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Perfect for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students in geophysics, physics, mathematics, geology and engineering, this book is devoted exclusively to seismic wave theory. The result is an invaluable teaching tool, with its detailed derivations of formulas, clear explanations of topics, exercises along with selected answers, and an additional set of exercises with derived answers on the book's website. Some highlights of the text include: a review of vector calculus and Fourier transforms and an introduction to tensors, which prepare readers for the chapters to come; and a detailed discussion on computing reflection and transmission coefficients, a topic of wide interest in the field; a discussion in later chapters of plane waves in anisotropic and anelastic media, which serves as a useful introduction to these two areas of current research in geophysics. Students will learn to understand seismic wave theory through the book's clear and concise pedagogy.
Geosequestration involves the deep geological storage of carbon dioxide from major industrial sources, providing a potential solution for reducing the rate of increase of atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and mitigating climate change. This volume provides an overview of the major geophysical techniques and analysis methods for monitoring the movement and predictability of carbon dioxide plumes underground. Comprising chapters from eminent researchers, the book is illustrated with practical examples and case studies of active projects and government initiatives, and discusses their successes and remaining challenges. A key case study from Norway demonstrates how governments and other stake-holders could estimate storage capacity and design storage projects that meet the requirements of regulatory authorities. Presenting reasons for embracing geosequestration, technical best practice for carbon management, and outlooks for the future, this volume provides a key reference for academic researchers, industry practitioners and graduate students looking to gain insight into subsurface carbon management.
** THE PERFECT STOCKING FILLER FOR THE INQUISITIVE AND CURIOUS. ** Part of the ALL-NEW Ladybird Expert series. Discover in this accessible and authoritative introduction the fundamental theory of how our dynamic planet works. Written by the celebrated geologist, academic and popular science presenter Iain Stewart, Plate Tectonics explores the Earth as a planetary machine and investigates the people and ideas that changed the way we look at the world. You'll learn about the make up of the Earth in the past and the present, from monsoon-like currents in our planet's radioactive interior to magnetic force lines and what the planet would look like without water. - Our planet as an active living system - The planetary force field - Fault lines that cross continents - How plates tectonics protects life on Earth - And much more . . . Written by the leading lights and most outstanding communicators in their fields, the Ladybird Expert books provide clear, accessible and authoritative introductions to subjects drawn from science, history and culture. For an adult readership, the Ladybird Expert series is produced in the same iconic small hardback format pioneered by the original Ladybirds. Each beautifully illustrated book features the first new illustrations produced in the original Ladybird style for nearly forty years.
This concise, accessible, market-leading textbook brings together the wide-ranging fundamentals students need to understand rocks and minerals, and shows them how they relate to the broader Earth, materials and environmental sciences. Designed specifically for one-semester courses, it is beautifully illustrated to explain the key concepts in mineralogy and petrology. This edition has been fully updated based on classroom experience, and new features include a completely new chapter providing an elementary introduction to thermodynamics, kinetics, radioactive decay and absolute dating; new mineral descriptions and many new stunning color photographs; and a new section on hydraulic fracturing and discussion of some of its most serious potential environmental consequences. The book uses stunning photos of mineral specimens and rock thin sections to help students build a core understanding. It also creates a highly effective learning experience through close integration of clear illustrations with engaging text, and helps students to easily visualize crystal structures through the CrystalViewer's 3D software, available online.
Until a few decades ago, the ocean depths were almost as mysterious and inaccessible as outer space. Oceans cover two-thirds of the earth's surface with an average depth of more than two miles--yet humans had never ventured more than a few hundred feet below the waves. One of the great scientific and archaeological feats of our time has been finally to cast light on the "eternal darkness" of the deep sea. This is the story of that achievement, told by the man who has done more than any other to make it possible: Robert Ballard. Ballard discovered the wreck of the Titanic. He led the teams that discovered hydrothermal vents and "black smokers"--cracks in the ocean floor where springs of superheated water support some of the strangest life-forms on the planet. He was a diver on the team that explored the mid-Atlantic ridge for the first time, confirming the theory of plate tectonics. Today, using a nuclear submarine from the U.S. Navy, he's exploring the ancient trade routes of the Mediterranean and the Black Sea for the remains of historic vessels and their cargo. In this book, he combines science, history, spectacular illustrations, and first-hand stories from his own expeditions in a uniquely personal account of how twentieth-century explorers have pushed back the frontiers of technology to take us into the midst of a world we could once only guess at. Ballard begins in 1930 with William Beebe and Otis Barton, pioneers of the ocean depths who made the world's first deep-sea dives in a cramped steel sphere. He introduces us to Auguste and Jacques Piccard, whose "Bathyscaph"descended in 1960 to the lowest point on the ocean floor. He reviews the celebrated advances made by Jacques Cousteau. He describes his own major discoveries--from sea-floor spreading to black smokers--as well as his technical breakthroughs, including the development of remote-operated underwater vehicles and the revolutionary search techniques that led to the discovery and exploration of the Titanic, the Nazi battleship Bismarck, ancient trading vessels, and other great ships. Readers will come away with a richer understanding of history, earth science, biology, and marine technology--and a new appreciation for the remarkable men and women who have explored some of the most remote and fascinating places on the planet.
This book provides a comprehensive introduction to radiogenic and stable isotope geochemistry. Beginning with a brief overview of nuclear physics and nuclear origins, it then reviews radioactive decay schemes and their use in geochronology. A following chapter covers the closely related techniques such as fission-track and carbon-14 dating. Subsequent chapters cover nucleosynthetic anomalies in meteorites and early solar system chronology and the use of radiogenic isotopes in understanding the evolution of the Earth s mantle, crust, and oceans. Attention then turns to stable isotopes and after reviewing the basic principles involved, the book explores their use in topics as diverse as mantle evolution, archeology and paleontology, ore formation, and, particularly, paleoclimatology. A following chapter explores recent developments including unconventional stable isotopes, mass-independent fractionation, and isotopic clumping . The final chapter reviews the isotopic variation in the noble gases, which result from both radioactive decay and chemical fractionations.
Geoarchaeology is the application of geoscience to the study of archaeological deposits and the archaeological record. Employing techniques from pedology, geomorphology, sedimentology, geochronology, and stratigraphy, geoarchaeologists investigate and interpret sediments, soils and landforms at the focal points of archaeological research.
Edited by Rolfe D. Mandel and with contributions by John Albanese, Joe Allen Artz, E. Arthur Bettis III, C. Reid Ferring, Vance T. Holliday, David W. May, and Mandel, this volume traces the history of all major projects, researchers, theoretical developments, and sites contributing to our geoarchaeological knowledge of North America's Great Plains. The book provides a historical overview and explores theoretical questions that confront geoarchaeologists working in the Great Plains, where North American geoarchaeology emerged as a discipline.
This reference encompasses the fields of Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism in a single volume. Both sciences have applications in navigation, in the search for minerals and hydrocarbons, in dating rock sequences, and in unraveling past geologic movements such as plate motions they have contributed to a better understanding of the Earth. The book describes in fine detail the current state of knowledge and provides an up-to-date synthesis of the most basic concepts. It is an indispensable working tool not only for geophysicists and geophysics students but also for geologists, physicists, atmospheric and environmental scientists, and engineers.
Exam board: AQA, Edexcel, OCR, WJEC/Eduqas Level: A-level Subject: Geography First teaching: September 2016 First exams: Summer 2017 (AS); Summer 2018 (A-level) Master the in-depth knowledge and higher-level skills that A-level Geography students need to succeed; this focused topic book extends learning far beyond your course textbooks. Blending detailed content and case studies with questions, exemplars and guidance, this book: - Significantly improves students' knowledge and understanding of A-level content and concepts, providing more coverage of The Water and Carbon Cycles than your existing resources - Strengthens students' analytical and interpretative skills through questions that involve a range of geographical data sources, with guidance on how to approach each task - Demonstrates how to evaluate issues, with a dedicated section in every chapter that shows how to think geographically, consider relevant evidence and structure a balanced essay - Equips students with everything they need to excel, from additional case studies and definitions of key terminology, to suggestions for further research and fieldwork ideas for the Independent Investigation - Helps students check, apply and consolidate their learning, using end-of-chapter refresher questions and discussion points, plus tailored advice for the AQA, Edexcel, OCR and WJEC/Eduqas specifications - Offers trusted and reliable content, written by a team of highly experienced senior examiners and reviewed by academics with unparalleled knowledge of the latest geographical theories
Resources tailored to the Cambridge International AS & A Level Marine Science syllabus (9693), for first examination in 2017. Cambridge International AS and A Level Marine Science Coursebook is tailored to the Marine Science syllabus (9693) for first examination in 2017, and is endorsed for full syllabus coverage by Cambridge International Examinations. The coursebook includes exercises to develop scientific skills such as problem-solving and handling information; practical activities to help students develop investigative skills; and international case studies to illustrate phenomena in real-world situations. Exam-style questions and self-assessment questions are provided to encourage students to track their understanding. Students can also develop their maths skills in science contexts. Answers to questions are found at the back of the book.
The Second Edition also benefits from new artwork that clearly illustrates complex concepts. New to the Second Edition: New Chapter: 15, "Geophysical Imaging," by Frederick Cook Within Chapters 21 and 22, four new essays on "Regional Perspectives" discuss the European Alps, the Altaids, the Appalachians, and the Cascadia Wedge. New and updated art for more informative illustration of concepts. The Second Edition now has 570 black & white figures.
Bringing together basic ideas, classical theories, recent experimental and theoretical aspects, this book explains desiccation cracks from simple, easily-comprehensible cases to more complex, applied situations. The ideal team of authors, combining experimental and theoretical backgrounds, and with experience in both physical and earth sciences, discuss how the study of cracks can lead to the design of crack-resistant materials, as well as how cracks can be grown to generate patterned surfaces at the nano- and micro-scales. Important research and recent developments on tailoring desiccation cracks by different methods are covered, supported by straightforward, yet deep theoretical models. Intended for a broad readership spanning physics, materials science, and engineering to the geosciences, the book also includes additional reading especially for students engaged in pattern formation research.
The inner core is a planet within a planet: a hot sphere with a mass of one hundred quintillion tons of iron and nickel that lies more than 5000 kilometres beneath our feet. It plays a crucial role in driving outer core fluid motion and the geodynamo, which generates the Earth's magnetic field. This book is the first to provide a comprehensive review of past and contemporary research on the Earth's inner core from a seismological perspective. Chapters cover the collection, processing and interpretation of seismological data, as well as our current knowledge of the structure, anisotropy, attenuation, rotational dynamics, and boundary of the inner core. Reviewing the latest research and suggesting new seismological techniques and future avenues, it is an essential resource for both seismologists and non-seismologists interested in this fascinating field of research. It will also form a useful resource for courses in seismology and deep Earth processes.
India is killing the Ganges, and the Ganges in turn is killing India. The waterway that has nourished more people than any on earth for three millennia is now so polluted with sewage and toxic waste that it has become a menace to human and animal health. Victor Mallet traces the holy river from source to mouth, and from ancient times to the present day, to find that the battle to rescue what is arguably the world's most important river is far from lost. As one Hindu sage told the author in Rishikesh on the banks of the upper Ganges (known to Hindus as the goddess Ganga) - 'If Ganga dies, India dies. If Ganga thrives, India thrives. The lives of 500 million people is no small thing.' Drawing on four years of first-hand reporting and detailed historical and scientific research, Mallet delves into the religious, historical, and biological mysteries of the Ganges, and explains how Hindus can simultaneously revere and abuse their national river. Starting at the Himalayan glacier where the Ganges emerges pure and cold from an icy cave known as the Cow's Mouth and ending in the tiger-infested mangrove swamps of the Bay of Bengal, Mallet encounters everyone from the naked holy men who worship the river, to the engineers who divert its waters for irrigation, the scientists who study its bacteria, and Narendra Modi, the Hindu nationalist prime minister, who says he wants to save India's mother-river for posterity. Can they succeed in saving the river from catastrophe - or is it too late?
With this self-contained and comprehensive text, students and researchers will gain a detailed understanding of the fundamental aspects of the hydrodynamic control of wave energy converters. Such control is necessary to maximise energy capture for a given device configuration and plays a major role in efforts to make wave energy economic. Covering a wide range of disciplines, the reader is taken from the mathematical and technical fundamentals, through the main pillars of wave energy hydrodynamic control, right through to state-of-the-art algorithms for hydrodynamic control. The various operating principles of wave energy converters are exposed and the unique aspects of the hydrodynamic control problem highlighted, with a variety of potential solutions discussed. Supporting material on wave forecasting and the interaction of the hydrodynamic control problem with other aspects of wave energy device optimisation, such as device geometry optimisation and optimal device array layout, is also provided.
How many snowflakes are needed to make a snowperson? Where is the snowiest place on Earth? When will the last snowflake fall? Snow has a lot in common with religion. It comes from heaven. It changes everything. It creates an alternative reality and brings on irrational behaviour in humans. But unlike most religions, snow has never had a bible, until now. Giles Whittell, a passionate snow enthusiast, takes the reader on a quest through centuries and continents to reveal the wonders of snow. Along the way he uncovers the mysteries of snow crystal morphology, why avalanches happen, how snow saved a British prime minister's life, and the terrifying truth about the opening ceremony of the 1960 winter Olympics. 'Snow' is the next best thing to a white Christmas, an anthropology and travelogue for everyone from ski addicts to the millions of people who have never even seen it.
The time-dependent decay of naturally occurring radioactive isotopes or in-growth of their radioactive or stable daughter products form the basis of radiometric dating of several natural processes. Developed in the beginning of the last century mainly to determine the absolute ages of rocks and minerals, radiometric chronology now plays a central role in a broad range of Earth and planetary sciences - from extra-solar-system processes to environmental geoscience. With the prerequisite of only college-level knowledge in physics, chemistry and mathematics, this concise book focuses on the essential principles of radiometric dating in order to enable students and teachers belonging to diverse fields of studies to select, understand and interpret radiometric dating results generated and published by professionals.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
Informative travel companions about roadside terrain and geology with photos, diagrams, and glossary.
Based largely on an International Commission on Dynamical Meteorology (ICDM) workshop, this timely volume, written by leading researchers in the field, covers a range of important research issues related to high-impact weather and extreme climate events. Dynamical linkages between these extremes and various atmospheric and ocean phenomena are examined, including Atlantic Multidecadal, North Atlantic, and Madden-Julian Oscillations; Annular Modes; tropical cyclones; and Asian monsoons. This book also examines the predictability of high-impact weather and extreme climate events on multiple time scales. Highlighting recent research and new advances in the field, this book enhances understanding of dynamical and physical processes associated with these events to help managers and policy makers make informed decisions to manage risk and prevent or mitigate disasters. It also provides guidance on future research directions in atmospheric science, meteorology, climate science, and weather forecasting, for experts and young scientists.
This is the first undergraduate textbook to fully integrate results from geophysics, geochemistry, and petrology to describe the structure, composition, and dynamic processes that operate throughout the solid Earth. It presents an Earth system science approach to studies of the Earth's interior and develops a global view of solid Earth cycles to explain geodynamic and plate tectonic processes. This book initially explores the formation and evolution of the early Earth, then considers the operative forces for plate tectonic movements at the Earth's surface, and finally discusses global cycles within the deep Earth and their effect on the surface environment. Interactions between the geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere, and their influence at and beneath the Earth's surface are examined in detail. This textbook thus provides a concise yet extensive coverage of the solid Earth. Written for intermediate undergraduates, it includes a wealth of features to support student learning at this level.
This book deals with recent advances in our understanding and prediction of tropical cyclogenesis, intensification and movement as well as landfall processes like heavy rainfall, gale wind and storm surge based on the latest observational and numerical weather prediction (NWP) modeling platforms. It also includes tropical cyclone (TC) management issues like early warning systems, recent high impact TC events, disaster preparedness, assessment of risk and vulnerability including construction, archiving and retrieval of the best tracking and historical data sets, policy decision etc., in view of recent findings on climate change aspects and their impact on TC activity. The chapters are authored by leading experts, both from research and operational environments.
This book is relevant to cyclone forecasters and researchers, managers, policy makers, graduate and undergraduate students. It intends to stimulate thinking and hence further research in the field of TCs and climate change, especially over the Indian Ocean region and provides high-quality reference materials for all the users mentioned above for the management of TCs over this region.
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