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Condensing 40 years of teaching experience, this unique textbook will provide students with an unrivalled understanding of the fundamentals of fluid mechanics, and enable them to place that understanding firmly within a biological context. Each chapter introduces, explains, and expands a core concept in biofluid mechanics, establishing a firm theoretical framework for students to build upon in further study. Practical biofluid applications, clinical correlations, and worked examples throughout the book provide real-world scenarios to help students quickly master key theoretical topics. Examples are drawn from biology, medicine, and biotechnology with applications to normal function, disease, and devices, accompanied by over 500 figures to reinforce student understanding. Featuring over 120 multicomponent end-of-chapter problems, flexible teaching pathways to enable tailor-made course structures, and extensive Matlab and Maple code examples, this is the definitive textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate students studying a biologically-grounded course in fluid mechanics.
Connecting theory with real-life applications, this is the first ever textbook to equip students with a comprehensive knowledge of all the key concepts in bionanotechnology. By bridging the interdisciplinary gap from which bionanotechnology emerged, it provides a systematic introduction to the subject, accessible to students from a wide variety of backgrounds. Topics range from nanomaterial preparation, properties and biofunctionalisation, and analytical methods used in bionanotechnology, to bioinspired and DNA nanotechnology, and applications in biosensing, medicine and tissue engineering. Throughout the book, features such as 'Back to basics' and 'Research report' boxes enable students to build a strong theoretical knowledge and to link this to practical applications and up-to-date research. With over 200 detailed, full-colour illustrations and more than 100 end-of-chapter problems, this is an essential guide to bionanotechnology for any student studying this exciting, fast-developing and interdisciplinary field.
With the advances in image guided surgery for cancer treatment, the role of image segmentation and registration has become very critical. The central engine of any image guided surgery product is its ability to quantify the organ or segment the organ whether it is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT), X-ray, PET, SPECT, Ultrasound, and Molecular imaging modality. Sophisticated segmentation algorithms can help the physicians delineate better the anatomical structures present in the input images, enhance the accuracy of medical diagnosis and facilitate the best treatment planning system designs. The focus of this book in towards the state of the art techniques in the area of image segmentation and registration.
Drawing together topics from a wide range of disciplines, this text provides a comprehensive insight into the fundamentals of magnetic biosensors and the applications of magnetic nanoparticles in medicine. Internationally renowned researchers showcase topics ranging from the basic physical principles of magnetism to the detection and manipulation, synthesis protocols and natural occurrence of magnetic nanoparticles. Up-to-date examples of their clinical usage and research applications in the biomedical fields of sensing by diverse magnetic detection methods, in imaging by MRI and in therapeutic strategies such as hyperthermia, are also discussed, providing a thorough introduction to this rapidly developing field. Each chapter features questions with answers, highlighted definition boxes, and numerous illustrations which help readers grasp key concepts. Mathematical tools, together with key literature references, provide a strong underpinning for the material, making it ideal for graduate students, lecturers, medical researchers and industrial scientific strategists.
Over the past three decades, the exploding number of new technologies and applications introduced in medical practice, often powered by advances in biosignal processing and biomedical imaging, created an amazing account of new possibilities for diagnosis and therapy, but also raised major questions of appropriateness and safety. The accelerated development in this field, alongside with the promotion of electronic health care solutions, is often on the basis of an uncontrolled diffusion and use of medical technology. The emergence and use of medical devices is multiplied rapidly and today there exist more than one million different products available on the world market. Despite the fact that the rising cost of health care, partly resulting from the new emerging technological applications, forms the most serious and urgent problem for many governments today, another important concern is that of patient safety and user protection, issues that should never be compromised and expelled from the Biomedical Engineering research practice agenda.
Uniquely focusing on dynamic modeling, this volume incorporates metabolic regulation as a survival mechanism for cells, by driving metabolism through optimal investment of its resources for control of enzyme synthesis and activity. Consequently, the models have a proven record of describing various uptake patterns of mixed carbon substrates that have become significant in modern applications of biomass for the production of bioenergy. The models accurately describe dynamic behavior of microbes in nutrient environments with mixtures of complementary substrates, such as carbon and nitrogen. Modeling of large metabolic networks (including prospects for extension to genome scale) is enabled by lumped hybrid cybernetic models with an unparalleled capacity to predict dynamic behavior of knockout strains. This is an invaluable, must-have reference for bio-researchers and practicing engineers.
This book reviews state of the art regarding strategies for generating and improving microbial strains designed for utilizing renewable raw materials. It discusses methods for genetically engineering of thermophilic bacteria, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Escherichia coli and Zymomonas mobilis, as well as approaches for obtaining useful products from these renewable raw materials based on biotechnological processes using microbes to chemically transform them. However, the efficient transformation of lignocellulosic biomass or glycerol to useful products represents a major challenge: Biomass has to be treated physically and chemically to release a mixture of sugars that potentially can be employed by the microbial production strains. These hydrolytic treatments result in diverse toxic compounds being generated and released, that negatively impact strain performance. Furthermore, most of the commonly used industrial microbes do not have the natural capacity to efficiently utilize and transform the generated sugar mixtures or glycerol. The microbial species reviewed in this book possess particular advantages as production strains and are currently employed for the synthesis of numerous biofuels and chemicals. The book reviews the general and strain-specific genetic engineering strategies for the improvement of sugar mixtures and glycerol catabolism. The issue of lignocellulosic hydrolysate toxicity is addressed in several chapters, where genetic engineering and adaptive laboratory evolution strategies are reviewed and discussed. The objective of this book is to provide the current knowledge regarding strategies for the generation and improvement of microbial strains designed for the transformation of renewable raw materials into useful products. This book aims to become a reference for researchers and students working in this field.
Would you change your genes if you could? As we confront the 'industrial revolution of the genome', the recent discoveries of Crispr-Cas9 technologies are offering, for the first time, cheap and effective methods for editing the human genome. This opens up startling new opportunities as well as significant ethical uncertainty. Tracing events across a fifty-year period, from the first gene splicing techniques to the present day, this is the story of gene editing - the science, the impact and the potential. Kozubek weaves together the fascinating stories of many of the scientists involved in the development of gene editing technology. Along the way, he demystifies how the technology really works and provides vivid and thought-provoking reflections on the continuing ethical debate. This updated paperback edition contains all the very latest on the patent battle over Crisp and the applications of Crispr technology in agriculture and medicine.
This book focuses on food security in sustainable agriculture and nutrient management. The study of plant probiotic microbes' synergism using existing techniques has greatly improved our grasp of the structure and functioning of the plant microbiome. However, the function of plant probiotic microbes and their relation to plants' health in the context of food security, soil nutrient management, human and plant health are largely unexplored. Compared to human probiotics, diverse types and millions of microbiota inhabit plants, forming multifaceted and complicated ecological societies that stimulate plant growth and health through their combined metabolic activities. From the perspective of sustainable cropping systems, observing plant probiotics can provide insights on how to stimulate and maintain plant productivity, along with host stress tolerance and recycling of soil nutrients. This book combines reviews and original research articles to highlight the latest advances in plant probiotics, their specificity, diversity, function, as well as plant microbiome management to improve plant growth and productivity, nutrient management and human health.
This book discusses recent advances and various topics in plasticity of skeletal muscle from the perspectives of morphology, biological function, and clinical applications. Skeletal muscle is a highly plastic organ to adapt to environmental various demands, appears to endocrine various myokines, which flow into blood to protect the recognizing function of brain and inhibit the appearance of several cancer tumorigenesis. The book deals with current stem-cell based, pharmacological, and nutritional therapies for muscle wasting (sarcopenia, cachexia, and muscular dystrophy). It also explains the roles of biological mediators such as PGC-1, transient receptor potential cation channels (TRPC), and AMPK in modulating muscle function. The functional roles of ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-dependent signaling in muscle homeostasis, ribosome biogenesis, and redox regulation of mechanotransduction to modulate skeletal muscle mass are also covered. It is an essential resource for physicians, researchers, post-docs as well as graduate students in the field of sports science including rehabilitation therapy, exercise physiology, exercise biochemistry, and molecular biology dealing with skeletal muscle.
This book comprehensively discusses the latest research in the area of metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering solutions for bioactive compounds are now being derived by means of heterologous gene expression, in a wide range of organisms. The book provides an overview of the model systems being employed for metabolic manipulation to yield bioactive molecules, such as single-cell proteins, antibody generation, metabolites, proteases, chaperones, therapeutic proteins, nanomaterials, polymeric conjugates, dendrimers and nanoassemblies, Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cell lines, etc. In addition, it shares insights into the scope of these methods in the areas of prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, e.g. immunotherapy for curing various diseases like cancer, allergies, autoimmune diseases, etc.
This major reference work is a one-shot knowledge base on electroporation and the use of pulsed electric fields of high intensity and their use in biology, medicine, biotechnology, and food and environmental technologies. The Handbook offers a widespread and well-structured compilation of 156 chapters ranging from the foundations to applications in industry and hospital. It is edited and written by most prominent researchers in the field. With regular updates and growing in its volume it is suitable for academic readers and researchers regardless of their disciplinary expertise, and will also be accessible to students and serious general readers. The Handbook's 276 authors have established scholarly credentials and come from a wide range of disciplines. This is crucially important in a highly interdisciplinary field of electroporation and the use of pulsed electric fields of high intensity and its applications in different fields from medicine, biology, food processing, agriculture, process engineering, energy and environment. An Editorial Board of distinguished scholars from across the world has selected and reviewed the various chapters to ensure the highest quality of this Handbook. The book was edited by an international team of Section Editors: P. Thomas Vernier, Boris Rubinsky, Juergen Kolb, Damijan Miklavcic, Marie-Pierre Rols, Javier Raso, Richard Heller, Gregor Sersa, Dietrich Knorr, and Eugene Vorobiev.
This book discusses the two different cellular approaches that are pursued in regenerative medicine: cell therapy and tissue engineering. It examines in detail the therapeutic application of hematopoietic stem cells in marrow regeneration, multi-potent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), also referred to as mesenchymal stromal cells. The interest in MSCs can be seen in more than 150 clinical trials, some of which have progressed to Phase III, despite the cells' limited differentiation potential. The book also explores how embryonic stem (ES) cells, being pluripotent in nature, can resolve some of the problems associated with adult stem cells, yet entail other challenges like risks of teratoma formation and immune rejection. A separate chapter deals with the role of noncoding RNAs in neuronal commitment of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Chapters like "Cord blood banking in India and the global scenario"; "3D bioprinting of tissue" and others will make this book an extremely interesting read for all students, researchers and clinicians working in the area of regenerative medicine/stem cells. The book is broadly divided into two parts, the first of which is devoted to basic information on stem cells, and the second of which addresses potential clinical applications in the areas of hematology, cardiology, orthopedic and immune suppression, etc.
The book focuses on novel particulate technologies for the purpose of drug delivery to humans. Nowadays, macro and nano-scale particles are being investigated for targeted delivery of small and large biological macromolecules. The targeting of drugs can minimize the dosage regimen and reduces dose related potential toxicity of drug molecules, which in turn lead to increased potential compliance. Various types of organic, inorganic and polymer particles are currently being investigated. These are attracting the attention of the research workers in the field of drug delivery science and technology. This book covers polymersomes, inorganic- organic composites, gold nanoparticles biopolymer and synthetic polymer particles etc.All aspects of drug delivery in relation to each technology have been described including these advances, Easy to read and understand the content of each chapter Rich in up-to-date information regarding their application.
Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides quick access to current issues and trends of nanophotonic applications in biomedical engineering. All students and professionals in applied sciences, materials, biomedical engineering, and medical and healthcare industry will find this essential reference book highly useful.
This book is about the various roles of bioactive ceramides and other sphingolipids in cellular biology. The enigmatic biophysical and biochemical properties of ceramides and their propensity to influence membranes whether as rafts or protein-permeable channels are heavily discussed. Metabolism of ceramides and their metabolites is also focused with ceramide synthase family of proteins being a target of extensive review. Ceramide 1-phosphate and other sphingolipids are also presented in cellular physiology and pathophysiology. Prokaryotic origins of mitochondria at the level of membranes and the occurrence of apoptosis in bacteria are presented. Many aspects of ceramide and sphingolipid biology are addressed in this book. Its focus is the metabolism of ceramide in normal and diseased states and the biophysical and biochemical mechanisms governing the bioactivity of these molecules. Sphingolipid research has surged over the past thirty years and this book gathers the recent findings of various aspects of sphingolipid biochemistry. World-renowned scientists from the field of lipid biology, specifically sphingolipid biochemistry, were gathered to write this book. Scholars from most continents of the globe committed to write diligently about their expertise and the newest findings in the relevant fields. This book came to fruition after almost a year and a half of laborious preparation and diligent writings. This book is targeted to the experienced reader who is looking to read about the various aspects of bioactive ceramide signaling, as well as to the newcomer into the field, as the topics are explained in concise yet very informative manner. The authors and editor wish all readers a pleasant time reading this volume, and are adamant that this book will meet all expectations.
This textbook, aimed at advanced undergraduate and graduate students, introduces the basic knowledge required for nanomedicine and nanotechnology, and emphasizes how the combined use of chemistry and light with nanoparticles can serve as treatments and therapies for cancer. This includes nanodevices, nanophototherapies, nanodrug design, and laser heating of nanoparticles and cell organelles. In addition, the book covers the emerging fields of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics, which deal with nanoscale confinement of radiation and optical interactions on a scale much smaller than the wavelength of the light. The applications of nanophotonics and nanoplasmonics to biomedical research discussed in the book range from optical biosensing to photodynamic therapies.Cutting-edge and reflective of the multidisciplinary nature of nanomedicine, this book effectively combines knowledge and modeling from nanoscience, medicine, biotechnology, physics, optics, engineering, and pharmacy in an easily digestible format. Among the topics covered in-depth are:* The structure of cancer cells and their properties, as well as techniques for selective targeting of cancer and gene therapy.* Nanoplasmonics: Lorentz-Mie simulations of optical properties of nanoparticles and the use of plasmonic nanoparticles in diagnosis and therapy.* Nanophotonics: short and ultrashort laser pulse interactions with nanostructures, time and space simulations of thermal fields in and around the nanobioparticles, and nanoclusters heated by radiation.* Modeling of soft and hard biological tissue ablation by activated nanoparticles, as well as optical, thermal, kinetic, and dynamic modeling.* Detection techniques, including the design and methods of activation of nanodrugs and plasmon resonance detection techniques.* Design and fabrication of nanorobots and nanoparticles.* Effective implementation of nanotherapy treatments.* Nanoheat transfer, particularly the heating and cooling kinetics of nanoparticles.* ...and more!Each chapter contains a set of lectures in the form of text for student readers and PowerPoints for use by instructors, as well as homework exercises. Selected chapters also contain computer practicums, including Maple codes and worked-out examples. This book helps readers become more knowledgeable and versant in nanomedicine and nanotechnology, inspires readers to work creatively and go beyond the ideas and topics presented within, and is sufficiently comprehensive to be of value to research scientists as well as students.
This book focuses on cell- and molecule-based biosensors using micro/nano devices as transducers. After providing basic information on micro/nano cell- and molecule-based biosensors, it introduces readers to the basic structures and properties of micro/nano materials and their applications. The topics covered provide a comprehensive review of the current state of the art in micro/nano cell- and molecule-based biosensors as well as their future development trends, ensuring the book will be of great interest to the interdisciplinary community active in this area: researchers, engineers, biologists, medical scientists, and all those whose work involves related interdisciplinary research and applications. Dr. Ping Wang is a Professor in Department of Biomedical Engineering at Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Dr. Chunsheng Wu is a Professor in Medical School at Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China. Dr. Ning Hu is an Assistant researcher in Department of Biomedical Engineering at Zhejiang University and a Postdoctoral researcher in Medical School at Harvard University, Boston, USA. Dr. K. Jimmy Hsia is a Professor in Department of Biomedical Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, USA.
Smart homes, home automation and ambient-assisted living are terms used to describe technological systems that enrich our living environment and provide means to support care, facilitate well-being and improve comfort. This handbook provides an overview of the domain from the perspective of health care and technology. In Part 1, we set out to describe the demographic changes in society, including ageing and diseases and impairments which lead to the needs for technological solutions. In Part 2, we describe the technological solutions, ranging from sensor-based networks, components, to communication protocols that are used in the design of smart homes. We also deal will biomedical features which can be measured and services that can be delivered to end-users as well as the use of social robots. In Part 3, we present best practices in the field. These best practices mainly focus on existing projects in Europe, the USA and Asia, in which people receive help through dedicated technological solutions being part of the continuum of the home environment and care.
This book is the first of its kind to offer a comprehensive and up-to-date discussion of the use of nanoscale materials for biomedical applications, with a particular focus on drug delivery, theragnosis and tissue regeneration. It also describes in detail the methods used in the preparation of nanoparticles. Response of nanoparticles in biological systems are also explored. Nanotechnology has led to the advent of a new field, nanomedicine, which focuses on the use of nanomaterials as drug-delivery vehicles to develop highly selective and effective drugs. The combination of molecular imaging and nanotechnology has produced theragnostic nanoparticles, which allow the simultaneous detection and monitoring of diseases. Nanotechnology can also be combined with biomaterials to create scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Further, significant advances have been made in the areas of drug delivery, theragnostic nanoparticles and tissue regeneration materials. Some nanomedicines and tissue regeneration materials are already commercially available, while others are undergoing clinical trials, and promising results have been documented. Despite the rapid advances in nanomedicine, there is a relative dearth of literature on the biomedical applications of nanoscale materials.
This book portrays the commonality of tissue micro-structure that dictates physiological function in various organs (microstructure-function relation). Tissue and organ models are used to illustrate physiological functions based on microstructure. Fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp are described in detail. Structurally-based constitutive models are given throughout the book, not only to avoid ambiguities in material characterization, but also to offer insights into the function, structure, and mechanics of tissue components. A statement of future directions of the field is also given, including how advancements, such as state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures, are taking structure-based modeling to the next level. This book also: Provides a comprehensive view of tissue modeling across multiple systems Broadens readers' understanding of state-of-the-art computational modeling and optical measurements of tissue/cells structures Describes in detail fiber scale properties such as orientation and crimp
This book describes a new, "e-Health" approach to stroke rehabilitation. The authors propose an alternative approach that combines state of the art ICT technologies ranging from Augmented and Virtual Reality gaming environments to latest advances in immersive user interfaces for delivering a mixed-reality training platform, along with advanced embedded micro sensing and computing devices exhibiting enhanced power autonomy by using the latest Bluetooth Smart communication interfaces and energy saving approaches. These technologies are integrated under the umbrella of an online Personal Health Record (PHR) services allowing for delivery of personalized, patient-centric medical services whether at home, in a clinic or on the move. Describes innovative ways for achieving mixed-reality gaming environments; Enhances immersive experience by combining virtual projections with user interfaces based on body motion analysis; Offers cost-effective body motion capture by hybridizing wearable sensor data; Utilizes energy-efficient micro-embedded sensors for wearable physiological and sensing and activity monitoring applications; Includes innovative, power autonomous sensing using Body Area Networks; Describes the prototype of the portable, integrated rehabilitation training solution.
This thesis reports on essential advances in the design, synthesis and biomedical applications of multifunctional Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs). It provides several examples of multifunctional MSN-based drug delivery nanosystems and demonstrates successful synergistic cancer therapies combining MSNs and high-intensity focused ultrasound. The book will especially be of interest to researchers and graduate students in the fields of biomaterials, biology, chemistry, medicine and the life sciences who are working to develop new methods and technologies to combat cancer.
This book offers readers cutting-edge research at the interface of polymer science and engineering, biomedical engineering, materials science, and biology. State-of-the-art developments in microscale technologies for cell engineering applications are covered, including technologies relevant to both pluripotent and adult stem cells, the immune system, and somatic cells of the animal and human origin. This book bridges the gap in the understanding of engineering biology at multiple length scale, including microenvironmental control, bioprocessing, and tissue engineering in the areas of cardiac, cartilage, skeletal, and vascular tissues, among others. This book also discusses unique, emerging areas of micropatterning and three-dimensional printing models of cellular engineering, and contributes to the better understanding of the role of biophysical factors in determining the cell fate. Microscale Technologies for Cell Engineering is valuable for bioengineers, biomaterial scientists, tissue engineers, clinicians, immunoengineers, immunologists and stem cell biologists, as it offers a review of the current cutting-edge cell engineering research at multiple length scale and will be valuable in developing new strategies for efficient scale-up and clinical translation.
This book shows how nanofabrication techniques and nanomaterials can be used to customize packaging for nano devices with applications to electronics, photonics, biological and biomedical research and products. It covers topics such as bio sensing electronics, bio device packaging, MEMS for bio devices and much more, including: Offers a comprehensive overview of nano and bio packaging and their materials based on their chemical and physical sciences and mechanical, electrical and material engineering perspectives; Discusses nano materials as power energy sources, computational analyses of nano materials including molecular dynamic (MD) simulations and DFT calculations; Analyzes nanotubes, superhydrophobic self-clean Lotus surfaces; Covers nano chemistry for bio sensor/bio material device packaging. This second edition includes new chapters on soft materials-enabled packaging for stretchable and wearable electronics, state of the art miniaturization for active implantable medical devices, recent LED packaging and progress, nanomaterials for recent energy storage devices such as lithium ion batteries and supercapacitors and their packaging. Nano- Bio- Electronic, Photonic and MEMS Packaging is the ideal book for all biomedical engineers, industrial electronics packaging engineers, and those engaged in bio nanotechnology applications research.
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