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State-of-the-art analysis of geological structures has become increasingly quantitative but traditionally, graphical methods are used in teaching. This innovative lab book provides a unified methodology for problem-solving in structural geology using linear algebra and computation. Assuming only limited mathematical training, the book begins with classic orientation problems and progresses to more fundamental topics of stress, strain and error propagation. It introduces linear algebra methods as the foundation for understanding vectors and tensors, and demonstrates the application of geometry and kinematics in geoscience without requiring students to take a supplementary mathematics course. All algorithms are illustrated with a suite of online MATLAB functions, allowing users to modify the code to solve their own structural problems. Containing 20 worked examples and over 60 exercises, this is the ideal lab book for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. It will also provide professional structural geologists with a valuable reference and refresher for calculations.
Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology provides the most up-to-date information on soil science and its applications in archaeology. Based on more than three decades of investigations and experiments, the volume demonstrates how description protocols and complimentary methods (SEM/EDS, microprobe, micro-FTIR, bulk soil chemistry, micro- and macrofossils) are used in interpretations. It also focuses on key topics, such as palaeosols, cultivation, and occupation surfaces, and introduces a range of current issues, such as site inundation, climate change, settlement morphology, herding, trackways, industrial processes, funerary features, and site transformation. Structured around important case studies, Applied Soils and Micromorphology in Archaeology is thoroughly-illustrated, with color plates and figures, tables and other ancillary materials on its website (www.cambridge.org/9781107011380); chapter appendices can be accessed separately using the web (www.geoarchaeology.info/asma). This new book will serve as an essential volume for all archaeological inquiry about soil.
The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes are located on the Flathead Reservation in western Montana. They have undertaken a large-scale watershed restoration project in an effort to benefit bull trout in the Jocko River drainage. An important component of this project is education and outreach, of which the centerpiece is a multimedia set of educational materials describing the ecology and importance of bull trout and its relationship with the Salish and Pend d'Oreille people. This integrated set includes the storybook "Bull Trout's Gift," the "Field Journal," and the interactive DVD "Explore The River: Bull Trout, Tribal People, and the Jocko River."
A core component of the natural world is the geology, in the rocks and the landforms that have been created by their erosion. The plants that cover so much of the world's land areas, ant the myriad animals that inhabit each environment, form the wonderful world of nature, but the backdrops to all of them are the landscapes that are the world of geology. So many of the world's great natural attractions - the sites, the sights, the national parks, the wow places that folk travel to see - are features of their geology, with landforms that range from awe-inspiring to simply beautiful. And then there are so many more terrains and landscapes that have great stories to tell. Travelling the world, always armed with a camera, led to the author compiling a substantial collection of photographs, many of which reflected his own interests in their geological theme. This has grown into a worldwide overview of just a fraction of the magnificent sights, both natural and influenced by mankind, that make the geological world so totally fascinating and frequently so beautiful. Within these pages, the photographs and their short, accompanying texts offer just a taste of the visual delights within the world of geology. They constitute a grand tour across the surface of our planet, taking in as many as possible of our most spectacular and most fascinating sites. The whole book is perhaps best viewed as a glorious journey of discovery.
This Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) will again form the standard scientific reference for all those concerned with climate change and its consequences, including students and researchers in environmental science, meteorology, climatology, biology, ecology and atmospheric chemistry. It provides invaluable material for decision makers and stakeholders at international, national and local level, in government, businesses, and NGOs. This volume provides: * An authoritative and unbiased overview of the physical science basis of climate change * A more extensive assessment of changes observed throughout the climate system than ever before * New dedicated chapters on sea-level change, biogeochemical cycles, clouds and aerosols, and regional climate phenomena * Extensive coverage of model projections, both near-term and long-term climate projections * A detailed assessment of climate change observations, modelling, and attribution for every continent * A new comprehensive atlas of global and regional climate projections for 35 regions of the world
This monograph describes early Ordovician (Ibexian:Tremadocian early Floian) trilobites from Northern Spitsbergen from the section through the Kirtonryggen Formation adjacent to Hinlopen Strait. The Formation is divided into three Members, each with distinct trilobites collectively representing the fullest known succession from the Bathyurid biofacies of the eastern Laurentian carbonate platform. Previous research on the Ordovician of Spitsbergen is summarised and correlations with similar faunas previously described from Canada, Greenland, western Newfoundland, Vermont New York State, Oklahoma and Missouri are discussed. Taxonomic problems are discussed in detail leading to the recognition of 53 species, of which 15 are new, belonging to 31 genera including four new. Twenty-four taxa are described under open or tentative nomenclature. The lower Member yields the earliest known occurrences of the Illaenoidea, Proetoidea and Scutelluoidea, supporting the hypotheses relating the origin of new major clades to inshore habitats.
Fish, or lower vertebrates, occupy the basal nodes of the vertebrate phylogeny, and are therefore crucial in interpreting almost every feature of more advanced vertebrates, including amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. Recent research focuses on combining evolutionary observations - primarily from the fish fossil record - with developmental data from living fishes, in order to better interpret evolutionary history and vertebrate phylogeny. This book highlights the importance of this research in the interpretation of vertebrate evolution, bringing together world-class palaeontologists and biologists to summarise the most interesting, current and cutting-edge topics in fish evolution and development. It will be an invaluable tool for researchers in early vertebrate palaeontology and evolution, and those particularly interested in the interface between evolution and development.
An explanatory guide for the 1: 625 000 Bedrock Geology UK (South) map
Towns and villages are sometimes viewed as minor, even quaint, spots, whereas this book boldly reconceptualizes these places as important dynamic environmental 'hotspots'. Multitudes of towns and villages with nearly half the world's population characterize perhaps half the global land surface. The book's pages feature ecological patterns, processes, and change, as well as human dimensions, both within towns and in strong connections and effects on surrounding agricultural land, forest land, and arid land. Towns, small to large, and villages are examined with spatial and cultural lenses. Ecological dimensions - water, soil and air systems, together with habitats, plants, wildlife and biodiversity - are highlighted. A concluding section presents concepts for making better towns and better land. From a pioneer in both landscape ecology and urban ecology, this highly international town ecology book opens an important frontier for researchers, students, professors, and professionals including environmental, town, and conservation planners.
A SUNDAY TIMES BOOK OF THE YEAR 2017
A rich and exuberant group biography of the first geologists, the people who were first to excavate from the layers of the world its buried history.
These first geologists were made up primarily, and inevitably, of gentlemen with the necessary wealth to support their interests, yet boosting their numbers, expanding their learning and increasing their findings were clergymen, academics - and women. This lively and eclectic collection of characters brought passion, eccentricity and towering intellect to geology and Brenda Maddox in Reading the Rocks does them full justice, bringing them to vivid life.
The new science of geology was pursued by this assorted band because it opened a window on Earth's ancient past. They showed great courage in facing the conflict between geology and Genesis that immediately presented itself: for the rocks and fossils being dug up showed that the Earth was immeasurably old, rather than springing from a creation made in the six days that the Bible claimed. It is no coincidence that Charles Darwin was a keen geologist.
The individual stories of these first geologists, their hope and fears, triumphs and disappointments, the theological, philosophical and scientific debates their findings provoked, and the way that as a group, they were to change irrevocably and dramatically our understanding of the world is told by Brenda Maddox with a storyteller's skill and a fellow scientist's understanding. The effect is absorbing, revelatory and strikingly original.
By developing the scale that bears his name, Charles Richter not only invented the concept of magnitude as a measure of earthquake size, he turned himself into nothing less than a household word. He remains the only seismologist whose name anyone outside of narrow scientific circles would likely recognize. Yet few understand the Richter scale itself, and even fewer have ever understood the man. Drawing on the wealth of papers Richter left behind, as well as dozens of interviews with his family and colleagues, Susan Hough takes the reader deep into Richter's complex life story, setting it in the context of his family and interpersonal attachments, his academic career, and the history of seismology. Among his colleagues Richter was known as intensely private, passionately interested in earthquakes, and iconoclastic. He was an avid nudist, seismologists tell each other with a grin; he dabbled in poetry. He was a publicity hound, some suggest, and more famous than he deserved to be. But even his closest associates were unaware that he struggled to reconcile an intense and abiding need for artistic expression with his scientific interests, or that his apparently strained relationship with his wife was more unconventional but also stronger than they knew. Moreover, they never realized that his well-known foibles might even have been the consequence of a profound neurological disorder. In this biography, Susan Hough artfully interweaves the stories of Richter's life with the history of earthquake exploration and seismology. In doing so, she illuminates the world of earth science for the lay reader, much as Sylvia Nasar brought the world of mathematics alive in A Beautiful Mind.
This book introduces the new discipline of urban oceanography, providing a deeper understanding of the physics of the coastal ocean in an urban setting. The authors explore how the coastal ocean impacts with the humans who live, work and play along its shores; and in turn how human activities impact the health and dynamics of the coastal ocean. Fundamental topics covered include: the governing dynamical equations; tidal and circulation processes; variation of salinity and freshwater fluxes; watershed pollutants; observing systems; and climate change. Bridging the gaps between the fields of engineering, physical and social sciences, economics, and policy, this book is for anyone who wishes to learn about the physics, chemistry, and biology of coastal waters. It will support an introductory course on urban oceanography at the advanced undergraduate and graduate level, and will also prove invaluable as a reference text for researchers, professionals, coastal urban planners, and environmental engineers.
This book presents a comprehensive introduction to the processes that operate in present periglacial environments, and how this contributes to our understanding of former periglacial environments. It includes accounts not only of the nature of frozen ground and frost-action processes, but also of the operation of slope, fluvial, aeolian and coastal processes in cold environments. It is organized in six parts. Part 1 (chapters 1--2) introduces the historical and scientific context of periglacial geomorphology and the nature of periglacial environments. Part 2 (chapters 3-5) addresses the physics of ground freezing and thawing, the characteristics of permafrost and the nature and origin of underground ice. Part 3 (chapters 6-9) considers the characteristics, formation and significance of landforms, sediments and structures associated with permafrost, permafrost degradation and seasonal freezing and thawing of the ground. Part 4 (chapters 10-12) discusses rock weathering in periglacial environments, the periglacial processes operating on hillslopes and the distinctive landforms produced by rock breakdown and slope processes in cold environments. Part 5 (chapters 13-15) is devoted to the operation of fluvial, aeolian and coastal processes in present and past periglacial environments. The final part considers the employment of relict periglacial features to reconstruct past cold environments in midlatitude regions (chapter 16) and evaluates the response of periglacial environments to recent and predicted climate change (chapter 17).
In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical
and astrophysical MHD to explore the motion of electrically
conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect, and describe the
similarities and differences between different magnetized objects.
They also explain why magnetic fields are crucial to the formation
of the stars, and discuss promising experiments currently being
designed to investigate some of the relevant physics in the
laboratory. This interdisciplinary approach will appeal to a wide
audience in physics, astrophysics and geophysics.
A paleontology publication of the Scandinavian University Press The detailed written study, Silurian Nuculoid and Modiomorphid Bivalves from Sweden, is part of an international series on stratigraphy and paleontology.
Water resources are of enormous societal and ecological importance. In coastal areas, they are under ever greater pressure due to population growth, more affluent lifestyles, food production and the growing tourism industry. Changes to the coastal landscape, through urbanization and land reclamation, and by natural processes such as climate change and sea level rise, modify the interaction between seawater and groundwater, and put water resources at risk. This comprehensive volume presents a detailed overview of coastal hydrogeology. It discusses hydrochemistry; submarine groundwater discharge; groundwater management; palaeo-hydrology; land reclamation; climate change and sea level rise; and mathematical models of variable-density flow. With its up-to-date coverage and numerous case studies that illustrate practical implications, it is perfect for students, practitioners, managers and researchers who wish to develop an in-depth understanding of topics relevant to sustainably managing coastal groundwater resources.
This textbook on atmospheric thermodynamics is for students of meteorology or atmospheric science. It also serves as a reference text for working professionals in meteorology and weather forecasting. It is unique because it provides complete, calculus-based derivations of basic physics from first principles, and connects mathematical relationships to real-world, practical weather forecasting applications. Worked examples and practice problems are included throughout.
Earth's present-day environments are the outcome of a 4.5 billion year period of evolution reflecting the interaction of global-scale geological and biological processes punctuated by several extraordinary events and episodes that perturbed the entire Earth system. One of the earliest and arguably greatest of these events was a substantial increase (orders of magnitude) in the atmospheric oxygen abundance, sometimes referred to as the Great Oxidation Event. Volume 1: The Palaeoproterozoic of Fennoscandia as Context for the Fennoscandian Arctic Russia - Drilling Earth Project describes the implementation of the FAR-DEEP drilling project in Arctic Russia. It summarises the knowledge of more than 50 years of largely Russian-led fieldwork, information hitherto virtually unavailable in the west, and provides geological description of drilling areas with an overwhelming illustration of rocks by high-quality, representative photographs. The volume offers a comprehensive review and rich photo-illustration of palaeotectonic, palaeogeographic and magmatic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield in the early Palaeoproterozoic, and link the evolution of the shield to the emergence of an aerobic Earth system. The volume unfolds the event-based Fennoscandian chronostratigraphy and discusses the chronology of the Palaeoproterozoic global events as the base for a new subdivision of Palaeoproterozoic time. Welcome to the illustrative journey through one of the most exciting periods of planet Earth!
Lying off the south-western tip of Mull, the island of Iona has huge significance as the first important centre of Christianity in Scotland. But the Abbey itself is built upon rocks that tell of events of much greater antiquity: the Lewisian gneisses of western Iona are some of the oldest rocks in the world. Alan McKirdy explores the fascinating geology of the area - in particular the eruption of two major volcanoes around 60 million years ago whose magma chambers formed the spectacular hills and glens of the Ardnamurchan peninsula and Glen More on Mull; and the Ice Age, when glaciers ripped away much of the upper part of the two volcanoes and sandpapered the landscape to create the rounded contours we see today.
Where can you find mosses that change landscapes, salamanders with algae in their skin, and carnivorous plants containing whole ecosystems in their furled leaves? Where can you find swamp-trompers, wildlife watchers, marsh managers, and mud-mad scientists? In wetlands, those complex habitats that play such vital ecological roles. In Wading Right In, Catherine Owen Koning and Sharon M. Ashworth take us on a journey into wetlands through stories from the people who wade in the muck. Traveling alongside scientists, explorers, and kids with waders and nets, the authors uncover the inextricably entwined relationships between the water flows, natural chemistry, soils, flora, and fauna of our floodplain forests, fens, bogs, marshes, and mires. Tales of mighty efforts to protect rare orchids, restore salt marshes, and preserve sedge meadows become portals through which we visit major wetland types and discover their secrets, while also learning critical ecological lessons. The United States still loses wetlands at a rate of 13,800 acres per year. Such loss diminishes the water quality of our rivers and lakes, depletes our capacity for flood control, reduces our ability to mitigate climate change, and further impoverishes our biodiversity. Koning and Ashworth's stories captivate the imagination and inspire the emotional and intellectual connections we need to commit to protecting these magical and mysterious places.
Pollution of freshwater resources becomes an issue in virtually every country undergoing an industrialization process. While the main emphasis has been for many years on lakes due to their limited capacity of self-renewal, streams and rivers attract increasing attention due to their importance for agriculture, fisheries, drinking water reserves and as feeder of freshwater lakes and reservoirs. There are many factors influencing the ecology of streams, only some of them relating to direct anthropogenic influences and it is important to have reliable long term data on natural occurring variations in order to better estimate the default' status of a stream and to judge the influence of modern anthropogenic influences.
The Breitenbach is one of the best-studied streams on earth, as the nearby Max-Planck Outstation in Schlitz was founded in 1949 and scientists there have been collecting data ever since.
"Central European Stream Ecosystems: The Long Term Study of the Breitenbach "is the result of this research, and special focus has been placed on animal and microorganism occurrence and variation as well as chemical and physical parameters. Already this data influences the discussion of the good ecological state' reference values and it will be in particular useful to analyze the effect of global warming on the ecology of streams.
An invaluable data basis for modeling purposes, this important book is a useful resource for everyone in the world dealing with stream ecology, for example limnologists, ecologists, biologists and hydrologists.
Outlines the concept and principles of water harvesting for groundwater management for an international audience, and looks at the positives and negatives surrounding water harvesting technologies This book is the first to fully outline the concept and principles of water harvesting for groundwater management for a global audience. It offers guidance to academics, students and researchers on effective water harvesting approaches for groundwater recharge, and educates them on the risks associated with managed aquifer recharge, as well as the causes of success or failure of particular management strategies, and demand management strategies and tools. The book is helpful to water managers, administrators, and professionals, to make decisions to allocate resources; developing innovative cost-effective measures and approaches to achieve demand-supply balance. The book provides readers with an overview of the historical evolution of water harvesting for groundwater recharge. It looks at the benefits and gaps in knowledge, their implementation and funding strategies, and public participation. It also assesses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of water harvesting technologies. Water Harvesting for Groundwater Management: Issues, Perspectives, Scope and Challenges offers chapters covering: issues on water harvesting and water security; mega-trends that impact water security; groundwater occurrence, availability, and recharge-ability; phases of water harvesting systems; SWOT analysis of water harvesting systems; case studies and short examples of implementing water harvesting; scope of water harvesting for GWM strategies; guidelines to make water harvesting helpful and meaningful for GWM; and more. Summarizes the theories and applications of water harvesting for groundwater management for a world audience Offers guidance on effective water harvesting approaches for groundwater recharge, managed aquifer recharge, and successful water management strategies Evaluates the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of water harvesting technologies Part of the Challenges in Water Management series Water Harvesting for Groundwater Management: Issues, Perspectives, Scope and Challenges is an excellent resource for water management professionals working with water harvesting technologies, and will be of great interest to water managers, administrators, professionals, academics and researchers working in water management.
Coined barely two decades ago, the Anthropocene has become one of the most influential and controversial terms in environmental policy. Yet it remains an ambivalent and contested formulation, giving rise to a multitude of unexpected, and often uncomfortable, conversations. This book traces in detail a broad variety of such 'Anthropocene encounters': in science, philosophy and literary fiction. It asks what it means to 'think green' in a time when nature no longer offers a stable backdrop to political analysis. Do familiar political categories and concepts, such as democracy, justice, power and time, hold when confronted with a world radically transformed by humans? The book responds by inviting more radical political thought, plural forms of engagement, and extended ethical commitments, making it a fascinating and timely volume for graduate students and researchers working in earth system governance, environmental politics and studies of the Anthropocene.
In 1980, the science world was stunned when a maverick team of researchers proposed that a massive meteor strike had wiped the dinosaurs and other fauna from the Earth 66 million years ago. Scientists found evidence for this theory in a "crater of doom"on the Yucatan Peninsula that showed our planet has been the target in a galactic shooting gallery. Seeking to develop "neocatastrophism" even further, Michael R. Rampino adds to this exciting field in Cataclysms, building on the latest findings from leading geoscientists. Rampino recounts his conversion to the impact hypothesis, describing his visits to meteor-strike sites and his review of the existing geological record. His story enables a richer understanding of the science behind major planetary upheavals and extinction events. The new geology he outlines explicitly rejects nineteenth-century "uniformitarianism," which casts planetary change as gradual and driven by processes we can see at work today. Rampino's new geology offers a cosmic context for Earth's geologic evolution, in which cataclysms from above in the form of comets and asteroid impacts and from below in the form of huge outpourings of lava in flood-basalt eruptions have led to severe changes in the Earth's surface. The new geology sees Earth's position in our solar system and galaxy as the keys to understanding our planet's geology and history of life. The author concludes with a fascinating take on dark matter's potential as a triggering mechanism, considering its role in heating Earth's core and spurring massive volcanism throughout geologic time.
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