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Agriculture is currently facing multi-faceted threats in the form of unpredictable weather variability, frequent droughts and scarcity of irrigation water, together with the degradation of soil resources and declining environmental health. These stresses result in the modification of plant physiology to impart greater resilience to changing abiotic and biotic environments, but only at the cost of declining plant productivity. In light of these facts, assessing the status of natural resource bases, and understanding the mechanisms of soil-plant-environment interactions so as to devise adaptation and mitigation approaches, represent great and imminent challenges for all of us. In this context, it is essential to understand the potential applications of modern tools, existing coping mechanisms and their integration, as this will allow us to develop suitable advanced mitigation strategies. From a broader perspective, the book deals with crop-environment interaction in the context of changing climatic conditions. To do so, it addresses four major aspects: Understanding the mechanism of carbon dynamics in the soil-plant-environment continuum; greenhouse gas fluxes in agricultural systems; and soil properties influenced by climate change and carbon sequestration processes. Mitigation and management of the photo-thermal environment to improve crop productivity; soil health under variable climate; reducing agro-ecosystem evapotranspiration losses through biophysical controls; and heat stress in field crops and its management. Studying the impact of climate change on biotic environments; insect-pest interactions; manifestations of disease; and adaptation strategies for island agro-ecosystems. Innovative approaches to assess stress impacts in crops, such as crop modeling, remote sensing, spectral stress indices etc. The book presents a collection of contributions from authoritative experts in their respective fields. Offering young researchers new perspectives and future research directions, it represents a valuable guide for graduate students and academics alike.
Teaches the application of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for subsurface systems in order to expedite the understanding of the behavior of complex geological systems This book lays out the basic principles and approaches of Reactive Transport Modeling (RTM) for surface and subsurface environments, presenting specific workflows and applications. The techniques discussed are being increasingly commonly used in a wide range of research fields, and the information provided covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and how to apply techniques in specific areas. The need for RTM in engineered facilities, such as nuclear waste repositories or CO2 storage sites, is ever increasing, because the prediction of the future evolution of these systems has become a legal obligation. With increasing recognition of the power of these approaches, and their widening adoption, comes responsibility to ensure appropriate application of available tools. This book aims to provide the requisite understanding of key aspects of RTM, and in doing so help identify and thus avoid potential pitfalls. Reactive Transport Modeling covers: the application of RTM for CO2 sequestration and geothermal energy development; reservoir quality prediction; modeling diagenesis; modeling geochemical processes in oil & gas production; modeling gas hydrate production; reactive transport in fractured and porous media; reactive transport studies for nuclear waste disposal; reactive flow modeling in hydrothermal systems; and modeling biogeochemical processes. Key features include: A comprehensive reference for scientists and practitioners entering the area of reactive transport modeling (RTM) Presented by internationally known experts in the field Covers fundamental theory, practical issues in running reactive transport models, and hands-on examples for applying techniques in specific areas Teaches readers to appreciate the power of RTM and to stimulate usage and application Reactive Transport Modeling is written for graduate students and researchers in academia, government laboratories, and industry who are interested in applying reactive transport modeling to the topic of their research. The book will also appeal to geochemists, hydrogeologists, geophysicists, earth scientists, environmental engineers, and environmental chemists.
Homework Helpers: Earth Science covers all of the topics typically included in a high school or undergraduate course, including:
The Green River, the most significant tributary of the Colorado River, runs 730 miles from the glaciers of Wyoming to the desert canyons of Utah. Over its course it meanders through ranches, cities, national parks, endangered fish habitats, and some of the most significant natural gas fields in the country, as it provides water for 33 million people. Stopped up by dams, slaked off by irrigation, and dried up by cities, the Green is crucial, overused, and at risk, now more than ever. Fights over the river's water, and what's going to happen to it in the future, are longstanding, intractable, and only getting worse as the west gets hotter and drier and more people depend on the river with each passing year. As a former raft guide and an environmental reporter, Heather Hansman knew these fights were happening, but she felt driven to see them from a different perspective-from the river itself. So she set out on a journey, in a one-person inflatable pack raft, to paddle the river from source to confluence and see what the experience might teach her. Mixing lyrical accounts of quiet paddling through breathtaking beauty with nights spent camping solo and lively discussions with farmers, city officials, and other people met along the way, Downriver is the story of that journey, a foray into the present-and future-of water in the west.
Julia Rothman's best-selling illustrated Anatomy series takes a deep dive into the wonders of the sea with Ocean Anatomy. Follow Rothman's inquisitive mind and perceptive eye along shorelines, across the open ocean, and below the waves for an artistic exploration of the watery universe. Through her drawings, discover how the world's oceans formed, why the sea is salty, and the forces behind oceanic phenomena such as rogue waves. Colorful anatomical profiles of sea creatures from crustacean to cetacean, surveys of seafaring vessels and lighthouses, and the impact of plastic and warming water temperatures are just part of this compendium of curiosities that will entertain and educate readers of all ages. Also available in this series: Nature Anatomy, Farm Anatomy, Food Anatomy, and Nature Anatomy Notebook
Out of all the explanations for why a sailor has lost out on a race, an unforeseen change in the wind and weather is by far one of the most frequent. Whether a bad windshift; the non-occurrence of a sea breeze; or being becalmed, the weather has a huge impact on racing. However, it is not hard to turn these problems around. This handy guide has all you need to work out the best way to use the wind to your advantage and boost you up the fleet. The book covers all the essentials for racing, from why gusts form and where to find them, to the formation of the sea breeze (which is never quite as simple as first appears!). Splash-proof and spiral bound, this little companion stands up to frequent use and serves as a great aide-memoire that will fit into your pocket or kit bag, meaning that you can always work out a detailed forecast for your specific racing area, regardless of whether you are on home territory or on completely new waters. Wind Companion also clearly and simply develops a more advanced understanding of the wind, such as which clouds indicate weather fronts and when they may occur. This will also allow you to identify and adapt to changes on the water and even during races, giving you a significant advantage over your competition. Such adaptability will give you the opportunity to beat even knowledgeable locals, as there will always be occasions when the wind does something unexpected - but which can always be explained by the wind-wise sailor. Written by two acclaimed meteorologists, David Houghton and Fiona Campbell, who have advised top sailing teams at all of the big regattas, from Olympics to the America's Cup, you can't go far wrong! This book, based on their best-selling Wind Strategy, is packed full of vital information and clear diagrams to visualise the invisible and is a key resource for anyone looking to advance their sailing knowledge and results.
Hans Thewissen, a leading researcher in the field of whale paleontology and anatomy, gives a sweeping first-person account of the discoveries that brought to light the early fossil record of whales. As evidenced in the record, whales evolved from herbivorous forest-dwelling ancestors that resembled tiny deer to carnivorous monsters stalking lakes and rivers and to serpentlike denizens of the coast. Thewissen reports on his discoveries in the wilds of India and Pakistan, weaving a narrative that reveals the day-to-day adventures of fossil collection, enriching it with local flavors from South Asian culture and society. The reader senses the excitement of the digs as well as the rigors faced by scientific researchers, for whom each new insight gives rise to even more questions, and for whom at times the logistics of just staying alive may trump all science. In his search for an understanding of how modern whales live their lives, Thewissen also journeys to Japan and Alaska to study whales and wild dolphins. He finds answers to his questions about fossils by studying the anatomy of otters and porpoises and examining whale embryos under the microscope. In the book's final chapter, Thewissen argues for approaching whale evolution with the most powerful tools we have and for combining all the fields of science in pursuit of knowledge.
The book illustrates the use of putative microbial agents which provide good protection to the plant from biotic pathogens attack. An up to date knowledge on plant-microbiome interaction strategies in terms of improved sustainability has been discussed. Information from experts across the globe on the application of microbes for providing amicable solution in sustainable agriculture has been gathered. In addition, information related to microbes mediated resistance levels leading to enhanced plant health has been well presented. The chapters have emphasised the use of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and other potential biocontrol agents/antagonists in the management of plant diseases which provide extensive information to the readers. Literature on microbial root colonization, plant growth promotions, and also on the protection of plants from attack of various soil borne pathogens have been presented in a coherent way. Information on the application of potential strain of the bio-control fungi, endophytes, actinomycetes strengthening the plants ability which rescue the plant from pathogens attack leading to improved plant health has also been underpinned.
An in-depth look at the people and institutions connected with the Itaipu Dam, the world's biggest producer of renewable energy Hydropolitics is a groundbreaking investigation of the world's largest power plant and the ways the energy we use shapes politics and economics. Itaipu Binational Hydroelectric Dam straddles the Parana River border that divides the two countries that equally co-own the dam, Brazil and Paraguay. It generates the carbon-free electricity that powers industry in both the giant of South America and one of the smallest economies of the region. Based on unprecedented access to energy decision makers, Christine Folch reveals how Paraguayans harness the dam to engineer wealth, power, and sovereignty, demonstrating how energy capture influences social structures. During the dam's construction under the right-wing military government of Alfredo Stroessner and later during the leftist presidency of liberation theologian Fernando Lugo, the dam became central to debates about development, governance, and prosperity. Dams not only change landscapes; Folch asserts that the properties of water, transmuted by dams, change states. She argues that the dam converts water into electricity and money to produce hydropolitics through its physical infrastructure, the financial liquidity of energy monies, and the international legal agreements managing transboundary water resources between Brazil and Paraguay, and their neighbors Argentina, Bolivia, and Uruguay. Looking at the fraught political discussions about the future of the world's single largest producer of renewable energy, Hydropolitics explores how this massive public works project touches the lives of all who are linked to it.
Outlines the concept and principles of water harvesting for groundwater management for an international audience, and looks at the positives and negatives surrounding water harvesting technologies This book is the first to fully outline the concept and principles of water harvesting for groundwater management for a global audience. It offers guidance to academics, students and researchers on effective water harvesting approaches for groundwater recharge, and educates them on the risks associated with managed aquifer recharge, as well as the causes of success or failure of particular management strategies, and demand management strategies and tools. The book is helpful to water managers, administrators, and professionals, to make decisions to allocate resources; developing innovative cost-effective measures and approaches to achieve demand-supply balance. The book provides readers with an overview of the historical evolution of water harvesting for groundwater recharge. It looks at the benefits and gaps in knowledge, their implementation and funding strategies, and public participation. It also assesses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of water harvesting technologies. Water Harvesting for Groundwater Management: Issues, Perspectives, Scope and Challenges offers chapters covering: issues on water harvesting and water security; mega-trends that impact water security; groundwater occurrence, availability, and recharge-ability; phases of water harvesting systems; SWOT analysis of water harvesting systems; case studies and short examples of implementing water harvesting; scope of water harvesting for GWM strategies; guidelines to make water harvesting helpful and meaningful for GWM; and more. Summarizes the theories and applications of water harvesting for groundwater management for a world audience Offers guidance on effective water harvesting approaches for groundwater recharge, managed aquifer recharge, and successful water management strategies Evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of water harvesting technologies Part of the Challenges in Water Management series Water Harvesting for Groundwater Management: Issues, Perspectives, Scope and Challenges is an excellent resource for water management professionals working with water harvesting technologies, and will be of great interest to water managers, administrators, professionals, academics and researchers working in water management.
This Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report (IPCC-SREX) explores the challenge of understanding and managing the risks of climate extremes to advance climate change adaptation. Extreme weather and climate events, interacting with exposed and vulnerable human and natural systems, can lead to disasters. Changes in the frequency and severity of the physical events affect disaster risk, but so do the spatially diverse and temporally dynamic patterns of exposure and vulnerability. Some types of extreme weather and climate events have increased in frequency or magnitude, but populations and assets at risk have also increased, with consequences for disaster risk. Opportunities for managing risks of weather- and climate-related disasters exist or can be developed at any scale, local to international. Prepared following strict IPCC procedures, SREX is an invaluable assessment for anyone interested in climate extremes, environmental disasters, and adaptation to climate change, including policymakers, the private sector, and academic researchers. Watch this new video produced by the IPCC:
ESSENTIALS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 7e provides a basic understanding of the scientific questions, complexities, and uncertainties involved in ocean use, and the role and importance of oceans in nurturing and sustaining life on the planet. The new edition was created as part of a unique partnership with the National Geographic Society, an organization that represents a tradition of inspiring stories, exceptional research, and first-hand accounts of exploration. Using exclusive content from the National Geographic Society's world-renowned photos, graphics, and map collections, the text offers the most dynamic and current introduction to oceanography available today.
There is a growing recognition from academia, government, the private sectors, and the non-governmental sectors that integrated thinking and problem-solving across disciplinary boundaries is required to effectively address societal impacts issues in meteorology and hydrology. Within the weather and climate arena many early career physical and social scientists and engineers seek to learn about concepts, tools, questions, and policies related to more than one discipline but most academic departments, especially in meteorology and hydrology, are too narrow to allow much leeway for electives outside of their narrowly defined discipline. Weather and Society: Integrating Social Science provides comprehensive coverage of a new evolving problem-solving set of approaches to weather and climate issues that successfully integrates social science concepts and methodologies into weather and climate research and practice.This text has developed from the work undertaken through the WAS*IS movement (Weather and Society- Integrated Studies group) Designed to meet the growing demand from National Weather Service employees, international graduate students, hydrologists and other parties interested in understanding the societal impacts that can enhance their work as practitioners or researchers, this book provides the first interdisciplinary approach to the subject of weather, climate and society. Dr Gruntfest is the director of a new program at the University of Oklahoma called SSWIM (Social Science Woven into Meteorology). Increasingly she receives inquiries from National Weather Service employees, international and domestic potential graduate students, hydrologists, and others who recognize that some understanding of social science and societal impacts can enhance their work as practitioners, researchers or students. They also realize that it is difficult to find reference materials or courses to meet their need within the traditional university departments of meteorology, atmospheric science, hydrology, or even physical geography.
This book presents advanced techniques for wastewater treatment and the chapters review the environmental impact of water pollution, the analysis of water quality, and technologies for the preservation of water resources. Also outlined in this volume is the bioremediation of heavy metals, dyes, bisphenols, phthalates, cyanobacteria in contaminated water and wastewater. Another focus of this book is the use of natural remediation techniques such as bacterial biofilms and enzymes.
Plants have profoundly moulded the Earth's climate and the evolutionary trajectory of life. Far from being 'silent witnesses to the passage of time', plants are dynamic components of our world, shaping the environment throughout history as much as that environment has shaped them. In The Emerald Planet, David Beerling puts plants centre stage, revealing the crucial role they have played in driving global changes in the environment, in recording hidden facets of Earth's history, and in helping us to predict its future. His account draws together evidence from fossil plants, from experiments with their living counterparts, and from computer models of the 'Earth System', to illuminate the history of our planet and its biodiversity. This new approach reveals how plummeting carbon dioxide levels removed a barrier to the evolution of the leaf; how plants played a starring role in pushing oxygen levels upwards, allowing spectacular giant insects to thrive in the Carboniferous; and it strengthens fascinating and contentious fossil evidence for an ancient hole in the ozone layer. Along the way, Beerling introduces a lively cast of pioneering scientists from Victorian times onwards whose discoveries provided the crucial background to these and the other puzzles. This understanding of our planet's past sheds a sobering light on our own climate-changing activities, and offers clues to what our climatic and ecological futures might look like. There could be no more important time to take a close look at plants, and to understand the history of the world through the stories they tell. Oxford Landmark Science books are 'must-read' classics of modern science writing which have crystallized big ideas, and shaped the way we think.
Marshak's NEW Guided Learning Explorations on key topics, Smartwork5 activities featuring a variety of engaging question types and exclusive Geotours Google Earth exercises make for a memorable hands-on learning experience. These resources integrate and build on the vibrant, narrative-style visuals from the text. Our robust suite of videos, animations and interactive simulations help students master geologic concepts.
In 2011, there were fourteen natural calamities that each destroyed over a billion dollars worth of property in the United States alone. In 2012, Hurricane Sandy ravaged the East Coast and major earthquakes struck in Italy, the Philippines, Iran, and Afghanistan. In the first half of 2013, the awful drumbeat continued a monster supertornado struck Moore, Oklahoma; a powerful earthquake shook Sichuan, China; a cyclone ravaged Queensland, Australia; massive floods inundated Jakarta, Indonesia; and the largest wildfire ever engulfed a large part of Colorado.
Despite these events, we still behave as if natural disasters are outliers. Why else would we continue to build new communities near active volcanoes, on tectonically active faults, on flood plains, and in areas routinely lashed by vicious storms?
A famous historian once observed that civilization exists by geologic consent, subject to change without notice. In the pages of this unique book, leading geologist Susan W. Kieffer provides a primer on most types of natural disasters: earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanoes, landslides, hurricanes, cyclones, and tornadoes. By taking us behind the scenes of the underlying geology that causes them, she shows why natural disasters are more common than we realize, and that their impact on us will increase as our growing population crowds us into ever more vulnerable areas.
Kieffer describes how natural disasters result from changes in state in a geologic system, much as when water turns to steam. By understanding what causes these changes of state, we can begin to understand the dynamics of natural disasters.
In the book s concluding chapter, Kieffer outlines how we might better prepare for, and in some cases prevent, future disasters. She also calls for the creation of an organization, something akin to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention but focused on pending natural disasters."
Lakes and reservoirs hold about 90% of the world's surface fresh water, but overuse, water withdrawal and pollution of these bodies puts some one billion people at risk. The Encyclopedia of Lakes and Reservoirs reviews the physical, chemical and ecological characteristics of lakes and reservoirs, and describes their uses and environmental state trends in different parts of the world. Superbly illustrated throughout, it includes some 200 entries in a range of topics, including acidification, artificialisation, canals, climate change effects, dams, dew ponds, drainage, eutrofication, evaporation, fisheries, hydro-electric power, nutrients, organic pollution, paleolimnology, reservoir capacities and depths, sedimentation, water resources and more.
Shows the bedrock and superficial geology together as 'under-foot' geology.
Blending history and anecdote, geography and reminiscence, science and exposition, the "New York Times" bestselling author of "Krakatoa" tells the breathtaking saga of the magnificent Atlantic Ocean, setting it against the backdrop of mankind's intellectual evolution
Until a thousand years ago, no humans ventured into the Atlantic or imagined traversing its vast infinity. But once the first daring mariners successfully navigated to far shores--whether it was the Vikings, the Irish, the Chinese, Christopher Columbus in the north, or the Portuguese and the Spanish in the south--the Atlantic evolved in the world's growing consciousness of itself as an enclosed body of water bounded by the Americas to the West, and by Europe and Africa to the East. "Atlantic" is a biography of this immense space, of a sea which has defined and determined so much about the lives of the millions who live beside or near its tens of thousands of miles of coast.
The Atlantic has been central to the ambitions of explorers, scientists and warriors, and it continues to affect our character, attitudes, and dreams. Poets to potentates, seers to sailors, fishermen to foresters--all have a relationship with this great body of blue-green sea and regard her as friend or foe, adversary or ally, depending on circumstance or fortune. Simon Winchester chronicles that relationship, making the Atlantic come vividly alive. Spanning from the earth's geological origins to the age of exploration, World War II battles to modern pollution, his narrative is epic and awe-inspiring.
The importance of the oceans to life on Earth cannot be overstated. Liquid water covers more than 70% of our planet's surface and, in past geological time, has spread over 85%. Life on Earth began in the oceans over 3.5 billion years ago and remained there for the great majority of that time. Today the seas still provide 99% of habitable living space, the largest repository of biomass, and holds the greatest number of undiscovered species on the planet. Our oceans are vital for the regulation of climate, and with global warming and decreasing land area, they have become increasingly important as the source of food, energy in the form of oil and gas, and for their mineral wealth. Oceans also form a key part of the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and other elements critical to life. Nutrients in upwelling areas are spread by ocean currents, and the plankton of the seas supports a wealth of wildlife. In this Very Short Introduction Dorrik Stow analyses these most important components of our blue planet and considers their relationship with, and exploitation by, humans. He shows how the oceans are an essential resource to our overpopulated world, and discusses why exploration and greater scientific understanding of the oceans, their chemistry, and their mineral wealth are now a high priority. Stow also explores what we know of how oceans originate, and evolve and change; the shape of the seafloor and nature of its cover; the physical processes that stir the waters and mix such a rich chemical broth; and the inseparable link between oceans and climate. As polar ice melts and sea-levels rise, countless millions who have made their homes on low-lying lands close to the sea are threatened. As scientific exploration of the seas gathers pace, the new knowledge gained of the ocean-Earth systems and their interaction with the human environment is vital to our understanding of how we can preserve these ultimately fragile environments. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
In May 12, 2008, the Wenchuan County earthquake caused devastating loss of human life and property. Applying all the remote sensing technology available, the Chinese Academy of Sciences immediately launched into action, making full use of its state-of-the-art facilities, remote sensing planes, and satellites to amass invaluable optical and radar data. This unprecedented use of comprehensive remote sensing techniques provided accurate, up to the minute information for disaster management and has left us with a visually stunning and beautiful record that is as much a scientific achievement as it is an artistic one. Based on the accumulated data and images collected by the Project Team of Remote Sensing Monitoring and Assessment of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Atlas of Remote Sensing of the Wenchuan Earthquake documents the events as they happened in real time. The book covers the disaster from six aspects: geological, barrier lakes, collapsed buildings, damaged roads, destroyed farmland and forests, and demolished infrastructure. It also demonstrates that the Dujiangyan Irrigation Project, which has been standing for 2000 years, remains fully functioning, and keeps the Chengdu Plain operating optimally even after the earthquake. Translated into English for the first time, the Atlas presents a pictorial summation of this unique project. It chronicles the event with over 280 before and after color images from a range of perspectives. This volume dramatically demonstrates the value of remote sensing for understanding how an earthquake unfolds and the potential of remote sensing in helping coordinate emergency relief. A pictorial record of events as they unfolded, this book provides a systematic documentation of earthquake damage that can be used to prepare for future seismic events.
The Anthropocene, a term launched into public debate by Nobel Prize winner Paul Crutzen, has been used informally to describe the time period during which human actions have had a drastic effect on the Earth and its ecosystems. This book presents evidence for defining the Anthropocene as a geological epoch, written by the high-profile international team analysing its potential addition to the geological time scale. The evidence ranges from chemical signals arising from pollution, to landscape changes associated with urbanisation, and biological changes associated with species invasion and extinctions. Global environmental change is placed within the context of planetary processes and deep geological time, allowing the reader to appreciate the scale of human-driven change and compare the global transition taking place today with major transitions in Earth history. This is an authoritative review of the Anthropocene for graduate students and academic researchers across scientific, social science and humanities disciplines.
DEKORP, the German continental reflection seismic program, was the major focus of deep seismic research in Germany in the 1980s and 1990s. The seismic sections provided fundamental new insight into deep geological structure of the European continent and the dynamics of continental formation. They formed the basis for worldwide comparative studies of orogenic structure. The complicated signature of the reflections from the deep crust indicated that new processing and interpretation techniques must be considered to better image the crystalline crust. Results of these efforts, including pre-stack migration, 3-D imaging, shear waves and seismic anisotropy, are presented in this special volume. In part, the articles open the perspective to new and future research. In part, they document research activity triggered by technical and interpretational questions raised by DEKORP field work and profiling results. Many of the presented methods can find immediate application in industrial seismic prospecting.
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