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This book presents advances in biomedical imaging analysis and processing techniques using time dependent medical image datasets for computer aided diagnosis. The analysis of time-series images is one of the most widely appearing problems in science, engineering, and business. In recent years this problem has gained importance due to the increasing availability of more sensitive sensors in science and engineering and due to the wide-spread use of computers in corporations which have increased the amount of time-series data collected by many magnitudes. An important feature of this book is the exploration of different approaches to handle and identify time dependent biomedical images. Biomedical imaging analysis and processing techniques deal with the interaction between all forms of radiation and biological molecules, cells or tissues, to visualize small particles and opaque objects, and to achieve the recognition of biomedical patterns. These are topics of great importance to biomedical science, biology, and medicine. Biomedical imaging analysis techniques can be applied in many different areas to solve existing problems. The various requirements arising from the process of resolving practical problems motivate and expedite the development of biomedical imaging analysis. This is a major reason for the fast growth of the discipline.
This thesis addresses computation fluid dynamics modelling of aortic dissection (AD), in order to generate in silico diagnostic information and assess 'virtual surgery' outcomes. The thesis introduces several important advances in the modelling of aortic dissection and lays essential groundwork for further development of this technology. The work thesis represents a unique and major step forward in our understanding of AD using a patient-specific, systematic and coherent simulation approach, and is currently the most advanced work available on AD.
This invaluable resource discusses clinical applications with effects and side-effects of applications of stem cells in diabetes, kidney and wound treatment. All chapters are contributed by pre-eminent scientists in the field and covers such topics as stem cells and cell therapy in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, kidney failure, wound and other skin aging diseases, characteristics of some kinds of stem/progenitor cells for therapy, future directions of the discussed therapies and much more. Pancreas, Kidney and Skin Regeneration and the other books in the Stem Cells in Clinical Applications series will be invaluable to scientists, researchers, advanced students and clinicians working in stem cells, regenerative medicine or tissue engineering.
In his research, David Dannheisig investigates the influence of lysine129 acetylation on the biological function of survivin including alteration of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling as well as dimerization behavior. Since survivin participates in two major hallmarks of oncogenesis, namely cell death inhibition and chromosomal segregation during the cell cycle, it reflects a valuable target in cancer therapy and research. The author establishes proximity-dependent, fluorescence-microscopic methods to quantify the interaction of survivin with the export receptor Crm1 as well as the homodimerization itself. In the future, those systems can be used to examine the feasible effect of chemical modulators which are targeting these interactions in a cellular background. The outcome achieved is an essential step towards the enhancement of potential cancer therapies.
This useful book is written from a medical perspective and is aimed at academics as well as medical and biomedical engineering students who want to become involved in the design, development, manufacturing or use of prostheses or medical devices. It covers basic information on the complexities of implant and medical device development. The design process, technology assessment, animal experiments, histocompatibility, tissue compatibility and infections are described. In addition, examples of biomaterial applications are presented, showing the diversity of biomaterials. This is the first book that guides the reader through the complicated process of medical product development. Different technical and medical aspects of medical implants are highlighted by a group of authors who are actively involved in biomaterial research at the University Medical Center of Groningen, one of the leading hospitals in The Netherlands.
This book presents an essential overview of beta-lactams and their medicinal value and use in the preparation of other biologically active compounds. Written by internationally respected authors, the individual chapters explore beta-lactams' synthesis, their mechanism of formation, biological effects, and function as base materials for other heterocycles of major importance.
The book covers the basic science and clinical aspects of cardiovascular calcification and bone mineralization. Cardiovascular calcification is the leading predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, with a predictive value more significant than blood lipid levels. The presence of calcific mineral in cardiovascular tissues alters biomechanical performance, increasing workload on the heart and potentiating atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent heart attack and stroke. This book examines the role of calcification in cardiovascular disease covering topics such as calcification in the atherosclerotic plaques and aortic valves arteries and valves, aortic valve replacement, peripheral artery disease, imaging of early calcification and target discovery. In addition, various forms of ectopic calcification as well as mechanisms of bone mineralization are discussed. Cardiovascular Calcification and Bone Mineralization is an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and other medical professionals in cardiology, pathology, and biomedical engineering.
This book is the second of two volumes that together offer a comprehensive account of cutting-edge advances in the development of biomaterials for use within tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. In this volume, which is devoted to biomimetic biomaterials, the opening section discusses bone regeneration by means of duck's feet-derived collagen scaffold and the use of decellularized extracellular matrices. The role of various novel biomimetic hydrogels in regenerative medicine is then considered in detail. The third section focuses on the control of stem cell fate by biomimetic biomaterials, covering exosome-integrated biomaterials for bone regeneration, cellular responses to materials for biomedical engineering, and the regulation of stem cell functions by micropatterned structures. Finally, the use of nano-intelligent biocomposites in regenerative medicine is addressed, with discussion of, for example, recent advances in biphasic calcium phosphate bioceramics and blood-contacting polymeric biomaterials. The authors are recognized experts in the interdisciplinary field of regenerative medicine and the book will be of value for all with an interest in regenerative medicine based on biomaterials.
The book deals with basic cellular and molecular mechanisms associated with aging. It comprehensively describes the important genetic, epigenetic, biochemical and metabolic regulations during aging, as well as some important age-related diseases.The book is divided into four major sections for easy understanding. It takes the readers through the various aspects of aging in a story-like manner. Certain interventions for healthy aging such as dietary restriction, regular exercise and maintaining a balanced and peaceful life-style are also suggested by the experts. The book would be a companion for both beginners, as well as established researchers in the field. It would be useful for science education, research, clinical approach and policy making.
This book examines the role of everyday technology throughout the life cycle in order to demonstrate the wide acceptance and impact of everyday technology and how it is facilitating both practitioners and patients in contemporary practices. In response, then, this text speaks to a number of audiences. Students writing for undergraduate and postgraduate dissertations/proposals will find the array of works insightful, supported with a vast number of references signposting to key texts. For academics, practitioners and prospective researchers this text offers key empirical and methodological insight that can help focus and uncover originality in their own field. We anticipate that readers will find the collection of empirical examples useful for informing their own work, but also, it attempts to ignite new discussions and arguments regarding the application and use of everyday technology for enhancing health internationally. Explores the multifaceted use and application of each 'everyday technology' that impact on diagnosis, treatment and management of individuals. Examines an array of everyday technologies and how these that can either enhance and/or hinder patient/service user outcomes i.e. handheld devices, computer workstations, gamification and artificial intelligence. Discusses technologies that are intended to facilitate patient diagnosis, practitioner-patient relations, within an array of health contexts. Provides readers with an overview with future direction of everyday technologies and its limitations.
This book introduces readers to innovative bio-inspired computing techniques for image processing applications. It demonstrates how a significant drawback of image processing - not providing the simultaneous benefits of high accuracy and less complexity - can be overcome, proposing bio-inspired methodologies to help do so. Besides computing techniques, the book also sheds light on the various application areas related to image processing, and weighs the pros and cons of specific methodologies. Even though several such methodologies are available, most of them do not provide the simultaneous benefits of high accuracy and less complexity, which explains their low usage in connection with practical imaging applications, such as the medical scenario. Lastly, the book illustrates the methodologies in detail, making it suitable for newcomers to the field and advanced researchers alike.
Fall-induced hip fracture is an epidemic health risk among elderly people. This book presents an image-based multilevel modeling approach to understanding the biomechanics involved in fall-induced hip fracture. By hierarchically integrating a body-level dynamics model, a femur-level finite element model, and a local bone failure model, the biomechanics approach is able to simulate all stages in sideways falls and to incorporate all biomechanical variables affecting hip fracture. This book is useful for clinicians to accurately evaluate fracture risk, for biomechanical engineers to virtually test hip protective devices, and for biomedical students to learn image-based biomechanical modeling techniques. This book also covers: Biomechanical viewing on bone composition, bone remodeling, and bone strength Bone imaging and information captured for constructing biomechanical models Bone mechanical testing and mechanical properties required for biomechanical modeling
This book presents the technological basics and applications of small-scale (mm to sub-mm in length-scales) soft robots and devices, written for researchers in both academia and industry. Author Jaeyoun Kim presents technological motivations, enabling factors, and examples in an inter-linked fashion, making it easy for readers to understand and explore how microscale soft robots are a solution to researchers in search of technological platforms for safe, human-friendly biomedical devices. A compact and timely introduction, this book summarizes not only the enabling factors for soft robots and MEMS devices, but also provides a survey of progress in the field and looks to the future in terms of the material, design, and application aspects this technology demonstrates.
This book investigates the factors that lead to slip and fall incidents and establishes a relationship between the coefficient of friction (COF), floor slipperiness and floor roughness. It also examines human perception of slipperiness through measured coefficient of friction (COF). On the basis of questionnaire surveys among manufacturing workers, it identifies potential risk factors and assesses human perceptions of slipperiness. It also uses a tribology approach to relate the interaction between contaminants, floor and footwear materials.
This book narrates the development of various biomimetic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) sensors, such as pressure, flow, acceleration, chemical, and tactile sensors, that are inspired by sensing phenomena that exist in marine life. The research described in this book is multi-faceted and combines the expertise and understanding from diverse fields, including biomimetics, microfabrication, sensor engineering, MEMS design, nanotechnology, and material science. A series of chapters examine the design and fabrication of MEMS sensors that function on piezoresistive, piezoelectric, strain gauge, and chemical sensing principles. By translating nature-based engineering solutions to artificial man-made technology, we can find innovative solutions to critical problems.
Conventional materials technology has yielded clear improvements in regenerative medicine. Ideally, however, a replacement material should mimic the living tissue mechanically, chemically, biologically and functionally. The use of tissue-engineered products based on novel biodegradable polymeric systems will lead to dramatic improvements in health care. The most important materials in development for use in tissue engineering, replacement, and regeneration are based on polymers and on composites reinforced with bioactive ceramics. The first book to address the topic in an integrated manner, Biodegradable Systems in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine presents an extensive description of biodegradable polymers used in medicine and explores their design, development, and processing. The authors discuss the performance of biodegradable systems and the special requirements that should be taken into account when evaluating their biocompatibility. Included are several methodologies for tailoring cell adhesion and proliferation on the surface of biodegradable polymers. This book represents a coordinated effort by outstanding international experts, and provides an integrated, forward-looking perspective. By joining together the most active groups in the field, the editors offer a unified approach, representing diverse fields of study, to produce a revolution in regenerative medicine.
Nanogel-based systems have gained tremendous attention due to their diverse range of applications in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, biosensors, orthopaedics, wound healing and drug delivery. Nanogels for Biomedical Applications provides a comprehensive overview of nanogels and their use in nanomedicine. The book starts with the synthesis, methods and characterization techniques for nanogel-based smart materials followed by individual chapters demonstrating the different uses of the materials. Applications covered include anticancer therapy, tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment, tissue engineering, gene delivery and targeted drug delivery. The book will appeal to biologists, chemists, and nanotechnologists interested in translation research for personalized nanomedicine for health care.
This book introduces the state-of-the-art technologies in mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS devices in order to improve their methodologies. It provides a follow-up to "Advanced Mechatronics and MEMS Devices" (2013) with an exploration of the most up-to-date technologies and their applications, shown through examples that give readers insights and lessons learned from actual projects. Researchers on mechatronics, robotics, and MEMS as well as graduate students in mechanical engineering will find chapters on: Fundamental design and working principles on MEMS accelerometers Innovative mobile technologies Force/tactile sensors development Control schemes for reconfigurable robotic systems Inertial microfluidics Piezoelectric force sensors and dynamic calibration techniques ...And more. Authors explore applications in the areas of agriculture, biomedicine, advanced manufacturing, and space. Micro-assembly for current and future industries is also considered, as well as the design and development of micro and intelligent manufacturing.
The unique physico-chemical properties of cationic polymers and their ability to be easily modified make them attractive for many biological applications. As a result there is a vast amount of research focussed on designing novel natural or synthetic cationic polymers with specific biological functionality. Cationic Polymers in Regenerative Medicine brings together the expertise of leading experts in the field to provide a comprehensive overview of the recent advances in cationic polymer synthesis, modification and the design of biomaterials with different structures for therapeutic applications. Chapters cover recent developments in novel cationic polymer based systems including poly(L-lysine), Poly(N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) and cationic triazine dendrimers as well as cationic polymer-coated micro- and nanoparticles and cationic cellulose and chitin nanocrystals. Applications discussed in the book include drug and gene delivery, therapeutics in thrombosis and inflammation as well as gene therapy. Suitable both for an educational perspective for those new to the field and those already active in the field, the book will appeal to postgraduates and researchers. The broad aspects of the topics covered are suitable for polymer chemists interested in the fundamentals of the materials systems as well as pharmaceutical chemists, bioengineering and medical professionals interested in their applications.
Mechanical Circulatory and Respiratory Support is a comprehensive overview of the past, present and future development of mechanical circulatory and respiratory support devices. Content from over 60 internationally-renowned experts focusses on the entire life-cycle of mechanical circulatory and respiratory support - from the descent into heart and lung failure, alternative medical management, device options, device design, implantation techniques, complications and medical management of the supported patient, patient-device interactions, cost effectiveness, route to market and a view to the future. This book is written as a useful resource for biomedical engineers and clinicians who are designing new mechanical circulatory or respiratory support devices, while also providing a comprehensive guide of the entire field for those who are already familiar with some areas and want to learn more. Reviews of the most cutting-edge research are provided throughout each chapter, along with guides on how to design new devices and which areas require specific focus for future research and development.
This book presents a concise and rigorous exposition of Preisach hysteresis models and their applications to the modeling of neural memory. It demonstrates that memory of Preisach hysteresis models mimics such properties as: selective nature of neural memories extracted from sensory inputs, distributed nature of neural memories and their engrams, neural memory formation as an emerging property of sparse connectivity, neural memory stability with respect to protein turnover, neural memory storage plasticity and neural memory recalls and their effect on storage.The text is designed to be accessible and appealing to a broad audience of neuroscientists, biologists, bioengineers, electrical engineers, applied mathematicians and physicists interested in neural memory and its molecular basis.
This book gives a concise overview of bionanomaterials with applications for skin regeneration. The advantages and challenges of nanoscale materials are covered in detail, giving a basic view of the skin structure and conditions that require transdermal or topical applications. Medical applications, such as wound healing, care for burns, skin disease, and cosmetic care, such as aging of the skin and photodamage, and how they benefit from bionanomaterials, are described in detail. A final chapter is devoted to the ethical and social issues related to the use of bionanomaterials for skin regeneration. This is an ideal book for researchers in materials science, medical scientists specialized in dermatology, and cosmetic chemists working in formulations. It can also serve as a reference for nanotechnologists, dermatologists, microbiologists, engineers, and polymer chemists, as well as students studying in these fields.
In Attachments to War Jennifer Terry traces how biomedical logics entangle Americans in a perpetual state of war. Focusing on the Afghanistan and Iraq wars between 2002 and 2014, Terry identifies the presence of a biomedicine-war nexus in which new forms of wounding provoke the continual development of complex treatment, rehabilitation, and prosthetic technologies. At the same time, the U.S. military rationalizes violence and military occupation as necessary conditions for advancing medical knowledge and saving lives. Terry examines the treatment of war-generated polytrauma, postinjury bionic prosthetics design, and the development of defenses against infectious pathogens, showing how the interdependence between war and biomedicine is interwoven with neoliberal ideals of freedom, democracy, and prosperity. She also outlines the ways in which military-sponsored biomedicine relies on racialized logics that devalue the lives of Afghan and Iraqi citizens and U.S. veterans of color. Uncovering the mechanisms that attach all Americans to war and highlighting their embeddedness and institutionalization in everyday life via the government, media, biotechnology, finance, and higher education, Terry helps lay the foundation for a more meaningful opposition to war.
A comprehensive reference and teaching aid on tissue engineering--covering everything from the basics of regenerative medicine to more advanced and forward thinking topics such as the artificial liver, bladder, and trachea
Regenerative medicine/tissue engineering is the process of replacing or regenerating human cells, tissues, or organs to restore or establish normal function. It is an incredibly progressive field of medicine that may, in the near future, help with the shortage of life-saving organs available through donation for transplantation.
"Introduction to Tissue Engineering: Applications and Challenges" makes tissue engineering more accessible to undergraduate and graduate students alike. It provides a systematic and logical eight-step process for tissue fabrication. Specific chapters have been dedicated to provide in-depth principles for many of the supporting and enabling technologies during the tissue fabrication process and include biomaterial development and synthesis, bioreactor design, and tissue vascularization. The tissue fabrication process is further illustrated with specific examples for liver, bladder, and trachea. Section-coverage includes an overall introduction of tissue engineering; enabling and supporting technologies; clinical applications; and case studies and future challenges.
"Introduction to Tissue Engineering: "Presents medical applications of stem cells in tissue engineeringDeals with the effects of chemical stimulation (growth factors and hormones)Covers current disease pathologies and treatment options (pacemakers, prosthesis)Explains bioengineering, design and fabrication, and critical challenges during tissue fabricationOffers PowerPoint(R) slides for instructorsFeatures case studies and a section on future directions and challenges
As pioneering individuals look ahead to the possibility of generating entire organ systems, students may turn to this text for a comprehensive understanding and preparation for the future of regenerative medicine.
This book presents a comprehensive review on the various processing and post-processing methodologies for biodegradable polymers. Written by professionals with hands-on experience on polymer processing, this book provides first-hand knowledge of all contemporary processing techniques. The current status and future challenges in the field are described, as well as a framework for designing novel devices for desired applications.
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