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This book introduces the recent progress that has resulted from utilizing the idea of "element-block polymers". A structural unit consisting of various groups of elements is called an "element-block." The design and synthesis of new element-blocks, polymerization of these blocks, and development of methods of forming higher-order structures and achieving hierarchical interface control in order to yield the desired functions are expected to result in manifold advantages. These benefits will encourage the creation of new polymeric materials that share, at a high level, electronic, optical, and magnetic properties not achievable with conventional organic polymeric materials as well as forming properties of molding processability and flexible designability that inorganic materials lack. By pioneering innovative synthetic processes that exploit the reactivity of elements and the preparation techniques employed for inorganic element-blocks, the aim is (1) to create a new series of innovative polymers based on the novel concept of element-block polymers, in which the characteristics of elements are extensively combined and utilized, and (2) to formulate theories related to these polymers. This book demonstrates especially the design strategies and the resulting successful examples offering highly functional materials that utilize element-block polymers as a key unit.
With mathematical and computational models furthering our understanding of lung mechanics, function and disease, this book provides an all-inclusive introduction to the topic from a quantitative standpoint. Focusing on inverse modeling, the reader is guided through the theory in a logical progression, from the simplest models up to state-of-the-art models that are both dynamic and nonlinear. Key tools used in biomedical engineering research, such as regression theory, linear and nonlinear systems theory, and the Fourier transform, are explained. Derivations of important physical principles, such as the Poiseuille equation and the wave speed equation, from first principles are also provided. Example applications to experimental data throughout illustrate physiological relevance, whilst problem sets at the end of each chapter provide practice and test reader comprehension. This book is ideal for biomedical engineering and biophysics graduate students and researchers wishing to understand this emerging field.
Biopolymers found in marine animals and plants offer tremendous, largely untapped pharmaceutical potential. Research shows that these biopolymers can be used to combat various infectious as well as inflammatory, oxidative, and carcinogenic factors. Chitin, Chitosan, Oligosaccharides and Their Derivatives: Biological Activities and Applications covers the key aspects of these therapeutically valuable biopolymers and their derivatives, namely, their properties, sources, production, and applications in food science and technology as well as biological, biomedical, industrial, and agricultural fields.
Contains more than 100 Tables & Figures and more than 800
With their wide range of applications, the world is looking to biopolymers to serve as the basis for functional food- and drug development. This book is an important resource for those leading this effort.
Photoacoustics promises to revolutionize medical imaging and may well make as dramatic a contribution to modern medicine as the discovery of the x-ray itself once did. Combining electromagnetic and ultrasonic waves synergistically, photoacoustics can provide deep speckle-free imaging with high electromagnetic contrast at high ultrasonic resolution and without any health risk. While photoacoustic imaging is probably the fastest growing biomedical imaging technology, this book is the first comprehensive volume in this emerging field covering both the physics and the remarkable noninvasive applications that are changing diagnostic medicine. Bringing together the leading pioneers in this field to write about their own work, Photoacoustic Imaging and Spectroscopy is the first to provide a full account of the latest research and developing applications in the area of biomedical photoacoustics. Photoacoustics can provide functional sensing of physiological parameters such as the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin. It can also provide high-contrast functional imaging of angiogenesis and hypermetabolism in tumors in vivo. Discussing these remarkable noninvasive applications and so much more, this reference is essential reading for all researchers in medical imaging and those clinicians working at the cutting-edge of modern biotechnology to develop diagnostic techniques that can save many lives and just as importantly do no harm.
The first of its kind, this comprehensive resource integrates cellular mechanobiology with micro-nano techniques to provide unrivalled in-depth coverage of the field, including state-of-the-art methods, recent advances, and biological discoveries. Structured in two parts, the first part offers detailed analysis of innovative micro-nano techniques including FRET imaging, electron cryo-microscopy, micropost arrays, nanotopography devices, laser ablation, and computational image analysis. The second part of the book provides valuable insights into the most recent technological advances and discoveries in areas such as stem cell, heart, bone, brain, tumor, and fibroblast mechanobiology. Written by a team of leading experts and well-recognised researchers, this is an essential resource for students and researchers in biomedical engineering.
This monograph assembles expert knowledge on the latest
biomechanical modeling and testing of hard tissues, coupled with a
concise introduction to the structural and physical properties of
bone and cartilage.
This book outlines the principle and display methods of stereopsis, the biological effects of image viewing, and the effects on the human body, as well as its clinical significance. The authors also present the latest research findings and future prospects for stereopsis methods. In the field of medical care, the technique is useful for the 3-dimensional identification of lesions and affected regions; however, stereoscopic images can cause unpleasant symptoms including motion sickness, headache, and visual fatigue. With increasing opportunities for using the stereoscopic viewing technique in various other fields outside medicine, it is important to resolve the underlying issues of stereoscopic viewing and improve the diagnostic accuracy, safety of surgery and reduce the stress for physicians. Written by pioneering authors, Cutting Edge in Information Displays and Hygiene is a valuable resource for both new and established researchers and students seeking comprehensive information on stereoscopic imaging methods as well as professionals working in environmental/occupational health and health promotion.
The field of nanoceramics for biomedical applications has experienced important advances in the last five years. These advances are mainly focused in the field of new nanostructured bioceramics able to mimic almost the same biomineralization processes. In addition, there has also been significant advances in nanoceramics as vehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapy. Building on the success of Biomimetic Nanoceramics in Clinical Use, this second edition has been revised and updated to reflect the recent developments in the field. Nanoceramics in Clinical Use includes additional material on bone mineralization processes, new synthesis strategies and applications of nanostructured bioceramics to manufacture 3D macroporous scaffolds and as nanovehicles for targeted drug delivery and gene therapies, to provide the reader with a complete overview of the topic, from fundamental principles to the latest advances. Written by World leading experts in bioceramics, this title will appeal to a broad audience, from academic researchers to those working within the commercial industry. Materials and chemical engineers, chemists, biologists, physicists and those working in medicine, im particular with medical implants, will appreciate the comprehensive coverage of this fast-developing area.
In this fully revised and updated second edition of An Anthropology of Biomedicine, authors Lock and Nguyen introduce biomedicine from an anthropological perspective, exploring the entanglement of material bodies with history, environment, culture, and politics. Drawing on historical and ethnographic work, the book critiques the assumption made by the biological sciences of a universal human body that can be uniformly standardized. It focuses on the ways in which the application of biomedical technologies brings about radical changes to societies at large based on socioeconomic inequalities and ethical disputes, and develops and integrates the theory that the human body in health and illness is not an ontological given but a moveable, malleable entity. This second edition includes new chapters on: microbiology and the microbiome; global health; and, the self as a socio-technical system. In addition, all chapters have been comprehensively revised to take account of developments from within this fast-paced field, in the intervening years between publications. References and figures have also been updated throughout. This highly-regarded and award-winning textbook (Winner of the 2010 Prose Award for Archaeology and Anthropology) retains the character and features of the previous edition. Its coverage remains broad, including discussion of: biomedical technologies in practice; anthropologies of medicine; biology and human experiments; infertility and assisted reproduction; genomics, epigenomics, and uncertain futures; and molecularizing racial difference, ensuring it remains the essential text for students of anthropology, medical anthropology as well as public and global health.
Explains models from natural flash systems Discusses theoretical considerations of flash systems Presents approaches and procedures for designing synthetic flash systems Explores methods for preparing flash systems for specific applications The design of environment-sensitive devices for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications has improved significantly due to recent advances in smart polymer and hydrogel technology. Despite their capacity to carry out functions that previously were unobtainable, smart polymers and hydrogels tend to have painfully slow response times. On the other hand biological systems go through phase changes at an extremely fast rate. This book examines the natural systems that respond almost instantaneously to environmental stimuli, and thus gives the reader an understanding of the mechanisms that govern these responses. The book includes chapters on how to go about designing a synthetic "flash" system based on the naturally occurring systems. It also deals with potential applications of flash systems in biomedical and pharmaceutical areas.
This book focuses on the advances in transtibial prosthetic technology and targets research in the evolution of the powered prosthesis such as the BiOM, which was derived from considerable research and development at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The concept of the book spans the historical evolution of prosthetic applications from passive to new and futuristic robotic prosthetic technologies. The author describes the reasons for amputation, surgical procedures, and an historical perspective of the prosthesis for the lower limb. He also addresses the phases and sub-phases of gait and compensatory mechanisms arising for a transtibial prosthesis and links the compensatory mechanisms to long-term morbidities. The general technologies for gait analysis central to prosthetic design and the inherent biomechanics foundations for analysis are also explored. The book reports on recent-past to current-term applications with passive elastic prostheses. The core of the book deals with futuristic robotic prostheses including their function and major subsystems, such as actuator technology, state machine control, and machine learning applications. Finally, the envisioned future trends in the prosthetic technology space are presented.
A comprehensive text in the field of biomaterials science and tissue engineering, covering fundamental principles and methods related to processing-microstructure-property linkages as applied to biomaterials science. Essential concepts and techniques of the cell biology are discussed in detail, with a focus quantitatively and qualitatively evaluating cell-material interaction. It gives detailed discussion on the processing, structure and properties of metals, ceramics and polymers, together with techniques and guidelines. Comprehensive coverage of in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility property evaluation of materials for bone, neural as well as cardiovascular tissue engineering applications, together with representative protocols. Supported by several multiple-choice questions, fill in the blanks, review questions, numerical problems and solutions to selected problems, this is an ideal text for undergraduate and graduate students in understanding fundamental concepts and the latest developments in the field of biomaterials science.
This textbook discusses the new relationship between artificial, synthetic material and living matter, and presents defined examples of approaches aiming for the creation of artificial cells. It also offers insights into the world of synthetic biology from its origins to the present day, showing what is currently possible in this discipline. Furthermore, it examines the ethical concerns and potential threats posed by this new field. The textbook is based on a lecture of the same title, held for master's students at the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences (BOKU), Vienna, and is primarily intended for students of synthetic biology, biotechnology and bioengineering. It is also of interest to research scientists from other disciplines wishing to learn more about the state of the art of synthetic biology and its future.
Nanophotonics has emerged rapidly into technological mainstream with the advent and maturity of nanotechnology available in photonics and enabled many new exciting applications in the area of biomedical science and engineering that were unimagined even a few years ago with conventional photonic engineering techniques. Handbook of Nanophotonics in Biomedical Engineering is intended to be a reliable resource to a wealth of information on nanophotonics that can inspire readers by detailing emerging and established possibilities of nanophotonics in biomedical science and engineering applications. This comprehensive reference presents not only the basics of nanophotonics but also explores recent experimental and clinical methods used in biomedical and bioengineering research. Each peer-reviewed chapter of this book discusses fundamental aspects and materials/fabrication issues of nanophotonics, as well as applications in interfaces, cell, tissue, animal studies, and clinical engineering. The organization provides quick access to current issues and trends of nanophotonic applications in biomedical engineering. All students and professionals in applied sciences, materials, biomedical engineering, and medical and healthcare industry will find this essential reference book highly useful.
Biomaterials: Principles and Applications offers a comprehensive review of all the major biomaterials in this rapidly growing field. In recent years, the role of biomaterials has been influenced considerably by advances in many areas of biotechnology and science, as well as advances in surgical techniques and instruments. Comprising chapters contributed by a panel of international experts, this text provides a familiarity with the uses of materials in medicine and dentistry and the rational basis for these applications. It covers such subjects as biodegradable polymeric materials and their relation to tissue engineering, biologic materials, and biomaterials applications in soft and hard tissues. Nearly one hundred figures and tables further add to the value of this book. The text is concise, topical, and not overly technical - No other book covers the entire field of biomaterials so succinctly in one volume.
This book offers a systematic introduction to the engineering principles and techniques of cavitation in biomedicine on the basis of its physics and mechanism. Adopting an interdisciplinary approach, it covers areas of interest ranging from physics and engineering to the biological and medical sciences. Individual chapters introduce the fundamentals of cavitation, describe its characterization, control and imaging techniques, and present cavitation-enhanced thermal and mechanical effects and their applications. Intended as both a reference work for graduate students, and as a guide for scientists and engineers who work with cavitation in biomedicine, it provides a broad and solid foundation of knowledge. The aim is to bridge the different disciplines involved, and to promote cross-discipline research, thus encouraging innovations in the scientific research and engineering applications alike. Dr. Mingxi Wan is a professor at Department of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China; Dr. Yi Feng works at Department of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiao Tong University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, China; Dr. Gail ter Haar is a professor at The Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, Surry, UK.
Prostheses, assistive systems, and rehabilitation systems are essential to increasing the quality of life for people with disabilities. Research and development over the last decade has resulted in enormous advances toward that goal-none more so than the development of intelligent systems and technologies.
From a biomedical engineering perspective, this book takes an analytic, quantitative approach to describing the basic components of physiological regulators and control systems (PRCs). In Endogenous and Exogenous Regulation and Control of Physiological Systems, the author provides grounding in the classical methods of designing linear and nonlinear systems. He also offers state-of-the-art material on the potential of PRCs to treat immune system ailments, most notably AIDS and cancer.
Contains papers presented at the Third International Symposium on
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (1997),
which provide evidence that computer-based models, and in
particular numerical methods, are becoming essential tools for the
solution of many problems encountered in the field of biomedical
engineering. The range of subject areas presented include the
modeling of hip and knee joint replacements, assessment of fatigue
damage in cemented hip prostheses, nonlinear analysis of hard and
soft tissue, methods for the simulation of bone adaptation, bone
reconstruction using implants, and computational techniques to
model human impact. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical
Engineering also details the application of numerical techniques
applied to orthodontic treatment together with introducing new
methods for modeling and assessing the behavior of dental implants,
adhesives, and restorations.
This book comprehensively describes biological phenomena, adaptation mechanisms, and strategies of living organisms to survive under extremely cold or desiccated conditions at molecular, cellular, and organ levels. It also provides tremendous potential for applications of the findings to a wide variety of industries. The volume consists of three parts: Part 1, Adaptation Mechanisms of Cold, and Part 2, Adaptation Mechanisms of Desiccation, collect up-to-date research on mechanisms and strategies of living organisms such as sleeping chironomids, polar marine fishes, hibernating mammals, bryophytes, dormant seeds, and boreal plants to survive under extreme cold and desiccated conditions at molecular, cellular, and organ levels. Part 3, Application Technologies from Laboratory to Society, covers various applications to a wide variety of industries such as the medical, food, and agricultural and life science industries. For example, biological knowledge of how plants and animals survive under cold, drought, and desiccated conditions may provide a hint on how we can improve crop production in a very fragile environment in global climate change. Unique molecules that protect cells during desiccation and freezing such as trehalose and antifreeze protein (AFP) have potential for use to preserve cells, tissues, and organs for the long term under very stable conditions. In addition, the current progress of supercooling technology of cells may lead us to solve problems of cellular high sensitivity to freezing injury, which will dramatically improve the usability of these cells. Furthermore, knowledge of water substitution and glass formation as major mechanisms for formulation designs and new drying technologies will contribute to the development of food preservation and drug delivery systems under dry conditions. Written by contributors who have been conducting cutting-edge science in related fields, this title is recommended to a wide variety of readers who are interested in learning from such organisms their strategies, mechanisms, and applications, and it will inspire researchers in various disciplines.
Virtually every wound, whether surgical or traumatic, needs to be closed to promote wound healing and prevent infection. Increasingly sophisticated and effective materials for the crucial surgical treatment of wound closure are being developed continuously. Keep up with the most recent research progress and future trends in this complex and rapidly changing field with Wound Closure Biomaterial and Devices. This state-of-the-art book provides detailed information and critical discussions on:
This is the first book devoted exclusively to the subject of immunogold-silver staining. This volume is authored by 47 distinguished scientist representing 12 countries. The primary objective of this book is to discuss principles, methods, and applications of IGSS.
This book reviews the emerging studies of synthetic immunology, including the development and regeneration of immune cells, immune organ development and artificial regeneration, and the synthetic approach towards understanding human immune system. Immunology has developed rapidly over the last 50 years through the incorporation of new methods and concepts in cell and molecular biology, genetics, genomics and proteomics. This progress is the result of works by many excellent researchers all over the world. Currently, immunological research has accumulated detailed knowledge on basic mechanisms of immunity and is in the process to change medical practices. Yet, due to the enormous complexity of the immune system, many aspects on the regulation and function of this system remain unknown. Synthetic biology uses gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function approaches. The goals of synthetic biology can be described in a simple phrase "rebuild, alter, and understand," namely, to rebuild minimal functional systems using well-defined parts from nature and then to perturb the system to understand its working principles. Given the richness of accumulated knowledge in molecular and cellular mechanisms of the immune system, we now begin adapting the concepts of synthetic biology to immunology. An immune response is a spatiotemporal phenomenon occurring at a given time and at a specialized place in the body. One goal of synthetic immunology is to reconstruct artificial microenvironments for better understanding of an immune response. We hope this yet-to-be-experimental approach of synthetic immunology and the compilation of this book will aid our further understanding of the immune system and future devising the tools to manipulate the immune system for therapy and prevention of the diseases.
This book examines the state of the art in diverse areas of haptics (touch)-related research, including the psychophysics and neurophysiology of haptics, development of haptics displays and sensors, and applications to a wide variety of fields such as industry, education, therapy, medicine, and welfare for the visually impaired. It also discusses the potential of future haptics interaction, such as haptics for emotional control and remote haptics communication. The book offers a valuable resource not only for haptics and human interface researchers, but also for developers and designers at manufacturing corporations and in the entertainment industries.
The first reference on this emerging interdisciplinary research
area at the interface between materials science and biomedicine is
written by pioneers in the field, who address the requirements,
current status and future challenges. Focusing on inherently
conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene, they adopt a
systematic approach, covering all relevant aspects and concepts:
synthesis and fabrication, properties, introduction of biological
function, components of bionic devices and materials requirements.
Established bionic devices, such as the bionic ear are examined, as
are emerging areas of application, including use of organic bionic
materials as conduits for bone re-growth, spinal cord injury repair
and muscle regeneration. The whole is rounded off with a look at
future prospects in sustainable energy generation and
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