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Written for students and professionals, this revised textbook surveys the mineral industry from geological, environmental and economic perspectives. Thoroughly updated, the text includes a new chapter on technology industry metals as well as separate chapters on mineral economics and environmental geochemistry. Carefully designed figures simplify difficult concepts and show the location of important deposits and trade patterns, emphasising the true global nature of mineral resources. Featuring boxes highlighting special interest topics, the text equips students with the skills they need to contribute to the energy and mineral questions currently facing society, including issues regarding oil pipelines, nuclear power plants, water availability and new mining locations. Technical terms are highlighted when first used, and references are included to allow students to delve more deeply into areas of interest. Multiple choice and short answer questions are provided for instructors online at www.cambridge.org/kesler to complete the teaching package.
Mathematical modeling of atmospheric composition is a formidable scientific and computational challenge. This comprehensive presentation of the modeling methods used in atmospheric chemistry focuses on both theory and practice, from the fundamental principles behind models, through to their applications in interpreting observations. An encyclopaedic coverage of methods used in atmospheric modeling, including their advantages and disadvantages, makes this a one-stop resource with a large scope. Particular emphasis is given to the mathematical formulation of chemical, radiative, and aerosol processes; advection and turbulent transport; emission and deposition processes; as well as major chapters on model evaluation and inverse modeling. The modeling of atmospheric chemistry is an intrinsically interdisciplinary endeavour, bringing together meteorology, radiative transfer, physical chemistry and biogeochemistry, making the book of value to a broad readership. Introductory chapters and a review of the relevant mathematics make this book instantly accessible to graduate students and researchers in the atmospheric sciences.
Shows the bedrock and superficial geology together as 'under-foot' geology.
Marshak's NEW Guided Learning Explorations on key topics, Smartwork5 activities featuring a variety of engaging question types and exclusive Geotours Google Earth exercises make for a memorable hands-on learning experience. These resources integrate and build on the vibrant, narrative-style visuals from the text. Our robust suite of videos, animations and interactive simulations help students master geologic concepts.
This book combines, for the first time, the topics of radar polarimetry and interferometry. This combination was first developed in 1997 and has since become a major topic in radar sciences and their applications, in particular to space sciences. In its simplest form it concerns the study of interferograms formed by combining waves with different polarisations and their exploitation to infer important physical properties of the planetary surface being investigated. The book is written in three main sections. The first four chapters provide a detailed coverage of all major topics of polarimetry, including its basis in electromagnetic scattering theory, decomposition theorems, and a detailed analysis of the entropy/alpha approach. The next chapter offers a brief introduction to radar interferometry, before developing in three chapters the important new topic of polarimetric interferometry. In this way the book provides a complete treatment of the subject, suitable for those working in interferometry who wish to know about polarimetry, or vice versa, as well as those new to the topic who are looking for a one-stop comprehensive treatment of the subject. The emphasis throughout is on the application of these techniques to remote sensing, and the book concludes with a set of practical examples to illustrate the theoretical ideas.
With the signing in 1996 of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, interest has grown in forensic seismology: the application of seismology to nuclear test ban verification. This book, based on over 50 years of experience in forensic seismology research, charts the development of methods of seismic data analysis. Topics covered include: the estimation of seismic magnitudes, travel-time tables and epicentres; seismic signal processing; and the use of seismometer arrays. Fully illustrated with seismograms from explosions and earthquakes, the book demonstrates methods and problems of visual analysis. Each chapter provides exercises to help the reader familiarise themselves with practical issues in the field of forensic seismology, and figures and solutions to exercises are also available online. The book is a key reference work for academic researchers and specialists in the area of forensic seismology and Earth structure, and will also be valuable to postgraduates in seismology and solid earth geophysics.
The archipelagos of Orkney and Shetland are the products of some of the most dramatic events which have occurred in the Earth's history. The Shetlands are the eroded roots of a vast mountain range that once soared to Himalayan heights and extended from Scandinavia to the Appalachians. Around 65 million years ago, this mighty chain was split asunder by the shifting of the Earth's tectonic plates, and the North Atlantic Ocean was formed. In earlier times, the area was occupied by a huge freshwater lake - Lake Orcadie - which existed for almost 10 million years and was home to a wide range of primitive species of fish. Later, during the last Ice Age, the area was completely submerged beneath ice sheets which left an indelible mark on the landscapes of both island groups. This book tells the incredible geological story of the most northerly outposts of the British Isles.
Dinosaurs have held sway over our imaginations since the discovery of their bones first shocked the world in the nineteenth century. From the monstrous beasts stalking Jurassic Park to the curiosities of the natural history museum, dinosaurs are creatures that unite young and old in awestruck wonder. Digging ever deeper into dinosaurs' ancient past, science continues to unearth new knowledge about them and the world they inhabited, a fantastic time when the footprints of these behemoths marked the Earth that we humans now walk. Who better to guide us through this ancient world than paleontologist Mark A. Norell? A world-renowned expert in paleontology, with a knowledge of dinosaurs as deep as the buried fossils they left behind, Norell is in charge of what is perhaps America's most popular collection of dinosaur bones and fossils, the beloved displays at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. In The World of Dinosaurs, he leads readers through a richly illustrated collection detailing the evolution of these ancient creatures. From the horns of the Protoceratops to the wings of the Archaeopteryx, readers are invited to explore profiles of dinosaurs along with hundreds of color photographs, sketches, maps, and other materials--all rooted in the latest scientific discoveries--sure to both capture the imagination and satisfy a prehistoric curiosity. The World of Dinosaurs presents an astonishing collection of knowledge in an immersive visual journey that will fascinate any fan of Earth's ancient inhabitants.
The study of dinosaurs has been experiencing a remarkable renaissance over the past few decades. Scientific understanding of dinosaur anatomy, biology, and evolution has advanced to such a degree that paleontologists often know more about 100-million-year-old dinosaurs than many species of living organisms. This book provides a contemporary review of dinosaur science intended for students, researchers, and dinosaur enthusiasts. It reviews the latest knowledge on dinosaur anatomy and phylogeny, how dinosaurs functioned as living animals, and the grand narrative of dinosaur evolution across the Mesozoic. A particular focus is on the fossil evidence and explicit methods that allow paleontologists to study dinosaurs in rigorous detail. Scientific knowledge of dinosaur biology and evolution is shifting fast, and this book aims to summarize current understanding of dinosaur science in a technical, but accessible, style, supplemented with vivid photographs and illustrations.
The Topics in Paleobiology Series is published in collaboration with the Palaeontological Association, and is edited by Professor Mike Benton, University of Bristol.
Books in the series provide a summary of the current state of knowledge, a trusted route into the primary literature, and will act as pointers for future directions for research. As well as volumes on individual groups, the series will also deal with topics that have a cross-cutting relevance, such as the evolution of significant ecosystems, particular key times and events in the history of life, climate change, and the application of a new techniques such as molecular palaeontology.
The books are written by leading international experts and will be pitched at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates, and researchers in both the paleontological and biological sciences.
Additional resources for this book can be found at: http: //www.wiley.com/go/brusatte/dinosaurpaleobiology.
Geology as a science has a fascinating and controversial history. Kieran D. O'Hara's book provides a brief and accessible account of the major events in the history of geology over the last two hundred years, from early theories of Earth structure during the Reformation, through major controversies over the age of the Earth during the Industrial Revolution, to the more recent twentieth-century development of plate tectonic theory, and on to current ideas concerning the Anthropocene. Most chapters include a short 'text box' providing more technical and detailed elaborations on selected topics. The book also includes a history of the geology of the Moon, a topic not normally included in books on the history of geology. The book will appeal to students of Earth science, researchers in geology who wish to learn more about the history of their subject, and general readers interested in the history of science.
Weather determines when we sail, where we sail to – and whether we arrive safely. This essential pocket-sized guide equips the reader with all the necessary tools to predict and deal with local and distant weather conditions, whether on a day trip or a longer cruise, along the coast or further offshore.
Each topic is broken down into digestible chapters, explaining the origins and effects of the full spectrum of weather conditions, including:
- using and evaluating weather forecasts
- depressions, fronts, isobars and other coastal effects
- waves and swell
- weather lore and sky watching.
Meteorology is still advancing and sources of forecasts are changing. This new edition keeps the handbook up-to-date, with a particular focus on the increasing use of GRIB files, computer weather modelling and sources of forecasts, especially with the proliferation of computer forecasts becoming available free of charge.
With practical explanations and helpful diagrams and photographs, this is the ideal aide-memoire for skippers and crew, especially those studying for their Day Skipper and Yachtmaster exams.
The understanding of Earth processes and environments over geological time is highly dependent upon both the experience that can only be gained through doing fieldwork, and the collection of reliable data and appropriate samples in the field. This textbook explains the main data gathering techniques used by geologists in the field and the reasons for these, with emphasis throughout on how to make effective field observations and record these in suitable formats. Equal weight is given to assembling field observations from igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock types. There are also substantial chapters on producing a field notebook, collecting structural information, recording fossil data and constructing geological maps. The volume is in a robust and handy size, with colour coded chapters for ease of use and quick reference in the field. Geological Field Techniques is designed for students, amateur enthusiasts and professionals who have a background in geology and wish to collect field data on rocks and geological features. Teaching aspects of this textbook include: * step-by-step guides to essential practical skills such as using a compass-clinometer, making a geological map and drawing a field sketch; * tricks of the trade, checklists, flow charts and short worked examples; * over 200 illustrations of a wide range of field notes, maps and geological features; * appendices with the commonly used rock description and classification diagrams; * a supporting website hosted by Wiley Blackwell.
This open access book discusses biogeochemical processes relevant to carbon and aims to provide readers, graduate students and researchers, with insight into the functioning of marine ecosystems. A carbon centric approach has been adopted, but other elements are included where relevant or needed. The book focuses on concepts and quantitative understanding of primary production, organic matter mineralization and sediment biogeochemistry. The impact of biogeochemical processes on inorganic carbon dynamics and organic matter transformation are also discussed.
A concise and authoritative field guide to an exceptional natural laboratory, this title in the Classic Geology in Europe series is an essential companion for those visiting Iceland to observe the Earth in action. Rifting of the crust, volcanic eruptions and glacial activity are among a host of processes and features to be observed in this fascinating land. Nowhere else on Earth is the volcanic and tectonic architecture of seafloor rifts better exposed. Large icecaps and extensive river systems grind down the volcanic pile at rapid rates, dispersing and forming thick sequences of sediments. These formations are further modified by the pounding waves of the North Atlantic causing intriguing landforms that exhibit an intricate balance between the construction and erosion of land. Iceland is the only part of the North Atlantic Large Igneous Province that is still active and the only place on Earth where the construction of such provinces can be observed directly. As such, it is a window into the formation of proto-continents early in the Earth's history. For the past seven million years Iceland has been situated at the boundary of major air and ocean masses and has consequently been exposed to extreme climate changes. The effects of the climate on the rock-forming processes are clearly illustrated by diverse sedimentary and volcanic successions and by the wide range of volcanic landforms formed in sub-aqueous to sub-aerial environments; each succession reflecting the characteristics of internal and external processes. Icelandic culture cannot be fully comprehended without understanding its geology. Thus the book will interest not only student, amateur and professional geologists but also others attracted by the natural environment and seeking a deeper understanding of what makes Iceland the unique place that it is.
The first comprehensive synthesis of genomic techniques in earth sciences The past 15 years have witnessed an explosion of DNA sequencing technologies that provide unprecedented insights into biology. Although this technological revolution has been driven by the biomedical sciences, it also offers extraordinary opportunities in the earth and environmental sciences. In particular, the application of "omics" methods (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics) directly to environmental samples offers exciting new vistas of complex microbial communities and their roles in environmental and geochemical processes. This unique book fills the gap where there exists a lack of resources and infrastructure to educate and train geoscientists about the opportunities, approaches, and analytical methods available in the application of omic technologies to problems in the geosciences. Genomic Approaches in Earth and Environmental Sciences begins by covering the role of microorganisms in earth and environmental processes. It then goes on to discuss how omics approaches provide new windows into geobiological processes. It delves into the DNA sequencing revolution and the impact that genomics has made on the geosciences. The book then discusses the methods used in the field, beginning with an overview of current technologies. After that it offers in-depth coverage of single cell genomics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and functional approaches, before finishing up with an outlook on the future of the field. The very first synthesis of an important new family of techniques Shows strengths and limitations (both practical and theoretical) of the techniques Deals with both theoretical and laboratory basics Shows use of techniques in a variety of applications, including various aspects of environmental science, geobiology, and evolution Genomic Approaches in Earth and Environmental Sciences is a welcome addition to the library of all earth and environmental scientists and students working within a wide range of subdisciplines.
Clays and clay minerals are the most abundant natural reactive solids on the Earth's surface. This comprehensive review considers clay science in the context of the Critical Zone - the Earth's permeable near-surface layer. Providing information on clays and clay minerals related to geological, biological and material sciences in the Critical Zone, it's well suited for graduate students and researchers interested in clay science, and environmental and soil mineralogy. The book starts with an introduction to clays and clay minerals, their historic background, and a review of how clay science impacts the Critical Zone. Examples and applications demonstrate how clays regulate habitats and determine the availability of other resources. These examples are supported by quantitative field data, including numerical and graphical depictions of clay and clay mineral occurrences. The book concludes by covering Critical Zone clay geochemistry and clay sequences, including the industrial, synthetic medical and extra-terrestrial world of clay science.
The Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) is one of the most widely used analysis packages for regional and teleseismic seismic data. For the first time, this book provides users at introductory and advanced levels with a complete guide to SAC. It leads new users of SAC through the steps of learning basic commands, describes the SAC processing philosophy, and presents its macro language in full, supported throughout with example inputs and outputs from SAC. For more experienced practitioners, the book describes SAC's many hidden features, including advanced graphics aspects, its file structure, how to write independent programs to access and create files, and much more. Tutorial exercises engage users with newly acquired skills, providing data and code to implement the standard methods of teleseismic shear-wave splitting and receiver function analysis. Methodical and authoritative, this is a key resource for researchers and graduate students in global seismology, earthquake seismology and geophysics.
PaleoBase is a new initiative in the presentation of systematic
information on fossil organisms. It represents the marriage of
up-to-date systematic information on a collection of over 1500
fossil genera, state-of-the-art color digital photographs of
representative specimens from The Natural History Museum's
unrivaled paleontological collections, and modern relational
database technology. With PaleoBase an important new tool for the
teaching of life history in a wide variety of advanced secondary,
undergraduate and graduate courses (e.g., paleontology, historical
geology, stratigraphy, paleoceanography, paleobiogeography) becomes
available to students and educators alike.
"PaleoBase: Macrofossils "is the first product from the
PaleoBase project, and will be released in three Parts. It will
consist of approximately 1000 generic records drawn from the major
invertebrate groups. The genera have been carefully selected to
include taxa used in the teaching of paleontology and historical
geology worldwide. Together they represent the ideal fossil
collection; one that in practice only the largest natural history
museums could hope to assemble. "PaleoBase: Macrofossils" gives
educators, students and researchers access to a virtual collection
of these fossils - many of which are actual figured specimens from
the 19th and 20th century technical publications that served to
originally establish the concepts of these genera.
For an online demonstration and guided tour of "PaleoBase:
Macrofossils" please visit: www.paleobase.com/
For an information brochure, or for any queries, please e-mail
Recent advances in observations and modelling of solar and stellar flares have opened up new perspectives for understanding the fundamental physical mechanisms of magnetic energy storage and release, particle acceleration, and their radiative and dynamical processes. New interest in this topic is stimulated by Kepler observations and the discovery of superflares on solar-type stars, which raises questions about the possibility of such flares on the Sun, and the potential effects of superflares on terrestrial and extraterrestrial planets, including their impact on the origin and evolution of life. IAU Symposium 320 discusses the recent advances in observations and theories of solar and stellar flares, focusing on the understanding of their phenomenological and physical aspects, as well as consequences for terrestrial planets and exoplanets. This volume will be useful to researchers of all levels working in this fascinating and rapidly developing field of astronomy.
A paleontology publication of the Scandinavian University Press The detailed written study, Upper Cambrian Rehbachiella and the Phylogeny of Brachiopoda and Crustacea, is part of an international series on stratigraphy and paleontology.
Science now reveals the true cause of the dam breach flood that destroyed Johnstown in 1889. The tragic loss of more than 2200 lives was preventable; the initial investigation of the flood was hijacked, delayed, and distorted by powerful members of the industrial elite. This book bridges the gap between history and science, reexamining eyewitness accounts of the flood and historic documents about the investigation, and applying new LiDAR, GPS, and hydraulic studies to solve the mystery - what caused the Great Flood of 1889? The book includes a notable chapter on the "sister" of the South Fork Dam, "The Forgotten Dam" at Hollidaysburg, PA.
Plant remains can preserve a critical part of history of life on Earth. While telling the fascinating evolutionary story of plants and vegetation across the last 500 million years, this book also crucially offers non-specialists a practical guide to studying, dealing with and interpreting plant fossils. It shows how various techniques can be used to reveal the secrets of plant fossils and how to identify common types, such as compressions and impressions. Incorporating the concepts of evolutionary floras, this second edition includes revised data on all main plant groups, the latest approaches to naming plant fossils using fossil-taxa and techniques such as tomography. With extensive illustrations of plant fossils and living plants, the book encourages readers to think of fossils as once-living organisms. It is written for students on introductory or intermediate courses in palaeobotany, palaeontology, plant evolutionary biology and plant science, and for amateurs interested in studying plant fossils.
Wave breaking represents one of the most interesting and challenging problems for fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. Over the last fifteen years our understanding has undergone a dramatic leap forward, and wave breaking has emerged as a process whose physics is clarified and quantified. Ocean wave breaking plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and ocean engineering, navigation and other practical applications. This book outlines the state of the art in our understanding of wave breaking and presents the main outstanding problems. It is a valuable resource for anyone interested in this topic, including researchers, modellers, forecasters, engineers and graduate students in physical oceanography, meteorology and ocean engineering.
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