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Global Health continues to provide readers with a comprehensive, up-to-date and thought-provoking outline and understanding of the constantly evolving global health landscape. In this new edition the authors have maintained the successful structure and organisation of the previous edition to examine and explain recent health changes and consider likely future patterns. New or expanded topics covered include: emerging and re-emerging infectious disease threats increasing awareness of, and interest in, antimicrobial resistance and superbugs terrorism, global conflict and health the new UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development the drive for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) the use of information technology in global health substance abuse palliative and end-of-life-care ethical issues in global health. Using clear and original explanations of complex issues, this text makes extensive use of boxed case studies and international examples, with discussion questions posed for readers at the end of each chapter. Readers will also be able to take advantage of the new website that was designed to complement this book. Global Health is essential reading for students and researchers of global health, public health and development studies.
Nanostructures for Novel Therapy: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications focuses on the fabrication and characterization of therapeutic nanostructures, in particular, synthesis, design, and in vitro and in vivo therapeutic evaluation. The chapters provide a cogent overview of recent therapeutic applications of nanostructured materials that includes applications of nanostructured materials for wound healing in plastic surgery and stem cell therapy. The book explores the promise for more effective therapy through the use of nanostructured materials, while also assessing the challenges their use might pose from both an economic and medicinal point of view. This innovative look at how nanostructured materials are used in therapeutics will be of great benefit to researchers, providing a greater understanding of the different ways nanomaterials could improve medical treatment, along with a discussion of the obstacles that need to be overcome in order to guarantee widespread availability.
This book shows how to develop efficient quantitative methods to characterize neural data and extra information that reveals underlying dynamics and neurophysiological mechanisms. Written by active experts in the field, it contains an exchange of innovative ideas among researchers at both computational and experimental ends, as well as those at the interface. Authors discuss research challenges and new directions in emerging areas with two goals in mind: to collect recent advances in statistics, signal processing, modeling, and control methods in neuroscience; and to welcome and foster innovative or cross-disciplinary ideas along this line of research and discuss important research issues in neural data analysis. Making use of both tutorial and review materials, this book is written for neural, electrical, and biomedical engineers; computational neuroscientists; statisticians; computer scientists; and clinical engineers.
This book describes the development of quantitative techniques for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging in the assessment of architectural and vascular parameters. It presents morphological vascular research based on the development of quantitative imaging techniques for the use of clinical B-mode ultrasound images, and preclinical architectural vascular investigations on quantitative imaging techniques for ultrasounds and photoacoustics. The book is divided into two main parts, the first of which focuses on the development and validation of quantitative techniques for the assessment of vascular morphological parameters that can be extracted from B-mode ultrasound longitudinal images of the common carotid artery. In turn, the second part highlights quantitative imaging techniques for assessing the architectural parameters of vasculature that can be extracted from 3D volumes, using both contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging and photoacoustic imaging without the addition of any contrast agent. Sharing and summarizing the outcomes of this important research, the book will be of interest to a broad range of researchers and practitioners in the fields of medical imaging and biomedical engineering.
This timely book presents innovative technologies for use in the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of brain disease. These technologies offer exciting possibilities in the medical field owing to their low-cost, portability and safety. The authors address cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, ischemia, haemorrhage, and vasospasm, these diseases having an ever-increasing societal relevance due to the global ageing population. The authors describe the potential of novel techniques such as microwave imaging and present innovative modalities for treatment of brain tumours using electromagnetic fields and nano-composites, as well as for monitoring brain temperature during surgery. Finally, Emerging Electromagnetic Technologies for Brain Diseases Diagnostics, Monitoring and Therapy addresses the perspectives which arise from multi-modal multi-spectral EM modalities, which make a synergic use of the different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This text will be of interest to readers from various different areas, given the fundamental interdisciplinarity of the subject matter. This includes researchers or practitioners in the field of electrical engineering, applied physicists, and applied mathematicians working on imaging applications for biomedical and electromagnetic technologies. Neurologists and radiologists may also find this book of interest, as may graduate students in these areas.
Plastic is one of the widely used polymers around the globe since its discovery. It is highly impossible to think the ease of life without the aid of plastic. Every year billion tons of plastic waste gets accumulated in the environment and leads to death of both marine and terrestrial animals. Plastic is very durable and needs around 1000 years to degrade under the natural environment. The present book illustrates the importance and significance of the bioremediation to tackle the problem of plastic waste. Previously, we have reported elite rhizobacterial isolates (Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain VASB14/WL and Bacillus cereus strain VASB1/TS) of Avicennia marina Vierh (Forsk.) from the West Coast of India with the potential to degrade plastic (polythene). The present book attempted to address the bioremediation scenario of plastic waste (including micro plastic) using microbes with bacteria in particular. Various strategies used to tackle with the plastic waste were highlighted with case studies of plastic waste management, including in vitro, in situ and ex situ with a special reference to biodegradation technology. After the biodegradation of the plastic using microbes, the generated plastic (polythene) degradation products (PE-DPs) were also documented using GC-MS technique followed by their deleterious effect on both animal and plant systems. The book also enhances the awareness of the plastic-free society and also suggests some alternative materials to be used instead of plastic. Lastly, the book suggests/recommends the strategies to be followed by the lawmakers in the government organizations/non-government organizations/social organizations to frame the regulations and guidelines to implement at mass level to reduce the generation of plastic waste.
This book reviews the latest biotechnological advances with pluripotent stem cells, exploring their application in tissue engineering and medicinal chemistry. Chapters from expert contributors cover topics such as the production of transgene-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), expansion, controlled differentiation and programming of pluripotent stem cells, and their genetic instability. Particular attention is given to the application of the pluripotent stem cells for vascularision of engineered tissue and for drug screening. This book will appeal to researchers working in regenerative medicine and drug discovery, and to bioengineers and professionals interested in stem cell research.
This thesis advances the long-standing challenge of measuring oxidative stress and deciphering its underlying mechanisms, and also outlines the advantages and limitations of existing design strategies. It presents a range of approaches for the chemical synthesis of fluorescent probes that detect reversible changes in cellular oxidative stress. The ability to visualise cellular processes in real-time is crucial to understanding disease development and streamline treatment, and this can be achieved using fluorescent tools that can sense reversible disturbances in cellular environments during pathogenesis. The perturbations in cellular redox state are of particular current interest in medical research, since oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. The book investigates different strategies used to achieve ratiometric fluorescence output of the reversible redox probes, which nullify concentration effects associated with intensity-based probes. It also describes suitable approaches to target these probes to specific cellular organelles, thereby enabling medical researchers to visualise sub-cellular oxidative stress levels, and addressing the typically poor uptake of chemical tools into biological studies. In total it reports on four new probes that are now being used by over twenty research groups around the globe, and two of which have been commercialised. The final chapters of this thesis demonstrate successful applications of the sensors in a variety of biological systems ranging from prokaryotes to mammalian cells and whole organisms. The results described clearly indicate the immense value of collaborative, cross-disciplinary research.
This book explains how the biological systems and their functions are driven by genetic information stored in the DNA, and their expression driven by different factors. The soft computing approach recognizes the different patterns in DNA sequence and try to assign the biological relevance with available information.The book also focuses on using the soft-computing approach to predict protein-protein interactions, gene expression and networks. The insights from these studies can be used in metagenomic data analysis and predicting artificial neural networks.
This book discusses the latest developments of the synthesis, preparation, characterization, and applications of nano/microstructure-based materials in biomedical and energetic fields. It introduces several popular approaches to fabricating these materials, including template-assisted fabrication, electrospinning of organic/inorganic hybrid materials, biomineralization-mediated self-assembly, etc. The latest results in material evaluation for targeted applications are also presented. In particular, the book highlights the latest advances and future challenges in polymer nanodielectrics for energy storage applications. As such, it offers a valuable reference guide for scholars interested in the synthesis and evaluation of nano/microstructure-based materials, as well as their biomedical and energetic applications. It also provides essential insights for graduate students and scientists pursuing research in the broad fields of composite materials, polymers, organic/inorganic hybrid materials, nano-assembly, etc.
This book contains a comprehensive overview of all current uses of robots in rehabilitation. The underlying principles in each application are provided. This is followed by a critical review of the technology available, of the utilization protocols, and of user studies, outcomes, and clinical evidence, if existing. Ethical and social implications of robot use are also discussed. The reader will have an in depth view of rehabilitation robots, from principles to practice.
This book provides a pioneering approach to modeling the human diabetic patient using a software agent. It is based on two MASc (Master of Applied Science) theses: one looking at the evolution of the patient agent in time, and another looking the interaction of the patient agent with the healthcare system. It shows that the software agent evolves in a manner analogous to the human patient and exhibits typical attributes of the illness such as reacting to food consumption, medications, and activity. This agent model can be used in a number of different ways, including as a prototype for a specific human patient with the purpose of helping to identify when that patient's condition deviates from normal variations. The software agent can also be used to study the interaction between the human patient and the health care system. This book is of interest to anyone involved in the management of diabetic patients or in societal research into the management of diabetes. The diabetic patient agent was developed using the Ackerman model for diabetes, but this model can be easily adapted for any other model subject with the necessary physiological data to support that model.
Translating Biomaterials for Bone Graft: Bench-top to Clinical Applications brings together the current translational research in bone tissue engineering, from design to application - from materials, drugs and biologic delivery used for bone graft applications to pre-clinical and clinical considerations. The book also discusses the regulatory approval pathways, which involves consideration of the class of devices; whether they are similar to existing solutions, minimal manipulation of donor tissue or completely novel materials, drugs and biologics. These considerations drive the ability to successfully transition the latest generations of bone graft materials into the clinics. Chapters come from materials scientists, clinicians, researchers, and consultants and provide a holistic understanding of the field. As such, the book is a state-of-the-art reference to bone therapies and should appeal to clinicians, scientists, as well as students interested in the current research and/or practices in the field of bone regeneration and restoration.
Polymers have emerged as one of the most innovative classes of materials in modern materials science, leading to new applications in medicine and pharmacy. This book offers a convincing and understandable approach to polymer biomaterial devices being used in various areas related to biomedical and pharmaceutical fields. The polymer materials finding application as biomaterials are discussed and described in detail pertaining to the areas of artificial implants, orthopedics, ocular devices, dental implants, drug delivery systems, burns and wounds.
This is the first book to cover all aspects of the development of imaging biomarkers and their integration into clinical practice, from the conceptual basis through to the technical aspects that need to be considered in order to ensure that medical imaging can serve as a powerful quantification instrument capable of providing valuable information on organ and tissue properties. The process of imaging biomarker development is considered step by step, covering proof of concept, proof of mechanism, image acquisition, image preparation, imaging biomarker analysis and measurement, detection of measurement biases (proof of principle), proof of efficacy and effectiveness, and reporting of results. Sources of uncertainty in the accuracy and precision of measurements and pearls and pitfalls in gold standards and biological correlation are discussed. In addition, practical use cases are included on imaging biomarker implementation in brain, oncologic, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and abdominal diseases. The authors are a multidisciplinary team of expert radiologists and engineers, and the book will be of value to all with an interest in the quantitative imaging of biomarkers in personalized medicine.
Nanotechnology and high-end characterization techniques have highlighted the importance of the material choice for the success of tissue engineering. A paradigm shift has been seen from conventional passive materials as scaffolds to smart multi-functional materials that can mimic the complex intracellular milieu more effectively. This book presents a detailed overview of the rationale involved in the choice of materials for regeneration of different tissues and the future directions in this fascinating area of materials science with specific chapters on regulatory challenges & ethics; tissue engineered medical products.
This book provides the latest information about hairy root culture and its several applications, with special emphasis on potential of hairy roots for the production of bioactive compounds. Due to high growth rate as well as biochemical and genetic stability, it is possible to study the metabolic pathways related to production of bioactive compounds using hairy root culture. Chapters discuss the feasibility of hairy roots for plant derived natural compounds. Advantages and difficulties of hairy roots for up-scaling studies in bioreactors are included as well as successful examples of hairy root culture of plant species producing bioactive compounds used in food, flavors and pharmaceutical industry. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and students working on the area of plant natural products, phytochemistry, plant tissue culture, medicines, and drug discovery.
This book covers the fundamentals of sensor technologies as well as the recent research for the development of environmental, chemical and medical sensor technologies. Chapters include current research on microflow cytometry, microfluidic devices, colorimetric sensors, and the development of low-cost optical densitometric sensors and paper based analytical devices for environmental and biomedical applications. Special focus has been given to nanotechnology and nanostructures- their fabrication, uses and utility in different fields of research such as for the design of tools for medical diagnostics, therapeutics, as well as for detection and estimation of pollutant levels in water and air quality monitoring. This book is intended as a resource for researchers working in the field of sensor development across the world.
These two volumes contain a selection of updated articles from the
acclaimed Meyers Encyclopedia of Molecular Cell Biology and
Molecular Medicine, the most authoritative resource in cell and
molecular biology, combined with new articles by "founding fathers"
in the field.
This book summarizes the recent advances in the science and engineering of polymer-gel-based materials in different fields. It also discusses the extensive research developments for the next generation of smart materials. It takes an in-depth look at the current perspectives and market opportunities while pointing to new possibilities and applications. The book addresses important topics such as stimuli responsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer therapy; polymer gel containing metallic materials; chemotherapeutic applications in oncology; conducting polymer-based gels and their applications in biological sensors; imprinted polymeric gels for pharmaceutical and biomedical purposes; applications of biopolymeric gels in the agricultural sector; application of polymer gels and their nanocomposites in electrochemistry; smart polyelectrolyte gels as a platform for biomedical applications; agro-based polymer gels and their application in purification of industrial water wastes; polymer gel composites for bio-applications. It will be of interest to researchers working in both industry and academia.
This book provides readers with an overview of recent theories and methods for machinery diagnostics applied to machinery maintenance. Each chapter, accepted after a rigorous peer-review process, reports on a selected, original piece of work discussed at the International Congress on Technical Diagnostic, ICDT2016, held on September 12 - 16, 2016, in Gliwice, Poland. The book covers a broad range of topics, including machines operating in non-stationary conditions, and examples from different industrial fields of mechanical, civil, computer and electronic engineering as well as the medical, food, automotive, and mining industries. By presenting state-of-the-art diagnostic solutions and discussing important industrial issues the book offers a valuable resource to both academics and professionals as well as a bridge to facilitate communication and collaboration between the two groups.
This book describes the fabrication of a frequency-based electronic tongue using a modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE), opening a new field of applying organic precursors to achieve nanostructure growth. It also presents a new approach to optimizing nanostructures by means of statistical analysis. The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method was utilized to grow vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with various aspect ratios. To increase the graphitic ratio of synthesized CNTs, sequential experimental strategies based on response surface methodology were employed to investigate the crystallinity of CNTs. In the next step, glucose oxidase (GOx) was immobilized on the optimized multiwall carbon nanotubes/gelatin (MWCNTs/Gl) composite using the entrapment technique to achieve enzyme-catalyzed oxidation of glucose at anodic potentials, which was drop-casted onto the GCE. The modified GCE's performance indicates that a GOx/MWCNTs/Gl/GC electrode can be utilized as a glucose biosensor with a high direct electron transfer rate between GOx and MWCNTs/Gl. It was possible to use the fabricated biosensor as an electronic tongue thanks to a frequency-based circuit attached to the electrochemical cell. The results indicate that the modified GCE (with GOx/MWCNTs/Gl) holds promising potential for application in voltammetric electronic tongues.
This thesis reports on essential advances in the design, synthesis and biomedical applications of multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs). It provides several examples of multifunctional MSN-based drug delivery nanosystems and demonstrates successful synergistic cancer therapies combining MSNs and high-intensity focused ultrasound. The book will especially be of interest to researchers and graduate students in the fields of biomaterials, biology, chemistry, medicine and the life sciences who are working to develop new methods and technologies to combat cancer.
This book presents the fundamental principles and challenges encountered in the control of biomedical systems, providing practical solutions and suggesting alternatives. The perspective of the text is based on the system behaviour in the time domain both linear and non-linear, continuous and discrete, helping the reader to be able to interpret the physical significance of mathematical results during control system analysis and design focusing on biomedical engineering applications. Interactive learning is promoted, endowing students with the ability to change parameters and conditions during the simulation and see the effects of these changes, by using interactive MATLAB and SIMULINK software tools, also presenting realistic problems in order to analyse, design and develop automatic control systems. The text is also complemented with MATLAB and SIMULINK exercise files solved to aid students to focus on the fundamental concepts treated throughout the book, following a new pedagogical approach distinct from the classical one whereby fundamental control concepts are introduced together with adequate software tools in order to gain insight on the biomedical engineering control problems. The book is suitable for second or third-year undergraduate students who will find the illustrative examples particularly useful to their studies of control system design and implementation. Lecturers in the control field will find the computer aided design approach as an alternative to teaching the fundamental concepts of feedback analogic and digital control.
This volume provides an in-depth introduction to 3D printing and biofabrication and covers the recent advances in additive manufacturing for tissue engineering. The book is divided into two parts, the first part on 3D printing discusses conventional approaches in additive manufacturing aimed at fabrication of structures, which are seeded with cells in a subsequent step. The second part on biofabrication presents processes which integrate living cells into the fabrication process.
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