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To date, research on the economic implications of climate change on fisheries has been both limited and fragmented. The contributors to this volume remedy the lack of attention by investigating the economic consequences of pelagic fish fluctuations in the recent past in order to understand how to adapt and respond to future climate changes. Small pelagic fish constitute approximately 30 per cent of the world's fish catch, have a global distribution, and are characterized by dramatic fluctuations in response to ocean climate. Despite this, countries adjust to changes in fish abundance, regardless of the cause, at variable time scales. These adjustments are often uncoordinated. The contributors address these concerns in chapters that cover a range of topics including: historical fluctuations of Atlanto-Scandian herring, management adaptations to climate regime shifts, differential consequences of pelagic fishery collapses in Southeast Asia, and the globalized nature of fishmeal markets. The case studies are complementary and yet self-standing, highlighting the need for a more coordinated assessment of impacts, and calling for more focused research. Students and scholars of climate change and environmental and resource economics will find this cohesive volume an instructive and enlightening resource. Policymakers and those in the fisheries management community will find the case studies and analyses useful in determining future goals and responses.
Humanity has long been fascinated by the planet Mars. Was its climate ever conducive to life? What is the atmosphere like today and why did it change so dramatically over time? Eleven spacecraft have successfully flown to Mars since the Viking mission of the 1970s and early 1980s. These orbiters, landers and rovers have generated vast amounts of data that now span a Martian decade (roughly eighteen years). This new volume brings together the many new ideas about the atmosphere and climate system that have emerged, including the complex interplay of the volatile and dust cycles, the atmosphere-surface interactions that connect them over time, and the diversity of the planet's environment and its complex history. Including tutorials and explanations of complicated ideas, students, researchers and non-specialists alike are able to use this resource to gain a thorough and up-to-date understanding of this most Earth-like of planetary neighbours.
This book combines, for the first time, the topics of radar polarimetry and interferometry. This combination was first developed in 1997 and has since become a major topic in radar sciences and their applications, in particular to space sciences. In its simplest form it concerns the study of interferograms formed by combining waves with different polarisations and their exploitation to infer important physical properties of the planetary surface being investigated. The book is written in three main sections. The first four chapters provide a detailed coverage of all major topics of polarimetry, including its basis in electromagnetic scattering theory, decomposition theorems, and a detailed analysis of the entropy/alpha approach. The next chapter offers a brief introduction to radar interferometry, before developing in three chapters the important new topic of polarimetric interferometry. In this way the book provides a complete treatment of the subject, suitable for those working in interferometry who wish to know about polarimetry, or vice versa, as well as those new to the topic who are looking for a one-stop comprehensive treatment of the subject. The emphasis throughout is on the application of these techniques to remote sensing, and the book concludes with a set of practical examples to illustrate the theoretical ideas.
An Overview of 200 years of Reseach and an outlook.
This book provides a complete study of the Central Andean volcanism and its most distinctive features, from the lower Paleozoic to the Cenozoic times in the framework of its processes, eruptive mechanisms and geodynamic conditions. It helps readers understand the nature of the volcanic geology and the volcaniclastic related deposits linked to the evolution of the Andean continental margin. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the ancient volcanic successions and the difficulties in recognition of the original rock type caused by the effects of deformation, metamorphism and alteration. The authors use distinctive cases to describe how to apply different tools in analysis and interpretation. The selected representative, well exposed and preserved volcanic records of the Southern Central Andes analyzed in this book open new perspectives in the understanding of the volcanic processes linked to active continental margins as the Central Andes. This book will be of special interest to volcanologists and specialists in the earth sciences and appeal to both undergraduate and graduate students in geology.
This book covers several themes related to forestry, agriculture, water, soil, urban, and atmospheric research. GIScience technology systems have increased in significance in recent decades and have the ability to acquire information at ground level with a higher spectral resolution using a field radio-spectrometer, which is a great improvement compared to other remote sensing systems. GIScience technology systems are widely used for solving and understanding the concept of forestry, crop, water resources, and related research themes. This book aims to advance the scientific understanding of GIScience technology and applications. The chapters present GIScience data integration with other sources such as LiDAR, Multi-spectral data and their applications in forestry, crop assessment, soil assessment, mineral mapping and related themes. The book will be of interest to geospatial experts, modellers, foresters, agricultural scientists, hyperspectral remote sensing and space community, ecologists and conservation communities, environmental consultants, big data compilers, and computing experts.
Geomagnetic field penetrates through all shells of the solid Earth, hydrosphere and atmosphere, spreading into space. The Earth Magnetic Field plays a key-role in major natural processes. Geomagnetic field variations in time and space provide important information about the state of the solid Earth, as well as the solar-terrestrial relationships and space weather conditions. The monograph presents a set of fundamental and, at the same time, urgent scientific problems of modern geomagnetic studies, as well as describes the results of the authors' developments. The new technique introduced in the book can be applied far beyond the limits of Earth sciences. Requirements to corresponding data models are formulated. The conducted experimental investigations are combined with development and implementation of new methods of mathematical modeling, artificial intelligence, systems analysis and data science to solve the fundamental problems of geomagnetism. At that, formalism of Big Data and its application to Earth Sciences is presented as essential part of systems analysis. The book is intended for research scientists, tutors, students, postgraduate students and engineers working in geomagnetism and Earth sciences in general, as well as in other relevant scientific disciplines.
Clays and clay minerals are the most abundant natural reactive solids on the Earth's surface. This comprehensive review considers clay science in the context of the Critical Zone - the Earth's permeable near-surface layer. Providing information on clays and clay minerals related to geological, biological and material sciences in the Critical Zone, it's well suited for graduate students and researchers interested in clay science, and environmental and soil mineralogy. The book starts with an introduction to clays and clay minerals, their historic background, and a review of how clay science impacts the Critical Zone. Examples and applications demonstrate how clays regulate habitats and determine the availability of other resources. These examples are supported by quantitative field data, including numerical and graphical depictions of clay and clay mineral occurrences. The book concludes by covering Critical Zone clay geochemistry and clay sequences, including the industrial, synthetic medical and extra-terrestrial world of clay science.
This book is the first to explore the dramatic amplification of global warming underway in cities and the range of actions that individuals and governments can undertake to slow the pace of warming. A core thesis of the book is that the principal strategy currently advocated to mitigate climate change - the reduction of greenhouse gases - will not prove sufficient to measurably slow the rapid pace of warming in urban environments. Brian Stone explains the science of climate change in terms accessible to the non-scientist and with compelling anecdotes drawn from history and current events. The book is an ideal introduction to climate change and cities for students, policy makers and anyone who wishes to gain insight into an issue critical to the future of our cities and the people who live in them.
Sea Ice Image Processing with MATLAB addresses the topic of image processing for the extraction of key sea ice characteristics from digital photography, which is of great relevance for Artic remote sensing and marine operations. This valuable guide provides tools for quantifying the ice environment that needs to be identified and reproduced for such testing. This includes fit-for-purpose studies of existing vessels, new-build conceptual design and detailed engineering design studies for new developments, and studies of demanding marine operations involving multiple vessels and operational scenarios in sea ice. A major contribution of this work is the development of automated computer algorithms for efficient image analysis. These are used to process individual sea-ice images and video streams of images to extract parameters such as ice floe size distribution, and ice types. Readers are supplied with Matlab source codes of the algorithms for the image processing methods discussed in the book made available as online material. Features Presents the first systematic work using image processing techniques to identify ice floe size distribution from aerial images Helps identify individual ice floe and obtain floe size distributions for Arctic offshore operations and transportation Explains specific algorithms that can be combined to solve various problems during polar sea ice investigations Includes MATLAB (R) codes useful not only for academics, but for ice engineers and scientists to develop tools applicable in different areas such as sustainable arctic marine and coastal technology research Provides image processing techniques applicable to other fields like biomedicine, material science, etc
Carbonate cements are very common and abundant in clastic
sequences. They profoundly influence the quality of hydrocarbon
reservoirs and supply important information on palaeoenvironments
and the chemical composition and flow patterns of fluids in
sedimentary basins. Despite this importance, their distribution
patterns in time and space and their geochemical evolution are not
yet deeply explored and elucidated. This Special Publication
contains 21 review papers and case studies on carbonate cementation
in clastic sequences written by invited specialists on the subject.
These papers present a wide and deep coverage that enhance our
knowledge about carbonate cementation in various clastic
depositional environments, tectonic settings and burial histories.
The book will be of special interest to researchers, petroleum
geologists and teachers and students at the postgraduate level.
If you are a member of the International Association of Sedimentologists, for purchasing details, please see: http: //www.iasnet.org/publications/details.asp?code=SP26
An international team of over 150 experts provide up-to-date satellite imaging and quantitative analysis of the state and damics of the glaciers around the world, and they provide an in-depth review if analysis methodologies. Includes an e-published supplement.
Global Land Ice Measurements from Space - Satellite Multispectral Imaging of Glaciers (GLIMS book for short) is the leading state-of-the-art technical and interpretive presentation of satellite image data and analysis of the changing state of the world's glaciers. The book is the most definitive, comprehensive product of a global glacier remote sensing consortium, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS, http: //www.glims.org).With 33 chapters and a companion e-supplement, the world's foremost experts in satellite image analysis of glaciers analyze the current state and recent and possible future changes of glaciers across the globe and interpret these findings for policy planners.
Climate change is with us for some time to come, and its impacts are being felt by the world's population. The GLIMS Book, to be released about the same time as the IPCC's 5th Assessment report onglobal climate warming, buttresses and adds rich details andauthority to the global change community's understanding of climate change impacts on the cryosphere. Thiswill be a definitive and technically complete reference for experts and students examining the responses of glaciers to climate change. Worldexperts demonstrate thatglaciers are changing in response to the ongoing climatic upheavalin addition to otherfactors that pertain to the circumstances of individual glaciers. The globalmosaic ofglacier changes is documented by quantitative analyses and are placed into a perspective of causative factors. Starting with a Foreword, Preface, and Introduction, theGLIMS book gives the rationale for and history of glaciermonitoring and satellite data analysis.It includes a comprehensive set of six "how-to"methodology chapters, twenty-five chaptersdetailing regional glacier state and dynamical changes, andan in-depth summary andinterpretation chapter placing theobserved glacier changes into a globalcontext of thecoupled atmosphere-land-ocean system.
An accompanying e-supplement will include oversize imagery and other other highly visual renderings of scientific data."
The Isle of Arran dominates the Firth of Clyde. A favourite haunt of holidaymakers, it is also a place of fascination for the geologist, offering a huge variety of rocks that represent a massive slice through geological time. From the ancient bent and buckled strata of Dalradian - a small fragment of the roots of the once mighty Scottish Highlands - the dramatic Northern mountains through which ice gouged its way during the Ice Age, to the relatively recent (some 60 million years ago!) rocks associated with the Arran volcano, the geological record tells an amazing tale. This book is a fascinating introduction to the landscape of Arran - one of the significant geological areas of the country.
Explore the latest research in anthropological genetics and understand the genome's role in cultural and social development A Companion to Anthropological Genetics illustrates the role of genetic analysis in advancing the modern study of human origins, populations, evolution, and diversity. Broad in scope, this essential reference work establishes and explores the relationship between genetic research and the major questions of anthropological study. Through contributions by leading researchers, this collection explores molecular genetics and evolutionary mechanisms in the context of macro- and microevolution, paleontology, phylogeny, diet, and disease, with detailed explanations of quantitative methods, including coalescent and approximate Bayesian computation. With an emphasis on contextualizing new and developing genetic research within anthropological frameworks, this text offers critical perspective on the conditions of molecular evolution that accompany cultural and social transformation, while also addressing critical disciplinary questions, such as the ethical issues surrounding ancestry testing and community-based genetic research. Acts as an essential reference on the contributions of genetic science to the field of anthropology Features new work by leading researchers of the field Explores the evolution of immunity, including the genetics and epigenetics of pathogens, chronic illness, and disease resistance Provides in-depth examination of mutation and dietary adaptation, including AMY1, lactase persistence, and sensory polymorphisms Explains essential quantitative and phylogenetic methods for aligning genomic analysis with evolution and migration time scales Offering thorough coverage on leading questions and developing research, A Companion to Anthropological Genetics is a comprehensive resource for students and scholars.
Are we deranged? The acclaimed Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh argues that future generations may well think so. How else to explain our imaginative failure in the face of global warming? In his first major book of nonfiction since In an Antique Land, Ghosh examines our inability--at the level of literature, history, and politics--to grasp the scale and violence of climate change. The extreme nature of today's climate events, Ghosh asserts, make them peculiarly resistant to contemporary modes of thinking and imagining. This is particularly true of serious literary fiction: hundred-year storms and freakish tornadoes simply feel too improbable for the novel; they are automatically consigned to other genres. In the writing of history, too, the climate crisis has sometimes led to gross simplifications; Ghosh shows that the history of the carbon economy is a tangled global story with many contradictory and counterintuitive elements. Ghosh ends by suggesting that politics, much like literature, has become a matter of personal moral reckoning rather than an arena of collective action. But to limit fiction and politics to individual moral adventure comes at a great cost. The climate crisis asks us to imagine other forms of human existence--a task to which fiction, Ghosh argues, is the best suited of all cultural forms. His book serves as a great writer's summons to confront the most urgent task of our time.
This book presents a complete account of the 19th century German immigrant Edward Cordell, a hydrographer who discovered a major seamount that was designated the Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuary. The book is entirely primary source material, and offers previously unpublished material about Edward Cordell, the Cordell Bank, and numerous other events and places associated with Cordell and the United States Coast Survey. The book will be of interest to maritime researchers and historians, environmental scientists and managers, and general enthusiasts of maritime history and the U.S. Coast Survey in the mid-1800s.
This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: * An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change * A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before * New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena * Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections * A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent * A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
Water is an increasingly critical issue at the forefront of global policy change, management and planning. There are growing concerns about water as a renewable resource, its availability for a wide range of users, aquatic ecosystem health, and global issues relating to climate change, water security, water trading and water ethics. This handbook provides the most comprehensive reference ever published on water resource issues. It brings together multiple disciplines to understand and help resolve problems of water quality and scarcity from a global perspective. Its case studies and 'foundation' chapters will be greatly valued by students, researchers and professionals involved in water resources, hydrology, governance and public policy, law, economics, geography and environmental studies.
This book describes selected microbial genera from the perspective of their environmentally and commercially sustainable use. By focusing on their physiology and metabolism and combining historical information with the latest developments, it presents a multidisciplinary portrait of microbial sustainability. The chapters provide readers descriptions of each genus in the form of microbial models that move us closer to the goal of sustainability; selected chapters also include worldwide market information and lists of corresponding patents.
This book discusses the water and carbon cycle system in the permafrost region of eastern Siberia, Providing vitalin sights into how climate change has affected the permafrost environment in recent decades. It analyzes the relationships between precipitation and evapotranspiration, gross primary production and runoff in the permafrost regions, which differ from those intropical and temperate forests. Eastern Siberia is located in the easternmost part of the Eurasian continent, and the land surface with underlying permafrost has developed over a period of seventy thousand years. The permafrost ecosystem has specific hydrological and meteorological characteristics in terms of the water and carbon dynamics, and the current global warming and resulting changes in the permafrost environment are serious issues in the high-latitude regions. The book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and professionals interested in forest meteorology and hydrology, forest ecology, and boreal vegetation, as well as the impact of climate change and water-carbon cycles in permafrost and non-permafrost regions.
Forest landscape restoration (FLR) is a planned process that aims to regain ecological integrity and enhance human wellbeing in deforested or degraded landscapes. The aim of this book is to explore options to better integrate the diverse dimensions - spatial, disciplinary, sectoral, and scientific - of implementing FLR. It demonstrates the value of an integrated and interdisciplinary approach to help implement FLR focusing specifically on four issues: understanding the drivers of forest loss and degradation in the context of interdisciplinary responses for FLR; learning from related integrated approaches; governance issues related to FLR as an integrated process; and the management, creation and use of different sources of knowledge in FLR implementation. The emphasis is on recognising the need to take human and institutional factors into consideration, as well as the more obvious biophysical factors. A key aim is to advance and accelerate the practice of FLR, given its importance, particularly in a world facing increasing environmental challenges, notably from climate change. The first section of the book presents the issue from an analytical and problem-orientated viewpoint, while later sections focus on solutions. It will interest researchers and professionals in forestry, ecology, geography, environmental governance and landscape studies.
More than 500 million years of geologic discord along the western margin of the North American tectonic plate has built the land that is British Columbia. Today, the turmoil continues as teh Juan de Fuca tectonic plate inches beneath Vancouver Island, triggering earthquakes and generating the magma that feeds the volcanoes of the Cascades. _Roadside Geology of Southern British Columbia_ explains the province's geologic history in simple terms, covering southern British Columbia from the northen tip of Vancouver Island to the Alberta border east of Golden. Introductory sections describe the geology of four regions - Vancouver Island, the Coast, the Interior Plateaus, and the Columbia and Rocky Mountains. Thirty-one road guides, complete with maps, photographs, and diagrams, locate and interpret the rocks and landforms visible from the province's highways and ferry routes. Includes 118 black-and-white photographs, 96 two-color maps and illustrations, glossary, references, and index.
In line with COP21 agreements, state-led climate change mitigation and adaptation actions are being undertaken to transition to carbon-neutral, green economies. However, the capacity of many countries for action is limited and may result in a 'boomerang effect', defined as the unintended negative consequences of such policies and programmes on local communities and their negative feedbacks on the state. To avoid this effect, there is a need to understand the policy drivers, decision-making processes, and impacts of such action, in order to determine the ways and means of minimizing negative effects and maximizing mutually beneficial policy outcomes. This book directly engages the policy debates surrounding water resources and climate actions through both theoretical and comparative case studies. It develops the 'boomerang effect' concept and sets it in relation to other conceptual tools for understanding the mixed outcomes of state-led climate change action, for example 'backdraft' effect and 'maldevelopment'. It also presents case studies illustrative of the consequences of ill-considered state-led policy in the water sector from around the world. These include Africa, China, South Asia, South America, the Middle East, Turkey and Vietnam, and examples of groundwater, hydropower development and forest hydrology, where there are often transboundary consequences of a state's policies and actions. In this way, the book adds empirical and theoretical insights to a still developing debate regarding the appropriate ways and means of combating climate change without undermining state and social development.
Ever since Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity burst upon the world in 1915 some of the most brilliant minds of our century have sought to decipher the mysteries bequeathed by that theory, a legacy so unthinkable in some respects that even Einstein himself rejected them. Which of these bizarre phenomena, if any, can really exist in our universe?
Black holes, down which anything can fall but from which nothing can return; wormholes, short spacewarps connecting regions of the cosmos; singularities, where space and time are so violently warped that time ceases to exist and space becomes a kind of foam; gravitational waves, which carry symphonic accounts of collisions of black holes billions of years ago; and time machines, for traveling backward and forward in time.
Kip Thorne, along with fellow theorists Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, a cadre of Russians, and earlier scientists such as Oppenheimer, Wheeler and Chandrasekhar, has been in the thick of the quest to secure answers.
n this masterfully written and brilliantly informed work of scientific history and explanation, Dr. Thorne, the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at Caltech, leads his readers through an elegant, always human, tapestry of interlocking themes, coming finally to a uniquely informed answer to the great question: what principles control our universe and why do physicists think they know the things they think they know?
This new book provides a focused set of topics suitable for advanced undergraduate or graduate courses on lightning. It presents the current state of the art in lightning science including areas such as lightning modeling, calculation of lightning electromagnetic fields, electromagnetic methods of lightning location, and lightning damaging effects and protective techniques. Pedagogical features designed to facilitate class learning include end-of-chapter summaries, further reading suggestions, questions and problems, and a glossary explaining key lightning and atmospheric electricity terms. A selection of appendices are provided at the end of the book, which include detailed derivations of exact equations for computing electric and magnetic fields produced by lightning. Designed for a single-semester course on lightning and its effects, and written in a style accessible to technical non-experts, this book will also be a useful, up-to-date reference for scientists, engineers and practitioners who have to deal with lightning in their work.
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