. A separate chapter deals with the role of noncoding RNAs in neuronal commitment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Chapters like "Cord blood banking in India and the global scenario"; "3D bioprinting of tissue" and others will make this book an extremely interesting read for all students, researchers and clinicians working in the area of regenerative medicine/stem cells. The book is broadly divided into two parts, the first of which is devoted to basic information on stem cells, and the second of which addresses potential clinical applications in the areas of hematology, cardiology, orthopedic and immune suppression, etc.
This book reviews the application of Nanobiotechnology in the development of Nanomedicine, while also discussing the latest trends and challenges in the clinical translation of Nanomedicine. Nanomedicine refers to the application of Nanotechnology to medicine and holds tremendous potential for achieving improved efficiency, bioavailability, dose response, personalized medicine and enhanced safety as compared to conventional medicines. The book first introduces readers to the basic concepts of Nanomedicine, and to technological advances in and applications of Nanotechnology in treatment, diagnosis, monitoring, and drug delivery. In turn, it reviews the current status of multi-functionalization strategies for using Nanoparticles in the targeted delivery of therapeutic agents. The book's third and final section focuses on the regulatory and safety challenges posed by Nanomedicine, including industry and regulatory agencies' efforts to address them.
Body area networks (BANs) are networks of wireless sensors and medical devices embedded in clothing, worn on or implanted in the body, and have the potential to revolutionize healthcare by enabling pervasive healthcare. However, due to their critical applications affecting human health, challenges arise when designing them to ensure they are safe for the user, sustainable without requiring frequent battery replacements and secure from interference and malicious attacks. This book lays the foundations of how BANs can be redesigned from a cyber-physical systems perspective (CPS) to overcome these issues. Introducing cutting-edge theoretical and practical techniques and taking into account the unique environment-coupled characteristics of BANs, the book examines how we can re-imagine the design of safe, secure and sustainable BANs. It features real-world case studies, suggestions for further investigation and project ideas, making it invaluable for anyone involved in pervasive and mobile healthcare, telemedicine, medical apps and other cyber-physical systems.
Unique in combining the expertise of practitioners from university hospitals and that of academic researchers, this timely monograph presents selected topics catering specifically to the needs and interests of natural scientists and engineers as well as physicians who are concerned with developing nanotechnology-based treatments to improve human health. To this end, the book cover the materials aspects of nanomedicine, such as the hierarchical structure of biological materials, the imaging of hard and soft tissues and, in particular, concrete examples of nanotechnology-based approaches in modern medical treatments. The whole is rounded off by a discussion of the opportunities and risks of using nanotechnology and nanomaterials in medicine, backed by case studies taken from real life.
The first of its kind, this comprehensive resource integrates cellular mechanobiology with micro-nano techniques to provide unrivalled in-depth coverage of the field, including state-of-the-art methods, recent advances, and biological discoveries. Structured in two parts, the first part offers detailed analysis of innovative micro-nano techniques including FRET imaging, electron cryo-microscopy, micropost arrays, nanotopography devices, laser ablation, and computational image analysis. The second part of the book provides valuable insights into the most recent technological advances and discoveries in areas such as stem cell, heart, bone, brain, tumor, and fibroblast mechanobiology. Written by a team of leading experts and well-recognised researchers, this is an essential resource for students and researchers in biomedical engineering.
Many, if not most, industrially important fermentation and bioreactor operations are carried out in fed-batch mode, producing a wide variety of products. In spite of this, there is no single book that deals with fed-batch operations. This is the first book that puts together all the necessary background material regarding the what, why, and how of optimal and sub-optimal fed-batch operations. Numerous examples are provided to illustrate the application of optimal fed-batch cultures. This unique book, by world experts with decades of research and industrial experience, is a must for researchers and industrial practitioners of fed-batch processes (modeling, control, and optimization) in biotechnology, fermentation, food, pharmaceuticals, and waste treatment industries.
This book provides an in-depth description and discussion of different multi-modal diagnostic techniques for cancer detection and treatment using exact optical methods, their comparison, and combination. Coverage includes detailed descriptions of modern state of design for novel methods of optical non-invasive cancer diagnostics; multi-modal methods for earlier cancer diagnostic enhancing the probability of effective cancer treatment; modern clinical trials with novel methods of clinical cancer diagnostics; medical and technical aspects of clinical cancer diagnostics, and long-term monitoring. Biomedical engineers, cancer researchers, and scientists will find the book to be an invaluable resource. Introduces optical imaging strategies; Focuses on multimodal optical diagnostics as a fundamental approach; Discusses novel methods of optical non-invasive cancer diagnostics.
Comprehensively covers the key technologies for the development of tactile perception in minimally invasive surgery
Covering the timely topic of tactile sensing and display in minimally invasive and robotic surgery, this book comprehensively explores new techniques which could dramatically reduce the need for invasive procedures. The tools currently used in minimally invasive surgery (MIS) lack any sort of tactile sensing, significantly reducing the performance of these types of procedures. This book systematically explains the various technologies which the most prominent researchers have proposed to overcome the problem. Furthermore, the authors put forward their own findings, which have been published in recent patents and patent applications. These solutions offer original and creative means of surmounting the current drawbacks of MIS and robotic surgery.
Key features: -Comprehensively covers topics of this ground-breaking technology including tactile sensing, force sensing, tactile display, PVDF fundamentalsDescribes the mechanisms, methods and sensors that measure and display kinaesthetic and tactile data between a surgical tool and tissueWritten by authors at the cutting-edge of research into the area of tactile perception in minimally invasive surgeryProvides key topic for academic researchers, graduate students as well as professionals working in the area
This book introduces the recent progress that has resulted from utilizing the idea of "element-block polymers". A structural unit consisting of various groups of elements is called an "element-block." The design and synthesis of new element-blocks, polymerization of these blocks, and development of methods of forming higher-order structures and achieving hierarchical interface control in order to yield the desired functions are expected to result in manifold advantages. These benefits will encourage the creation of new polymeric materials that share, at a high level, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties not achievable with conventional organic polymeric materials as well as forming properties of molding processability and flexible designability that inorganic materials lack. By pioneering innovative synthetic processes that exploit the reactivity of elements and the preparation techniques employed for inorganic element-blocks, the aim is (1) to create a new series of innovative polymers based on the novel concept of element-block polymers, in which the characteristics of elements are extensively combined and utilized, and (2) to formulate theories related to these polymers. This book demonstrates especially the design strategies and the resulting successful examples offering highly functional materials that utilize element-block polymers as a key unit.
A must-have compendium on biomedical telemetry for all biomedical professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students in the field Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, as well as its technical challenges. Written by a diverse group of experts in the field, it is filled with overviews, highly-detailed scientific analyses, and example applications of biomedical telemetry. The book also addresses technologies for biomedical sensing and design of biomedical telemetry devices with special emphasis on powering/integration issues and materials for biomedical telemetry applications. Handbook of Biomedical Telemetry: * Describes the main components of a typical biomedical telemetry system, along with the technical challenges * Discusses issues of spectrum regulations, standards, and interoperability while major technical challenges related to advanced materials, miniaturization, and biocompatibility issues are also included * Covers body area electromagnetics, inductive coupling, antennas for biomedical telemetry, intra-body communications, non-RF communication links for biomedical telemetry (optical biotelemetry), as well as safety issues, human phantoms, and exposure assessment to high-frequency biotelemetry fields * Presents biosensor network topologies and standards; context-aware sensing and multi-sensor fusion; security and privacy issues in biomedical telemetry; and the connection between biomedical telemetry and telemedicine * Introduces clinical applications of Body Sensor Networks (BSNs) in addition to selected examples of wearable, implantable, ingestible devices, stimulator and integrated mobile healthcare system paradigms for monitoring and therapeutic intervention Covering biomedical telemetry devices, biosensor network topologies and standards, clinical applications, wearable and implantable devices, and the effects on the mobile healthcare system, this compendium is a must-have for professional engineers, researchers, and graduate students.
This book offers all countries a guide to implementing verification systems for medical devices to ensure they satisfy their regulations. It describes the processes, procedures and need for integrating medical devices into the legal metrology framework, addresses their independent safety and performance verification, and highlights the associated savings for national healthcare systems, all with the ultimate goal of increasing the efficacy and reliability of patient diagnoses and treatment. The book primarily focuses on diagnostic and therapeutic medical devices, and reflects the latest international directives and regulations. Above all, the book demonstrates that integrating medical devices into the legal metrology system and establishing a fully operational national laboratory for the inspection of medical devices could significantly improve the reliability of medical devices in diagnosis and patient care, while also reducing costs for the healthcare system in the respective country.
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