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This re-issue, first published in 1964, is the first of a seminal series analysing the development of the study of landforms, from both the geographical and geological point of view, with especial emphasis upon fluvial geomorphology. Volume 1 treats the subject up to the first important statement of the cycle of erosion by W. M. Davis in 1889, and attempts to identify the most significant currents of geomorphic thought, integrating them into the broader contemporary intellectual frameworks with which they were associated. As well as dealing with such key figures as Werner, De Saussure, Hutton, Playfair, Buckland, lyell, Agassiz, Ramsay, Dana, Peschel, Powell, Gilbert and Davis, attention is also given to many less important contributions by American, British and continental workers. A spirited biographical treatment, attractively set off by contemporary portraits, diagrams and sketches, will make this book of great interest to the historian of science, and indeed to the general reader, as well as to the student and scholar in geomorphology, hydrology and any other earth science.
As the growth of the world's population requires the continued search for residential space, the urbanization of natural lands is an inevitable process, but that process does not have to be one that is accomplished without regard for environmental quality. This book presents the unique perspective of naturbanization, the urbanization of protected and highly valued natural spaces that are geographically removed from current urban centers. It discusses the search and selection of new residential spaces, economic planning and policy in such areas, environmentally sensitive construction, and public investment in infrastructure to make the areas more accessible and habitable.
Specifically, the book analyzes naturbanization as it is occurring in National Parks located along the European Union borders. Recent declarations have made the parks more accessible to development and consequently they are serving as models for ways to reach workable solutions and encourage the sort of economic development that will satisfy both developers and environmentalists
The focal main objective of the book is to constitute a meaningful linkage among research problems, geoinformation methods and corresponding applications. The research goals, related both to theoretical and practical issues, derive from multidisciplinary fields such as archaeology, history, geography, landscape planning, environment, geoinformation science, geology and geomorphology. All the aforementioned scientific areas have the spatial dimension in common, i.e. the vast amount of spatially referenced data. Their research issues can be addressed and analysed with geoinformation technology; though, the researchers should get familiar to the range of available geoinformation methods. The book provides description of a variety of research problems issues and technological ?solutions?approaches that can be used to support processes of data capturing, mapping and analysis. These techniques and concepts are illustrated on numerous practical examples. along with specific examples, where these have been applied. The current structure of the book includes the following four chapters: introduction, data capturing and mapping, analysis and modelling, and study cases. In the following we provide a more detailed content of each chapter listing the main topics included within the selected articles.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Groundwater and coastal water experts present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Surface Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part I) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This book details the experiences gained by the Catalan Water Agency (ACA) in a Mediterranean watershed - the Catalan River Basin District - following the launch of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) in the year 2000. Experts in rivers, reservoirs, lakes, wetlands and estuaries present 13 chapters defining tools for water-status assessment specially adapted to Mediterranean conditions. The content of this and the companion volume Experiences from Ground, Coastal and Transitional Water Quality Monitoring: The EU Water Framework Directive Implementation in the Catalan River Basin District (Part II) are the result of an excellent collaboration between the ACA and several Catalan universities and research centers to cope with new challenges provided by the WFD monitoring requirements. The volume serves as a useful guide for environmental managers and scientists engaged in other European as well as Non-European river basins.
This latest Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students, researchers and policy makers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology, atmospheric chemistry and environmental policy.
On February 15, 2013, the Chelyabinsk meteor sailed over Russian skies in a streak of light that was momentarily brighter than the Sun. The remarkable event and its subsequent shock wave were witnessed and documented by countless local residents, launching a widespread scientific expedition to gather and study the remaining meteoritic fragments. This book chronicles Chelyabinsk's tale of recovery and discovery from the minds of many of the scientists who studied the superbolide, leading field experiments and collecting meteorites and meteorite dust across the region. The Chelyabinsk superbolide is a complex and multi-aspect phenomenon. The book not only presents the results of the scientific research but also details the firsthand experiences of those involved in such efforts, providing readers with a unique opportunity to look at the "inner workings" of science that are seldom shown to the public. Over the course of their studies, the scientists collected over 200 photographs and a dozen video recordings taken by nearly 40 different eyewitnesses. Many of those never-before-published illustrations and photos can be found in full color in the pages of this book.
Scientific disciplines have their own view on catastrophes. Here, natural scientists, engineers, physicians as well as historians and social scientists define and discuss geo-hazards and associated technical disasters, natural disasters as a business case, medicine and its catastrophes. After war aspects of the Shoah are described with Gershom Sholems Concept of Jewish Totality, and the situation of Displaced Persons in Germany as well as the Nakba for Palestinians related to the happiness of Jews celebrating their new State of Israel. The book also reminds of Hamburg's Flood Disaster in 1962, the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011 and other historical catastrophes in Japan, the Lisbon earthquake in 1755 and the Age of Enlightenment, and the eruption of the Tambora in 1815 followed by the "year without summer".
Ranging across the 4.6 billion year history of the planet, geology is the subject that encompasses almost all that we see around us, in one way or another, and also much that we cannot see, beneath our feet, and on other planets. The fruits of geology provide most of the materials that give us shelter, and most of the energy that drives our modern lives. Within the study of geology lie some of the clues to the extraordinary impact our species is going to play out on the planet, in centuries and millennia to come. In this Very Short Introduction Jan Zalasiewicz gives a brief introduction to the fascinating field of geology. Describing how the science developed from its early beginnings, he looks at some of the key discoveries that have transformed it, before delving into its various subfields, such as sedimentology, tectonics, and stratigraphy. Analysing the geological foundations of the Earth, Zalasiewicz explains the interlocking studies of tectonics, geophysics, and igneous and metamorphic petrology and geochemistry; and describes how rocks are dated by radiometric dating. Considering the role and importance of geology in the finding and exploitation of resources (including fracking), he also discusses its place in environmental issues, such as foundations for urban structures and sites for landfill, and in tackling issues associated with climate change. Zalasiewicz concludes by discussing the exciting future and frontiers of the field, such as the exploration of the geology of Mars. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.
This volume provides a comprehensive overview of advanced research in the field of efficient, clean and renewable energy production, conversion and storage. The ten chapters, written by internationally respected experts, address the following topics: (1) solar and wind energy; (2) energy storage in batteries; (3) biomass; and (4) socio-economic aspects of energy. Given its multidisciplinary approach, which combines environmental analysis and an engineering perspective, the book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and students interested in environmentally sustainable energy production, conversion, storage and its engineering.
This volume provides a detailed overview of water pollution and control of several selected Chinese reservoirs. It explores sediment contamination as well as algal blooms and their impact on water quality. Several chapters also discuss various methods of quality control, such as mixing-oxygenation combined with microbial remediation technologies. Due to their broad geographical distribution and different nutrition levels, the investigated reservoirs, the Jinpen, Shibianyu, Fenhe, Zhelin and Zhoucun reservoirs, can be regarded as representative for China. This comprehensive work will appeal to researchers, advanced students and reservoir managers.
What would we have seen if we looked out over the landscape of Scotland at its very beginning, before the impact of mankind? What would it be like to swim in the Jurassic sea? Or stand early one morning in the dragon-fly haunted coal forests of the Midland Valley? This book captures in words, drawings, paintings and photographs the dramatic sceneries - erupting volcanoes, colliding continents - and ever-changing landscape of Scotland. A second volume by Andrew Kitchener, describing the origins of wildlife in Scotland, is scheduled for 2006.
This modern introduction to seismic data processing in both exploration and global geophysics demonstrates practical applications through real data and tutorial examples. The underlying physics and mathematics of the various seismic analysis methods are presented, giving students an appreciation of their limitations and potential for creating models of the sub-surface. Designed for a one-semester course, this textbook discusses key techniques within the context of the world's ever increasing need for petroleum and mineral resources - equipping upper undergraduate and graduate students with the tools they need for a career in industry. Examples presented throughout the text allow students to compare different methods and can be demonstrated using the instructor's software of choice. Exercises at the end of sections enable students to check their understanding and put the theory into practice and are complemented by solutions for instructors and additional case study examples online to complete the learning package.
From the craft that investigated the wreck of the Titanic to how octopuses make use of jet propulsion: Eyewitness Ocean lets your child learn all about the secret watery world that covers most of our planet and the incredible creatures that live within it! Eyewitness Ocean also includes a giant fold-out wall chart full of facts, perfect for bedrooms or classrooms.
Packed with all the essential information from the previous edition Eyewitness Ocean is now more interactive and colourful than ever with new infographics, statistics, facts and timelines making the book more engaging and educational for your child.
Ten years ago, on December 26, 2004, one of the world's most destructive natural disasters occurred. A magnitude Mw 9.1 earthquake (third strongest ever instrumentally recorded) generated a global tsunami that killed about 230,000 people along the coasts of 14 countries in the Indian Ocean and propagated as far as the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans. Since then, various countries from around the globe contributed major funding to tsunami research and mitigation, enabling the installation of hundreds of new high-precision instruments, the development of new technology and the establishment of more modern communication systems. As a result, incredible progress has been achieved in tsunami research and operation during the ten years after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.The papers presented in this second of two special volumes of Pure and Applied Geophysics reflect the state of tsunami science during this time, including two papers devoted to global observations. Five papers provide new findings specifically in the Indian Ocean. Eight papers cover Pacific Ocean studies, focusing mainly on the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. Remaining papers in the volume describe studies in the Atlantic and Mediterranean and general tsunami source studies.The volume is of interest to scientists and practitioners involved in all aspects of tsunamis from earthquake source processes to transoceanic wave propagation and coastal impacts. Postgraduate students in geophysics, oceanography and coastal engineering - as well as students in the broader geosciences, civil and environmental engineering - will also find the book to be a valuable resource, as it combines recent case studies with advances in tsunami science and natural hazards mitigation.
This new book offers an engineer's perspective on the history of
water technology and it's impact on the development of
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for students of meteorology or atmospheric science. It also serves as a reference text for working professionals in meteorology and weather forecasting. It is unique because it provides complete, calculus-based derivations of basic physics from first principles, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, practical weather forecasting applications. Worked examples and practice problems are included throughout.
Better Manage Soil C for Improved Soil Quality In the United States, soil has fueled the availability of abundant, safe food, thus underpinning economic growth and development. In the future we need to be more vigilant in managing and renewing this precious resource by replacing the nutrients and life-sustaining matter that we remove for our own needs. Taking these issues into consideration, Soil Carbon Management: Economic, Environmental, and Societal Benefits explores all of the advantages of effective soil carbon (C) management. A Different Way of Examining Soil C Management This unique resource provides a new conceptual framework to develop policies for managing and enhancing soil C and presents new approaches to achieve positive environmental outcomes. In each chapter, the book poses a problem or set of problems and then describes how effective soil C management can help to solve these challenges, listing the multiple benefits that arise from these practices. The book addresses specific problems such as soil erosion and land degradation and evaluates the advantages of soil C sequestration, specifically for policy development purposes. The policies discussed can be tailored to meet regional and local needs and constraints. The book also explains how to achieve an ideal environment by applying beneficial practices for farming and land management. A Plan for the Future Illustrating how to conserve and preserve soil quality for future generations and detailing how to restore the ecological functions of soil, this book will aid in the formulation of future agricultural policies that sustain food and fuel needs and have long-lasting, positive environmental impacts.
"The Southern Ocean is a wild and elusive place, an ocean like no other. With its waters lying between the Antarctic continent and the southern coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa, it is the most remote and inaccessible part of the planetary ocean, the only part that flows around Earth unimpeded by any landmass. It is notorious amongst sailors for its tempestuous winds and hazardous fog and ice. Yet it is a difficult ocean to pin down. Its southern boundary, defined by the icy continent of Antarctica, is constantly moving in a seasonal dance of freeze and thaw. To the north, its waters meet and mingle with those of the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans along a fluid boundary that defies the neat lines of a cartographer." So begins Joy McCann's Wild Sea, the remarkable story of the world's remote Southern, or Antarctic, Ocean. Unlike the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans with their long maritime histories, little is known about the Southern Ocean. This book takes readers beyond the familiar heroic narratives of polar exploration to explore the nature of this stormy circumpolar ocean and its place in Western and Indigenous histories. Drawing from a vast archive of charts and maps, sea captains' journals, whalers' log books, missionaries' correspondence, voyagers' letters, scientific reports, stories, myths, and her own experiences, McCann embarks on a voyage of discovery across its surfaces and into its depths, revealing its distinctive physical and biological processes as well as the people, species, events, and ideas that have shaped our perceptions of it. The result is both a global story of changing scientific knowledge about oceans and their vulnerability to human actions and a local one, showing how the Southern Ocean has defined and sustained southern environments and people over time. Beautifully and powerfully written, Wild Sea will raise a broader awareness and appreciation of the natural and cultural history of this little-known ocean and its emerging importance as a barometer of planetary climate change.
By developing the scale that bears his name, Charles Richter not only invented the concept of magnitude as a measure of earthquake size, he turned himself into nothing less than a household word. He remains the only seismologist whose name anyone outside of narrow scientific circles would likely recognize. Yet few understand the Richter scale itself, and even fewer have ever understood the man. Drawing on the wealth of papers Richter left behind, as well as dozens of interviews with his family and colleagues, Susan Hough takes the reader deep into Richter's complex life story, setting it in the context of his family and interpersonal attachments, his academic career, and the history of seismology. Among his colleagues Richter was known as intensely private, passionately interested in earthquakes, and iconoclastic. He was an avid nudist, seismologists tell each other with a grin; he dabbled in poetry. He was a publicity hound, some suggest, and more famous than he deserved to be. But even his closest associates were unaware that he struggled to reconcile an intense and abiding need for artistic expression with his scientific interests, or that his apparently strained relationship with his wife was more unconventional but also stronger than they knew. Moreover, they never realized that his well-known foibles might even have been the consequence of a profound neurological disorder. In this biography, Susan Hough artfully interweaves the stories of Richter's life with the history of earthquake exploration and seismology. In doing so, she illuminates the world of earth science for the lay reader, much as Sylvia Nasar brought the world of mathematics alive in A Beautiful Mind.
Anthropogenic climate change may lead to intensification of the global hydrological cysle and to increased flooding risk of rivers across Europe. A series of extreme floods in European rivers in the last decades have stimulated discussions about the possible effects of climate variability/change and human interventions in river basins. A synoptic-climatological analysis was carried out to elucidate the observed precipitation change in the Meuse basin, in northwestern Europe. The findings of this research will be valuable to those developing improved flood protection strategies, as well as those engaged in water resource management in river basins similar to the Meuse.
This is the first textbook to address all the components of the Earth's cryosphere - all forms of snow and ice, both terrestrial and marine. It provides a concise but comprehensive summary of snow cover, glaciers, ice sheets, lake and river ice, permafrost, sea ice and icebergs - their past history and projected future state. It is designed for courses at upper undergraduate and graduate level in environmental science, geography, geology, glaciology, hydrology, water resource engineering and ocean sciences. It also provides a superb up-to-date summary for researchers of the cryosphere. The book includes an extensive bibliography, numerous figures and color plates, thematic boxes on selected topics and a glossary. The book builds on courses taught by the authors for many decades at the University of Colorado and the University of Alberta. Whilst there are many existing texts on individual components of the cryosphere, no other textbook covers the whole cryosphere.
Seismic amplitudes yield key information on lithology and fluid fill, enabling interpretation of reservoir quality and likelihood of hydrocarbon presence. The modern seismic interpreter must be able to deploy a range of sophisticated geophysical techniques, such as seismic inversion, AVO (amplitude variation with offset), and rock physics modelling, as well as integrating information from other geophysical techniques and well data. This accessible, authoritative book provides a complete framework for seismic amplitude interpretation and analysis in a practical manner that allows easy application - independent of any commercial software products. Deriving from the authors' extensive industry expertise and experience of delivering practical courses on the subject, it guides the interpreter through each step, introducing techniques with practical observations and helping to evaluate interpretation confidence. Seismic Amplitude is an invaluable day-to-day tool for graduate students and industry professionals in geology, geophysics, petrophysics, reservoir engineering, and all subsurface disciplines making regular use of seismic data.
Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology provides the most up-to-date information on soil science and its applications in archaeology. Based on more than three decades of investigations and experiments, the volume demonstrates how description protocols and complimentary methods (SEM/EDS, microprobe, micro-FTIR, bulk soil chemistry, micro- and macrofossils) are used in interpretations. It also focuses on key topics, such as palaeosols, cultivation, and occupation surfaces, and introduces a range of current issues, such as site inundation, climate change, settlement morphology, herding, trackways, industrial processes, funerary features, and site transformation. Structured around important case studies, Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology is thoroughly-illustrated, with color plates and figures, tables and other ancillary materials on its website (www.cambridge.org/9781107011380); chapter appendices can be accessed separately using the web (www.geoarchaeology.info/asma). This new book will serve as an essential volume for all archaeological inquiry about soil.
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