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This is the first textbook to address all the components of the Earth's cryosphere - all forms of snow and ice, both terrestrial and marine. It provides a concise but comprehensive summary of snow cover, glaciers, ice sheets, lake and river ice, permafrost, sea ice and icebergs - their past history and projected future state. It is designed for courses at upper undergraduate and graduate level in environmental science, geography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, water resource engineering and ocean sciences. It also provides a superb up-to-date summary for researchers of the cryosphere. The book includes an extensive bibliography, numerous figures and color plates, thematic boxes on selected topics and a glossary. The book builds on courses taught by the authors for many decades at the University of Colorado and the University of Alberta. Whilst there are many existing texts on individual components of the cryosphere, no other textbook covers the whole cryosphere.
Seismic amplitudes yield key information on lithology and fluid fill, enabling interpretation of reservoir quality and likelihood of hydrocarbon presence. The modern seismic interpreter must be able to deploy a range of sophisticated geophysical techniques, such as seismic inversion, AVO (amplitude variation with offset), and rock physics modelling, as well as integrating information from other geophysical techniques and well data. This accessible, authoritative book provides a complete framework for seismic amplitude interpretation and analysis in a practical manner that allows easy application - independent of any commercial software products. Deriving from the authors' extensive industry expertise and experience of delivering practical courses on the subject, it guides the interpreter through each step, introducing techniques with practical observations and helping to evaluate interpretation confidence. Seismic Amplitude is an invaluable day-to-day tool for graduate students and industry professionals in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, and all subsurface disciplines making regular use of seismic data.
Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology provides the most up-to-date information on soil science and its applications in archaeology. Based on more than three decades of investigations and experiments, the volume demonstrates how description protocols and complimentary methods (SEM/EDS, microprobe, micro-FTIR, bulk soil chemistry, micro- and macrofossils) are used in interpretations. It also focuses on key topics, such as palaeosols, cultivation, and occupation surfaces, and introduces a range of current issues, such as site inundation, climate change, settlement morphology, herding, trackways, industrial processes, funerary features, and site transformation. Structured around important case studies, Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology is thoroughly-illustrated, with color plates and figures, tables and other ancillary materials on its website (www.cambridge.org/9781107011380); chapter appendices can be accessed separately using the web (www.geoarchaeology.info/asma). This new book will serve as an essential volume for all archaeological inquiry about soil.
Sharply focused, up-to-date information on microbial biofertilizers--including emerging options such as "Piriformospora indica" and "Matsutake" The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers provides in-depth coverage of all major microbial biofertilizers (rhizobia, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and cyanobacteriaas well as new and emerging growth promoters (endophytes). It examines the role of microbes in growth promotion, bioprotectors, and bioremidiators, and presents protocols and practical strategies for using microbes in sustainable agriculture. An abundance of helpful charts, tables, and figures make complex information easy to access and understand.In this first-of-its-kind volume, contributors from 11 countries and several continents address important issues surrounding microbial biofertilizers, including: the rhizobium-host-arbuscular mycorrhizal" tripartite relationship mycorrhiza as a disease suppresser and stress reducer mycorrhiza helping bacteria the impact of functional groups of soil microorganisms on nutrient turnover PBPRs as biofertilizers and biopesticides the potential of wild-legume rhizobia for use as a biofertilizers the expanding role of blue-green algae in sustainable agriculture the role of microbial fertilizers in sustainable plant production new and emerging endophytes the commercial potential of biofertilizersIn this young century, the use of biofertilizers is already growing rapidly. It has been recognized that these environment-friendly bioprotectors, growth boosters, and remediators are essential for soil/plant health. The Handbook of Microbial Biofertilizers is designed to fit the expanding information needs of current and future biotechnologists, microbiologists, botanists, agronomists, environmentalists, and others whose work involves sustained agriculture.
An explanatory guide for the 1: 625 000 Bedrock Geology UK (North) Map
The aim of this book is to present an overview of the state of the art with regard to the function, application and design of TWSs in order to better protect surface water from contamination. Accordingly, it also presents applications of constructed wetlands with regard to climatic and cultural aspects. The use of artificial and natural treatment wetland systems (TWSs) for wastewater treatment is an approach that has been developed over the last thirty years. Europe is currently home to roughly 10,000 constructed wetland treatment systems (CWTSs), which simulate the aquatic habitat conditions of natural marsh ecosystems; roughly 3,500 systems are in operation in Germany alone. TWSs can also be found in many other European countries, for example 200 - 400 in Denmark, 400 - 600 in Great Britain, and ca. 1,000 in Poland. Most of the existing systems serve as local or individual household treatment systems. CWTSs are easy to operate and do not require specialized maintenance; further, no biological sewage sludge is formed during treatment processes. As TWSs are resistant to fluctuations in hydraulic loads, they are primarily used in rural areas as well as in urbanized areas with dispersed habitats, where conventional sewer systems and central conventional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) cannot be applied due to the high costs they would entail. TWSs are usually applied at the 2nd stage of domestic wastewater treatment, after mechanical treatment, and/or at the 3rd stage of treatment in order to ensure purification of effluent from conventional biological reactors and re-naturalization. New applications of TWSs include rainwater treatment as well as industrial and landfill leachate treatment. TWSs are well suited to these fields, as they can potentially remove not only organic matter and nitrogen compounds but also trace metals and traces of persistent organic pollutants and pathogens. Based on the practical experience gathered to date, and on new research regarding the processes and mechanisms of pollutant removal and advances in the systems properties and design, TWSs continue to evolve.
This book will broaden readers' understanding of pegmatites in a special geodynamic setting, dealing with the emplacement of the Hagendorf-Pleystein Pegmatite Province (HPPP) in the Central European Variscides. This treatise illustrates the complex processes leading to the formation and partial destruction of the pegmatites, documenting the geochronological, chemical, mineralogical, geological and geomorphological / sedimentological data set. The book starts with a detailed account of the economic geology of the various pegmatites, explaining why these deposits are a major resource of ceramic raw materials. In its concluding section, a model of the pegmatite evolution in an ensialic orogen provides meaningful insights into the genetic aspects of pegmatite generation. The Late Paleozoic rare-element pegmatites of the HPPP, Oberpfalz-SE, Germany, rank among the largest concentrations in Europe. The biggest pegmatite of this mining district totals 4.4 million tons of ore (Hagendorf-South). The mining history of the HPPP is restricted to the 20th century, when local entrepreneurs started mining operations in search of ceramic raw materials, feldspar and quartz. Today the "Silbergrube Aplite" is still worked for feldspar. The traditional mining of pegmatitic and aplitic rocks in Central Europe, such as the Bohemian Massif, which is shared by Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Austria, has been focused on these industrial minerals. In addition to these major commodities, lithium was mined for a period of time. But even today many of these pegmatites of calc-alkaline affiliation have not lost their appeal to mineralogists and mineral enthusiasts for their wealth of minerals that contain P, Nb, Ta, Li, Be, B, U, Th, Sc, Ti and Sn. The most favorable crustal section to bring about pegmatitic rocks of this type, encompassing pegmatoids, metapegmatites, reactivated pseudopegmatites and pegmatites sensu stricto is the ensialic orogen, exemplified by the Variscan (Hercynian) Orogen, which geodynamically connects the Paleozoic pegmatite provinces in North America and Europe. The geological history of the HPPP, however, goes much further than the Carboniferous-Permian magmatic activity, when the last structural disturbances of the Variscan orogeny affected the NE-Bavarian Basement between 450 and 330 Ma. During this time mafic magmatic rocks together with calcareous and arenaceous sediments were converted into paragneisses, calcsilicate rocks, and amphibolites. It is the period of time when tectonic shortening led to over thrusting and when the emplacement of nappes and the architectural elements of the ensialic orogen began taking shape. During the Late Permian, the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic, the HPPP did not lie idle in geological terms; hypogene and supergene alteration continued and found its most recent expression in alluvial-fluvial "nigrine" placer deposits, which resulted from the unroofing of the pegmatites and aplites in the HPPP and can be used even outside HPPP as an ore guide to pegmatites.
"A comprehensive and entertaining historical and botanical review, providing an enjoyable and cognitive read."-Nature The foods we eat have a deep and often surprising past. From almonds and apples to tea and rice, many foods that we consume today have histories that can be traced out of prehistoric Central Asia along the tracks of the Silk Road to kitchens in Europe, America, China, and elsewhere in East Asia. The exchange of goods, ideas, cultural practices, and genes along these ancient routes extends back five thousand years, and organized trade along the Silk Road dates to at least Han Dynasty China in the second century BC. Balancing a broad array of archaeological, botanical, and historical evidence, Fruit from the Sands presents the fascinating story of the origins and spread of agriculture across Inner Asia and into Europe and East Asia. Through the preserved remains of plants found in archaeological sites, Robert N. Spengler III identifies the regions where our most familiar crops were domesticated and follows their routes as people carried them around the world. With vivid examples, Fruit from the Sands explores how the foods we eat have shaped the course of human history and transformed cuisines all over the globe.
Renewable energy resources now play an essential role in the energy supply debate, and especially a new interest in wind energy has resulted in the intensified construction of wind farms. Thanks to the growing demand for renewable energy, offshore wind farms (OWFs) are increasingly gaining in popularity, since yields over sea are greater and more reliable than over land. Against this background it is becoming particularly urgent to determine whether and if so to what extent such OWF expansion affects our oceans and local climates. OWFs produce a downstream wind speed reduction, the so-called wind-wake effect, which impacts atmospheric boundary layers, alters local wind characteristics and in turn affects ocean dynamics. This book will help readers to understand in detail these OWF-induced changes in the atmosphere and ocean by analyzing model simulations and measurements. In this context, OWF-induced upwelling and downwelling are key aspects.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of environmental aspects of the Sava River, which is the greatest tributary to the Danube River and the major drainage river system of South Eastern Europe. Hydroelectric power plants, river traffic, intensive agricultural activities, heavy industry and floods have considerable influence on the environment and biota in the basin. Summarizing the results that were gathered in the course of EU, bilateral and national projects, the book highlights the most important stressors and helps readers to better understand the impact of anthropogenic activities on the function of river basins. Topics include: transboundary water cooperation between the riparian countries; climate change projection, including its impact on flood hazards; evaluation of anthropogenic pollution sources; pollution of sediments, metal bioavailability and ecotoxicological and microbiological characterization of the river. The biological part also addresses quality aspects related to wildlife in river aquatic ecosystems (algae, macrophytes, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates and fish) and riparian ecosystems (amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals). The general state of biodiversity and pressures caused by invasive aquatic species are also discussed.
This book provides an up-to-date, comprehensive treatment of the variables and processes of microclimate and local climate, including radiation balance and energy balance. It describes and explains the climate within the lower atmosphere and upper soil, the region critical to life on Earth. Topics that are covered include not only the physical processes that affect microclimate, but also biological processes that affect vegetation and animals, including people. A geographic tour of the microclimates of the major ecosystems around the world is included. All major biomes and surface types, including urban areas, are examined, and the effects of climate change on microclimate are described. This book is invaluable for advanced students and researchers in climatology in departments of environmental science, geography, meteorology, agricultural science, and forestry.
The archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland are the products of some of the most dramatic events which have occurred in the Earth's history. The Shetlands are the eroded roots of a vast mountain range that once soared to Himalayan heights and extended from Scandinavia to the Appalachians. Around 65 million years ago, this mighty chain was split asunder by the shifting of the Earth's tectonic plates, and the North Atlantic Ocean was formed. In earlier times, the area was occupied by a huge freshwater lake - Lake Orcadie - which existed for almost 10 million years and was home to a wide range of primitive species of fish. Later, during the last Ice Age, the area was completely submerged beneath ice sheets which left an indelible mark on the landscapes of both island groups. This book tells the incredible geological story of the most northerly outposts of the British Isles.
"Fossils are the fragments from which, piece by laborious piece, the great mosaic of the history of life has been constructed. Here and there, we can supplement these meager scraps by the use of biochemical markers or geochemical signatures that add useful information, but, even with such additional help, our reconstructions and our models of descent are often tentative. For the fossil record is, as we have seen, as biased as it is incomplete. But fragmentary, selective, and biased though it is, the fossil record, with all its imperfections, is still a treasure. Though whole chapters are missing, many pages lost, and the earliest pages so damaged as to be, as yet, virtually unreadable, this-the greatest biography of all-is one in whose closing pages we find ourselves."-from Origins In Origins, Frank H. T. Rhodes explores the origin and evolution of living things, the changing environments in which they have developed, and the challenges we now face on an increasingly crowded and polluted planet. Rhodes argues that the future well-being of our burgeoning population depends in no small part on our understanding of life's past, its long and slow development, and its intricate interdependencies. Rhodes's accessible and extensively illustrated treatment of the origins narrative describes the nature of the search for prehistoric life, the significance of geologic time, the origin of life, the emergence and spread of flora and fauna, the evolution of primates, and the emergence of modern humans.
This book covers advances made since the 2004 Springer volume "Polarized Light in Animal Vision" edited by Horvath and Varju, but also provides reviews and synopses of some areas. Part I examines polarization sensitivity across many animal taxa including vertebrates and invertebrates and details both terrestrial and aquatic life. Part II is devoted to the description of polarized light in nature and explores how the physics of light must be taken into account when understanding how polarized light is detected by the visual system. This includes underwater polarization due to scattering; polarization patterns reflected from freshwater bodies; polarization characteristics of forest canopies; normal and anomalous polarization patterns of the skies; skylight polarization transmitted through Snell's window and both linearly and circularly polarized signals produced by terrestrial and aquatic animals. This Part also examines polarized "light pollution" induced by anthropogenic factors such as reflection off asphalt surfaces, glass panes, car bodies, and other man-made structures that are now known to form ecological traps for polarotactic insects. Part III surveys some of the practical applications of polarization vision including polarization-based traps for biting insects, ground-based polarimetric cloud detectors and an historical examination of the navigational abilities of Viking seafarers using the sky polarization compass. The deterrent qualities of ungulate pelage to polarization-sensitive biting insects is also examined in this section.
This book is geared for advanced level research in the general subject area of remote sensing and modeling as they apply to the coastal marine environment. The various chapters focus on the latest scientific and technical advances in the service of better understanding coastal marine environments for their care, conservation and management. Chapters specifically deal with advances in remote sensing coastal classifications, environmental monitoring, digital ocean technological advances, geophysical methods, geoacoustics, X-band radar, risk assessment models, GIS applications, real-time modeling systems, and spatial modeling. Readers will find this book useful because it summarizes applications of new research methods in one of the world s most dynamic and complicated environments. Chapters in this book will be of interest to specialists in the coastal marine environment who deals with aspects of environmental monitoring and assessment via remote sensing techniques and numerical modeling."
Deep-water (below wave base) processes, although generally hidden from view, shape the sedimentary record of more than 65% of the Earth s surface, including large parts of ancient mountain belts. This book aims to inform advanced-level undergraduate and postgraduate students, and professional Earth scientists with interests in physical oceanography and hydrocarbon exploration and production, about many of the important physical aspects of deep-water (mainly deep-marine) systems. The authors consider transport and deposition in the deep sea, trace-fossil assemblages, and facies stacking patterns as an archive of the underlying controls on deposit architecture (e.g., seismicity, climate change, autocyclicity). Topics include modern and ancient deep-water sedimentary environments, tectonic settings, and how basinal and extra-basinal processes generate the typical characteristics of basin slopes, submarine canyons, contourite mounds and drifts, submarine fans, basin floors and abyssal plains.
The understanding of Earth processes and environments over geological time is highly dependent upon both the experience that can only be gained through doing fieldwork, and the collection of reliable data and appropriate samples in the field. This textbook explains the main data gathering techniques used by geologists in the field and the reasons for these, with emphasis throughout on how to make effective field observations and record these in suitable formats. Equal weight is given to assembling field observations from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock types. There are also substantial chapters on producing a field notebook, collecting structural information, recording fossil data and constructing geological maps. The volume is in a robust and handy size, with colour coded chapters for ease of use and quick reference in the field. Geological Field Techniques is designed for students, amateur enthusiasts and professionals who have a background in geology and wish to collect field data on rocks and geological features. Teaching aspects of this textbook include: * step-by-step guides to essential practical skills such as using a compass-clinometer, making a geological map and drawing a field sketch; * tricks of the trade, checklists, flow charts and short worked examples; * over 200 illustrations of a wide range of field notes, maps and geological features; * appendices with the commonly used rock description and classification diagrams; * a supporting website hosted by Wiley Blackwell.
This book gives a comprehensive presentation of our present understanding of the Earth's Hydrological cycle and the problems, consequences and impacts that go with this topic. Water is a central component in the Earth's system. It is indispensable for life on Earth in its present formand influences virtually every aspect of our planet's life support system. On relatively short time scales, atmospheric water vapor interacts with the atmospheric circulation and is crucial in forming the Earth's climate zones. Water vapor is the most powerful of the greenhouse gases and serves to enhance the tropospheric temperature. The dominant part of available water on Earth resides in the oceans. Parts are locked up in the land ice on Greenland and Antarctica and a smaller part is estimated to exist as groundwater. If all the ice over the land and all the glaciers were to melt, the sea level would rise by some 80 m. In comparison, the total amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is small; it amounts to 25 kg/m2, or the equivalent of 25 mm water for each column of air. Yet atmospheric water vapor is crucial for the Earth s energy balance. The book gives an up to date presentation of the present knowledge.Previously published in Surveys in Geophysics, Volume 35, No. 3, 2014"
The rich fossil record of the Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains of the United States is a gold mine for interested scientists. The last thirty million years of Earth history are superbly chronicled by a succession of fossil assemblages extending from the St. Lawrence River to Florida. Marine scientists, paleontologists, and systematic biologists alike need a thorough guide to interpret this history.
The study of dinosaurs has been experiencing a remarkable renaissance over the past few decades. Scientific understanding of dinosaur anatomy, biology, and evolution has advanced to such a degree that paleontologists often know more about 100-million-year-old dinosaurs than many species of living organisms. This book provides a contemporary review of dinosaur science intended for students, researchers, and dinosaur enthusiasts. It reviews the latest knowledge on dinosaur anatomy and phylogeny, how dinosaurs functioned as living animals, and the grand narrative of dinosaur evolution across the Mesozoic. A particular focus is on the fossil evidence and explicit methods that allow paleontologists to study dinosaurs in rigorous detail. Scientific knowledge of dinosaur biology and evolution is shifting fast, and this book aims to summarize current understanding of dinosaur science in a technical, but accessible, style, supplemented with vivid photographs and illustrations.
The Topics in Paleobiology Series is published in collaboration with the Palaeontological Association, and is edited by Professor Mike Benton, University of Bristol.
Books in the series provide a summary of the current state of knowledge, a trusted route into the primary literature, and will act as pointers for future directions for research. As well as volumes on individual groups, the series will also deal with topics that have a cross-cutting relevance, such as the evolution of significant ecosystems, particular key times and events in the history of life, climate change, and the application of a new techniques such as molecular palaeontology.
The books are written by leading international experts and will be pitched at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers in both the paleontological and biological sciences.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http: //www.wiley.com/go/brusatte/dinosaurpaleobiology.
The sea has been the site of radical changes in human lives and national histories. It has been an agent of colonial oppression but also of indigenous resistance, a site of loss, dispersal and enforced migration but also of new forms of solidarity and affective kinship. "Sea Changes "re-evaluates the view that history happens mainly on dry land and makes the case for a creative reinterpretation of the role of the sea: not merely as a passage from one country to the next, but a historical site deserving close study.
Are we deranged? The acclaimed Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh argues that future generations may well think so. How else to explain our imaginative failure in the face of global warming? In his first major book of nonfiction since In an Antique Land, Ghosh examines our inability--at the level of literature, history, and politics--to grasp the scale and violence of climate change. The extreme nature of today's climate events, Ghosh asserts, make them peculiarly resistant to contemporary modes of thinking and imagining. This is particularly true of serious literary fiction: hundred-year storms and freakish tornadoes simply feel too improbable for the novel; they are automatically consigned to other genres. In the writing of history, too, the climate crisis has sometimes led to gross simplifications; Ghosh shows that the history of the carbon economy is a tangled global story with many contradictory and counterintuitive elements. Ghosh ends by suggesting that politics, much like literature, has become a matter of personal moral reckoning rather than an arena of collective action. But to limit fiction and politics to individual moral adventure comes at a great cost. The climate crisis asks us to imagine other forms of human existence--a task to which fiction, Ghosh argues, is the best suited of all cultural forms. His book serves as a great writer's summons to confront the most urgent task of our time.
Soil degradation, a decline in soil quality due to anthropogenic perturbations, is a serious threat with negative impacts on agriculture and the environment. The assessment and monitoring of all forms of degradation is essential to the evaluation of negative trends and implementation of mitigating technologies. Soil Degradation in the United States: Extent, Severity, and Trends is an assessment of current trends and geographic hot spots. It not only describes the types of soil degradation, but also evaluates the processes and triggers that cause the damage.
This book examines the possible impacts of climate change on hydrology and water resources in the vast arid region of Northwest China, which is one of the world's largest arid places. The first chapter offers an introductory discussion of the physical geography and socioeconomic conditions in the region. Chapters 2 through 7 discuss the climate system and hydrologic system changes in the region, and assess some implications of these changes in relation to potential evapotranspiration, the hydrological cycle and spatiotemporal variations of the snow cover and glaciers as measured via remote sensing, geographic information systems, and statistical analysis. Chapters 8 and 9 focus on model description and experimental design for interpreting the hydro-climatic process, emphasizing the integration of water, climate, and land ecosystems through field observations and computer-based simulations. Chapter 10 examines some extreme hydrological events and presents a study using the historical trend method to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of changing temperature and precipitation extremes in the hyper-arid region of Northwest China. A concluding chapter discusses possible strategies for sustainable watershed management. The contributors are acknowledged experts who bring broad, relevant experience on water resources research in China's cold and arid regions. The lessons of this volume will prove useful for understanding arid areas elsewhere in the world.
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