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Amplified climate change and ecological sensitivity of polar and cold climate environments are key global environment issues. Understanding how projected climate change will alter surface environments in these regions is only possible when present day source-to-sink fluxes can be quantified. The book provides the first global synthesis and integrated analysis of environmental drivers and quantitative rates of solute and sedimentary fluxes in cold environments, and the likely impact of projected climate change. The focus on largely undisturbed cold environments allows ongoing climate change effects to be detected and, moreover, distinguished from anthropogenic impacts. A novel approach for co-ordinated and integrative process geomorphic research is introduced to enable better comparison between studies. This highly topical and multidisciplinary book, which includes case studies covering Arctic, Antarctic, and alpine environments, will be of interest to graduate students and researchers in the fields of geomorphology, sedimentology and global environmental change.
This book deals with recent advances in our understanding and prediction of tropical cyclogenesis, intensification and movement as well as landfall processes like heavy rainfall, gale wind and storm surge based on the latest observational and numerical weather prediction (NWP) modeling platforms. It also includes tropical cyclone (TC) management issues like early warning systems, recent high impact TC events, disaster preparedness, assessment of risk and vulnerability including construction, archiving and retrieval of the best tracking and historical data sets, policy decision etc., in view of recent findings on climate change aspects and their impact on TC activity. The chapters are authored by leading experts, both from research and operational environments.
This book is relevant to cyclone forecasters and researchers, managers, policy makers, graduate and undergraduate students. It intends to stimulate thinking and hence further research in the field of TCs and climate change, especially over the Indian Ocean region and provides high-quality reference materials for all the users mentioned above for the management of TCs over this region.
The long-awaited second edition of this classic textbook expands on the first edition to include advances made in the last four decades, bringing the topic completely up to date. The book addresses critical issues such as whether humanity can feed itself, and whether it can do so in environmentally sound and sustainable ways. Written from agronomic, environmental, and ecological standpoints, the textbook employs a multidisciplinary approach, including policymaking and plant genetic improvements, as well as ecosystem services, climate change, biodiversity, sustainability and resilience. New chapters in this second edition focus on organic carbon in soil, soil biology, soils in relation to livestock production and forestry, and agroforestry. The new edition will again be the go-to textbook for courses on tropical soils, and a reference textbook for soil and agricultural scientists and development professionals working in the tropics.
The ocean is opaque to electromagnetic radiation and transparent to low frequency sound, so acoustical methodologies are an important tool for sensing the undersea world. Stochastic sound-speed fluctuations in the ocean, such as those caused by internal waves, result in a progressive randomisation of acoustic signals as they traverse the ocean environment. This signal randomisation imposes a limit to the effectiveness of ocean acoustic remote sensing, navigation and communication. Sound Propagation through the Stochastic Ocean provides a comprehensive treatment of developments in the field of statistical ocean acoustics over the last 35 years. This will be of fundamental interest to oceanographers, marine biologists, geophysicists, engineers, applied mathematicians, and physicists. Key discoveries in topics such as internal waves, ray chaos, Feynman path integrals, and mode transport theory are addressed with illustrations from ocean observations. The topics are presented at an approachable level for advanced students and seasoned researchers alike.
The Encyclopedia of Estuaries, part of Springer's Encyclopedia of Earth Sciences Series, provides a single, state-of-the-art, comprehensive reference volume on estuaries for research scientists, educators, students, and others. Consisting of almost 270 subject entries in an easy-to-use format, this volume covers the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of estuaries. In total more than 225 authors from around the world have contributed to the encyclopedia on such diverse subjects as biotic communities, essential habitats, food webs, fisheries, hydrology, pollution, conservation, and many more. The Encyclopedia of Estuaries will meet the needs of professionals worldwide by supplying detailed information from world-class estuarine and marine scientists as well as experts from other fields of study.
Exploration seismology uses seismic imaging to form detailed images of the Earth's interior, enabling the location of likely petroleum targets. Due to the size of seismic datasets, sophisticated numerical algorithms are required. This book provides a technical guide to the essential algorithms and computational aspects of data processing, covering the theory and methods of seismic imaging. The first part introduces an extensive online library of MATLAB (R) seismic data processing codes maintained by the CREWES project at the University of Calgary. Later chapters then focus on digital signal theory and relevant aspects of wave propagation and seismic modelling, followed by deconvolution and seismic migration methods. Presenting a rigorous explanation of how to construct seismic images, it provides readers with practical tools and codes to pursue research projects and analyses. It is ideal for advanced students and researchers in applied geophysics, and for practicing exploration geoscientists in the oil and gas industry.
Sensational images and stories about variations in Earth's climate and their impacts on society are pervasive in the media. The scientific basis for these stories is often not understood by the general public, nor even by those with a scientific background in fields other than climate science. This book is a comprehensive resource that will enable the reader to understand and appreciate the significance of the flood of climate information. It is an excellent non-mathematical resource for learning the fundamentals of climate analysis, as well as a reference for non-climate experts that need to use climate information and data. The focus is on the basics of the climate system, how climate is observed and how the observations are transformed into datasets useful for monitoring the climate. Each chapter contains Discussion Questions. This is an invaluable textbook on climate analysis for advanced students, and a reference textbook for researchers and practitioners.
Vertebrate palaeontology is a lively field, with new discoveries reported every week and not only dinosaurs! This new edition reflects the international scope of vertebrate palaeontology, with a special focus on exciting new finds from China. A key aim is to explain the science. Gone are the days of guesswork. Young researchers use impressive new numerical and imaging methods to explore the tree of life, macroevolution, global change, and functional morphology. The fourth edition is completely revised. The cladistic framework is strengthened, and new functional and developmental spreads are added. Study aids include: key questions, research to be done, and recommendations of further reading and web sites. The book is designed for palaeontology courses in biology and geology departments. It is also aimed at enthusiasts who want to experience the flavour of how the research is done. The book is strongly phylogenetic, and this makes it a source of current data on vertebrate evolution.
The polar regions are the 'canary in the coal mine' of climate change: they are likely to be hit the hardest and fastest. This comprehensive textbook provides an accessible introduction to the scientific study of polar environments against a backdrop of climate change and the wider global environment. The book assembles diverse information on polar environmental characteristics in terrestrial and oceanic domains, and describes the ongoing changes in climate, the oceans, and components of the cryosphere. Recent significant changes in the polar region caused by global warming are explored: shrinking Arctic sea ice, thawing permafrost, accelerating loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets, and rising ocean temperatures. These rapidly changing conditions are discussed in the context of the paleoclimatic history of the polar regions from the Eocene to the Anthropocene. Future projections for these regions during the twenty-first century are discussed. The text is illustrated with many color figures and tables, and includes further reading lists, review questions for each chapter, and a glossary.
How fast is evolution, and why does it matter? The rate of evolution, and whether it is gradual or punctuated, is a hotly debated topic among biologists and paleontologists. This book compiles and compares examples of evolution from laboratory, field, and fossil record studies, analyzing them to extract their underlying rates. It concludes that while change is slow when averaged over many generations, on a generation-to-generation time scale, evolution is rapid. Chapters cover the history of evolutionary studies, from Lamarck and Darwin in the nineteenth century to the present day. An overview of the statistics of variation, dynamics of random walks, processes of natural selection and random drift, and effects of scale and time averaging are also provided, along with methods for the analysis of evolutionary time series. Containing case studies and worked examples, this book is ideal for advanced students and researchers in paleontology, biology, and anthropology.
The Sun is our nearest star; it is a dynamic star, which changes with time. Solar variations have significant influence on Earth's space environment and climate through the Sun's magnetic field, irradiation and energetic particles. Long-term and reliable historical datasets of solar and stellar activity indices are crucial for understanding the variations and predicting the future solar cycle. IAU Symposium 340 brings together scientists from diverse, interdisciplinary areas to address the latest discoveries from these long-term datasets for the understanding of solar and stellar magnetic cycles. They make comparisons between different datasets and discuss how to make uniform databases. The proceedings of IAU S340 contain a selection of presentations and reviews from internationally renowned experts. They provide an up-to-date account of this field of importance to researchers and advanced students in solar, stellar, space and heliospheric physics.
The basis of this investigation is the petrographic and geochemical understanding of principal igneous rock types of the Noril'sk region, in order to demonstrate that these data provide unique and self-evident solutions to the problems of petrogenesis and mineralization. The results of the investigations are presented in two volumes: the first includes mainly text and the second contains illustrations. In the first volume, the state of the main problems of the genesis of igneous rocks with reference to Traps and related ore deposits is discussed, as well as short petrological descriptions of igneous complexes in the region, the mineral and geochemical diversity of the rocks, and aspects of the differentiation of basaltic melts and mineralization are described. Taking into account the vast number of publications on the petrology of Traps of the Noril'sk region, primary attention in the monograph is given to earlier unknown phenomena, as well as other aspects that are of great importance for solving genetic problems. Some exotic geologic targets such as the Mikchandinsky differentiated cover, the magnetite lava flow of the Putorana Plateau, the magmatogenic breccia of Kharaelakh and others are described in detail. The second volume contains an atlas of Rock Indications of igneous rock-types; formally identified reference rocks from all igneous complexes of the region, as well as photographs of thin sections of typical rocks and analytical tables of rocks and minerals from the key sections of sedimentary units and intrusions. Each rock type has been geochemically and petrographically analysed thereby providing a formal identity, complete with a photograph of the thin section. Photomicrographs of the rocks in this book will be a useful aid in visualizing the diversity of rock types in the Traps; each photograph reflecting a unique combination of minerals.
ESSENTIALS OF OCEANOGRAPHY 7e provides a basic understanding of the scientific questions, complexities, and uncertainties involved in ocean use, and the role and importance of oceans in nurturing and sustaining life on the planet. The new edition was created as part of a unique partnership with the National Geographic Society, an organization that represents a tradition of inspiring stories, exceptional research, and first-hand accounts of exploration. Using exclusive content from the National Geographic Society's world-renowned photos, graphics, and map collections, the text offers the most dynamic and current introduction to oceanography available today.
The Anthropocene is a major new concept in the Earth sciences and this book examines the effects on geomorphology within this period. Drawing examples from many different global environments, this comprehensive volume demonstrates that human impact on landforms and land-forming processes is profound, due to various driving forces, including: use of fire; extinction of fauna; development of agriculture, urbanisation, and globalisation; and new methods of harnessing energy. The book explores the ways in which future climate change due to anthropogenic causes may further magnify effects on geomorphology, with respect to future hazards such as floods and landslides, the state of the cryosphere, and sea level. The book concludes with a consideration of the ways in which landforms are now being managed and protected. Covering all major aspects of geomorphology, this book is ideal for undergraduate and graduate students studying geomorphology, environmental science and physical geography, and for all researchers of geomorphology.
Ever since Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity burst upon the world in 1915 some of the most brilliant minds of our century have sought to decipher the mysteries bequeathed by that theory, a legacy so unthinkable in some respects that even Einstein himself rejected them. Which of these bizarre phenomena, if any, can really exist in our universe?
Black holes, down which anything can fall but from which nothing can return; wormholes, short spacewarps connecting regions of the cosmos; singularities, where space and time are so violently warped that time ceases to exist and space becomes a kind of foam; gravitational waves, which carry symphonic accounts of collisions of black holes billions of years ago; and time machines, for traveling backward and forward in time.
Kip Thorne, along with fellow theorists Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, a cadre of Russians, and earlier scientists such as Oppenheimer, Wheeler and Chandrasekhar, has been in the thick of the quest to secure answers.
n this masterfully written and brilliantly informed work of scientific history and explanation, Dr. Thorne, the Feynman Professor of Theoretical Physics at Caltech, leads his readers through an elegant, always human, tapestry of interlocking themes, coming finally to a uniquely informed answer to the great question: what principles control our universe and why do physicists think they know the things they think they know?
Written by a researcher at the forefront of the field, this first comprehensive account of magnetoseismology conveys the physics behind these movements and waves, and explains how to detect and investigate them. Along the way, it describes the principles as applied to remote sensing of near-Earth space and related remote sensing techniques, while also comparing and intercalibrating magnetoseismology with other techniques. The example applications include advanced data analysis techniques that may find wider used in areas ranging from geophysics to medical imaging, and remote sensing using radar systems that are of relevance to defense surveillance systems. As a result, the book not only reviews the status quo, but also anticipates new developments. With many figures and illustrations, some in full color, plus additional computational codes for analysis and evaluation. Aimed at graduate readers, the text assumes knowledge of electromagnetism and physical processes at degree level, but introductory chapters will provide an overview of the relevant plasma physics and magnetospheric physics. The book will thus be of interest to entry-level and established researchers in physics of the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere, as well as to students, academics and scientifically literate laypersons with an interest in understanding space weather processes and how these relate to the dynamic behavior of near-Earth space.
What are the real risks posed by a volcanic eruption near a city - what is fact and what is myth? How have volcanic eruptions affected cities in the past, and how can we learn from these events? Why do communities continue to develop in such locations, despite the obvious threat? In this fascinating book, Grant Heiken explores global examples of cities at risk from volcanoes, from Italy, the US, Mexico, Ecuador, The Philippines, Japan and New Zealand, providing historical and contemporary eruption case studies to illustrate volcanic hazards, and cities' efforts to respond to them, both good and poor. He shows that truly successful volcanic hazard mitigation cannot be accomplished without collaboration between experts in geology and natural hazards, public health, medicine, city and infrastructure planning, and civil protection. This is a topical and engaging read for anyone interested in the history and future activity of these dangerous neighbors.
This volume provides a modern introduction to the soil fauna and their contributions to ecosystem function, the mechanisms that structure soil fauna assemblages from local to global scales, and the potential impacts of global change on soil fauna assemblages and through this ecosystem function. Wanting to be an accessible primer, this book is a high level overview of current knowledge rather than a detailed tome of all existing information, with emphasis being placed on key findings and general patterns. It focuses on the soil fauna but contextualizes these assemblages in relation to the microbial assemblages belowground and the vegetation aboveground. It is clear that our knowledge of soil fauna assemblages is ever increasing, but there is still a lot to discover. Key areas of research are highlighted, with particular reference to the future of soil fauna assemblages.
"The Holocene" provides students, researchers and lay-readers with the remarkable story of how the natural world has been transformed since the end of the last Ice Age around 15,000 years ago. This period has witnessed a shift from environmental changes determined by natural forces to those dominated by human actions, including those of climate and greenhouse gases. Understanding the environmental changes - both natural and anthropogenic - that have occurred during the Holocene is of crucial importance if we are to achieve a sustainable environmental future.Revised and updated to take full account of the most recent advances, the third edition of this classic text includes substantial material on the scientific methods that are used to reconstruct and date past environments, as well as new concepts such as the Anthropocene. The book is fully-illustrated, global in coverage, and contains case studies, a glossary and more than 500 new references.Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com\go\Roberts\Holocene.
Are we deranged? The acclaimed Indian novelist Amitav Ghosh argues that future generations may well think so. How else to explain our imaginative failure in the face of global warming? In his first major book of nonfiction since In an Antique Land, Ghosh examines our inability--at the level of literature, history, and politics--to grasp the scale and violence of climate change. The extreme nature of today's climate events, Ghosh asserts, make them peculiarly resistant to contemporary modes of thinking and imagining. This is particularly true of serious literary fiction: hundred-year storms and freakish tornadoes simply feel too improbable for the novel; they are automatically consigned to other genres. In the writing of history, too, the climate crisis has sometimes led to gross simplifications; Ghosh shows that the history of the carbon economy is a tangled global story with many contradictory and counterintuitive elements. Ghosh ends by suggesting that politics, much like literature, has become a matter of personal moral reckoning rather than an arena of collective action. But to limit fiction and politics to individual moral adventure comes at a great cost. The climate crisis asks us to imagine other forms of human existence--a task to which fiction, Ghosh argues, is the best suited of all cultural forms. His book serves as a great writer's summons to confront the most urgent task of our time.
Notable advances of the last quarter-century have deepened our appreciation of the three-dimensional nature of the ocean's large-scale circulation. This circulation has important implications for ocean chemistry and biology, atmospheric science, and climate. Ocean Circulation in Three Dimensions surveys both observations and theories of the time-mean circulation, enabling readers to see the relevance and limitations of leading theories, as well as the patterns linking the behavior of different oceans. The book covers "classical" topics of horizontal circulation, and expands them to include shallow wind-driven overturning, the deep global "conveyer belt", high latitudes, the role of eddies, and the ocean's role in heat transport. Solutions to exercises are available online for instructor use. This textbook is ideal for students of physical oceanography, chemical oceanography and climate. It is also suitable for readers from related fields as it includes a summary of introductory topics.
Reconstructing the paleobiology of fossil non-human primates, this book is intended as an exposition of non-human primate evolution that includes information about evolutionary theory and processes, paleobiology, paleoenvironment, how fossils are formed, how fossils illustrate evolutionary processes, the reconstruction of life from fossils, the formation of the primate fossil record, functional anatomy, and the genetic bases of anatomy. Throughout, the emphasis of the book is on the biology of fossil primates, not their taxonomic classification or systematics, or formal species descriptions. The author draws detailed pictures of the paleoenvironment of fossil primates, including contemporary animals and plants, and ancient primate communities, emphasizing our ability to reconstruct lifeways from fragmentary bones and teeth, using functional anatomy, stable isotopes from enamel and collagen, and high resolution CT-scans of the cranium. Fossil Primates will be essential reading for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in evolutionary anthropology, primatology and vertebrate paleobiology.
Himalaya, one of the global biodiversity hotspots, is the abode of a variety of flora and fauna. The Himalayan ecosystems have immense ecological, socioeconomic, and aesthetic significance as they provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The northwest Himalaya (NWH), covering three states of India viz., Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, and Jammu and Kashmir, starts from the foothills of Shivaliks in the south and extends to the greater Himalaya in the north. This region is also the source of some of the major rivers of India. With the increase in population, the NWH ecosystems have been under threat due to deforestation, loss of biodiversity, expansion of agriculture and settlement, overexploitation of natural resources, habitat loss and fragmentation, poaching, mining, construction of roads and large dams, and unplanned tourism. The Himalaya being young and geotectonically active, remains inherently unstable, fragile, and prone to natural disasters. Climate change is also likely to impact the Himalayan cryosphere drastically. Recognizing the importance of the Himalaya, a National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem, one of the eight missions under the National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) of Govt. of India, to conserve biodiversity, forest cover and other ecological values in the Himalayan region has been taken up. Spaceborne remote sensing with its ability to provide synoptic and repetitive coverage has emerged as a powerful tool for assessment and monitoring of the Himalayan resources and phenomena. Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun has taken up a number of studies in the fields of geology, water resources, forestry, agriculture, urban settlement, etc., over the last decade. The book summarises the work carried out in different disciplines, illustrated with tables and figures and a host of relevant references. It is hoped that the book serves as an excellent reference of immense value to the students, researchers, professors, scientists, professionals, and decision makers working in the NWH region.
The rocks of northern Scotland tell of turbulent events involving continental collisions that unleashed cataclysmic forces, creating a chain of mountains, the remnants of which we see today on both sides of the Atlantic. Geologists from Victorian times onwards have studied the area, and some of the most important geological phenomena have been established and described from the rocks that built these stunning landscapes. In this book, Alan McKirdy makes sense of the many and varied episodes that shaped the familiar landscape we see today. He highlights a number of fascinating geological features, including the Old Red Sandstones of Cromarty and the Black Isle, which carry the secrets of life during `the Age of Fishes', and the thin sliver of fossil-bearing strata which hugs the coast from Golspie to beyond Helmsdale that dates back to Jurassic times and which records the time when dinosaurs roamed the Earth.
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